One of the urgent tasks that characterize national educational systems of the world is to ensure the result that meets expectations of the family, modern society, state and suits the conditions of the global economy and competition. Unified approaches to designing and providing results lead to increased attention to the development of procedures for their measurement and evaluation, creation of national systems for verification and evaluation of educational results that meet global trends in education. The success of these tasks is directly related to the problem of teacher training. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and analyze the state of modern practice of organization of educational achievements diagnosis and evaluation as an indicator of deficiencies in teacher training and to describe the proposed educational module to overcome the identified deficiencies. Materials of the article contain the results of the study related to identification and testing of organizational and pedagogical conditions that ensure teachers' preparedness for diagnosis and evaluation of educational results in accordance with the conceptual provisions of the national system of evaluation of educational achievements. The leading theoretical methods of research include analysis of normative and scientific literature on the problem, systemization, specification, interpretation; the empirical ones are methods of questioning, survey, processing and statistics analysis were used. The article substantiates the correlation between educational results of schools students and the practice of organization of educational achievements verification and evaluation; describes the organizational and pedagogical conditions of training future teachers for diagnosis and evaluation of educational results.
Keywords: Diagnostic toolsevaluation of educational achievementsteacher training
Diagnosis and evaluation of educational achievements are among the most important elements of the educational process. Evaluation stimulates learning activities, determines motivation and indicates achievements. But despite the significance of diagnosis and evaluation of educational achievements in the educational process, evaluation mechanisms are still the most subjective and not regulated enough, therefore the procedure of educational achievements diagnosis and evaluation remains the most relevant topic for both experienced teachers and new teachers, recently graduated from pedagogical universities.
In the established practice of Russian schools, a teacher evaluates the result using marks from "3" to "5" and is guided by the generally accepted ideas about the excellent, good or satisfactory response to the result of others. At the same time, researchers observe the fact of relativity of assessments, caused by the lack of criteria and clear differentiation, in the world practice of mass education too (Bolotov, Valdman, Kovaleva, & Pinskaya, 2013).
Probably, this situation would not have become such an acute problem if social change had not been so rapid. Human education, personal learning and development results are considered as a condition for the formation of human capital and, accordingly, economic resources in the modern world (Borovskikh, 2012). It is obvious that the problem of human capital is directly related to the development of the modern education system which produces a person who has a set of necessary competencies. Therefore, the educational vector is shifted from contents to the outcome and the key figure in this system is a teacher, who knows methods and techniques of modern educational results diagnosis and objective evaluation, as a condition for ensuring that students achieve results.
The shift of the educational process vector from contents to the outcome and its measurement substantiates changes in both school education and teacher training systems. Only the teacher who owns the tools of diagnosis and evaluation organization, who is able to identify cause-effect relationships and understand the continuity of stages and levels of personal development in the education system, who has educational achievements analysis and forecasting skills, can effectively manage the process of achieving personal results and initiate mechanisms of pedagogical investment at all levels of education (Eryomina, 2019).
Therefore, one of the methodological tasks in teacher training system design and implementation is to ensure the unity and continuity of the conceptual provisions of modern educational standards at all levels of education in the organization of diagnosis and evaluation of educational achievements. Since only that teacher is able to apply qualitatively new approaches in diagnosis and evaluation of educational achievements of students who witnessed modern means and tools of educational results control in their training.
Solving the problem of ensuring the unity and continuity of approaches to the diagnosis and evaluation of educational achievements in the system of school and higher pedagogical education, the study examined the stages and key areas of reforming the system of evaluation of educational achievements in Russia. The search for new approaches to the assessment of educational achievements began in the 1990s and was, of course, associated with the general reformation of the educational system. Russia has actively begun to develop international experience in this area and become a regular participant in various international studies of educational achievements of students, such as PIRLS, TIMSS, PISA, and others. The country has begun to establish scientific institutions engaged in research in the field of education quality, pedagogical measurements, professional training, psychodiagnostic and other aspects of the identification and evaluation of educational achievements. Thus, the Centre of Evaluating the Quality of Education of the Russian Academy of Education and the Federal Institute of Pedagogical Measurements were established. According to the researchers, the introduction of the Unified State Exam in school education was a turning point in the reform of the system of educational achievements evaluation in Russia. Despite the ongoing debate in the teaching community and broad audience, the consensus was that methods and outcomes of evaluating educational results should be objective, comparable and accurate (Pru & Morgan, 2011). The next major step in reforming the education system in Russia and developing a national system of educational achievements assessment was the establishment of the Unified system of school education quality assessment and organization of complex diagnostic procedures on various academic disciplines in schools on a regular basis.
Teacher training for diagnosis and evaluation of educational achievements at modern pedagogical universities requires comparing international trends in education quality assurance to Russian experience; changing attitudes and principles of control and evaluation of educational achievements that provides the unity of process and result of training, implementation of system-activity approach, objectivity; continuity between different levels of education and teacher's comprehension of the fact that the procedure of measuring results and ensuring educational achievements are interrelated and interdependent. Therefore, the methods and means used in modern mass education for control and evaluation of educational achievements in each subject, based, as a rule, on the level of knowledge reproduction, cannot meet the requirements of the Federal Educational Standard for school education and national system for assessing educational achievements.
Purpose of the Study
Purpose of the study, the results of which are described in the present article, was to identify, characterize and test the organizational and pedagogical conditions that provide teacher training for diagnosis and evaluation of educational results in accordance with the modern requirements for the results of education and the conceptual provisions of the national system for assessing educational achievements. Within the present article, the main focus is on the analysis of the studied state of modern practice of organization of educational achievements diagnosis and evaluation as an indicator of deficiencies in teacher training and on the description of the proposed educational module aimed at overcoming the identified deficiencies.
The following methods were used in the study: theoretical (analysis of normative and scientific literature on the problem, systemization, specification, interpretation, comparison, analogy method); empirical (questionnaire, survey, processing and analysis of statistical information)
International trends in the field of education quality assessment, which can be analyzed on the example of leading countries in the area of education and international studies such as PIRLS, TIMSS, PISA, and others, allow us to note the general characteristics when defining the assessment subject and preparing testing and assessment materials. This is a comprehensive study of educational achievements, diagnosis of general cultural development of a student, the use of life situations in the contents of testing and assessment materials, for which it is necessary to apply subject knowledge and testable skills, criteria-based assessment. In Russia during the period of implementation of Federal Educational Standard for school education, the experience of examination and evaluation of educational achievements in a new activity paradigm has emerged among the teachers of primary and high schools mainly due to the procedures of the national system of education quality assessment, comprising the following components: a unified examination format within the framework of the State Final Certification at each level of school education, national studies of education quality (The National Institute for the Quality of Education), national tests, in primary education as well, regular participation in international studies on education quality assessment, research in the area of teachers' professional competences (Donina & Lyakh, 2018). Certainly, the establishment of the national system for assessing educational achievements in Russia is associated with international trends in development of external assessment methodology (De Corte, 2014) and substantiates the necessary changes in the practice of school subjects teaching and, accordingly, in the system of pedagogical education and training of future teachers.
Analysis of the results and experience of participation in the various procedures of the national system of education quality assessment, as one of the first external evaluation procedures in mass education, revealed a number of common difficulties and contradictions in the practice of teaching subjects at all levels of school education. These include:
significant differences between the assessment tools used by teachers in their daily practice of the organization of current and intermediate control of educational achievements and testing and assessment materials for the national tests and the State Final Certification on the main educational programs of school education, developed in the activity paradigm (Shamigulova, 2017);
teacher's insufficient command of necessary professional knowledge and skills in developing testing and assessment materials in accord with the national system of educational achievements assessment, including experience in criterion assessment;
lack of experience in independent design of testing and assessment materials for the organization of current and intermediate control and evaluation of educational achievements.
To obtain the big picture on the practice of organizing control and evaluation of educational achievements in school education, as well as the definition of professional deficiencies in ensuring the educational outcomes achievement and diagnosis in the context of the national system of educational achievements assessment, we conducted a special pilot study, comparing the results that students showed in national testing in several school subjects and data on the procedure of current and intermediate control and evaluation in some subjects.
The study was conducted with students and teachers in middle school (grades 6 and 8) and primary school (grade 4). Middle school students were asked to complete several national testing tasks on social studies and history. Primary school students completed tasks on elementary science (the tasks concerned the social studies component). The study was conducted on the basis of four schools in the city of Ufa which are network partners of the BSPU in carrying out future teachers' training.
The results of the study are shown in table
In the context of data on the results of the national testing in Russian regions, one can see that the decreased percentage of execution of the proposed tasks that help check students' level of mastering universal learning activities and, accordingly, negative changes in the provision of educational achievements in schools is a nationwide phenomenon (Sageeva & Khasanshina, 2017). However, in order to identify the interdependence of students' educational achievements and the practice of organizing current and intermediate control of educational results on a subject, a survey was conducted among primary and middle school teachers who teach the specified disciplines. During the survey, respondents were offered various testing tasks corresponding to the kinds of tasks of the national testing, grouped by types of tested skills. The question was as follows: Do you use these types of tasks when carrying out current or intermediate control? Let us analyze the respondents' answers presented in table
The survey data allows to determine that the types of tasks used in the national testing are systematically used only by a third of primary school teachers and by a significantly fewer share of middle school teachers. The most popular types of tasks in verification and evaluation of educational achievements in primary school are the tasks to test the ability to understand information presented in different ways (verbal, symbolic means, etc.); the tasks to test the formation of universal logical activities; the tasks to test the ability to obtain explicitly presented information from a text, to compare objects and processes described in a text. In primary school, more than a third of teachers do not use types of assessment materials aimed at the formation of universal learning activities in the organization of current and intermediate testing of educational achievements. Teachers explain that the practice of applying certain types of tasks that caused the most difficulties for the students is absent in their current work due to the complexities of assessment tools development and the labour-consuming nature of checking, the big amount of time that they have to spent to both write a test and prepare for it. It should be noted that the analyzed national testing task types allow to identify universal learning activities, constituting the base necessary for successful continuation of learning and students' ability to solve problematic situations and socialize (Koval, 2015; Kryuchkova, Ambartsumova, & Lobanov, 2018). Systematic application of such tasks in the process of mastering a subject will contribute to a more successful formation of these skills in students and teachers' acquisition of assessment tools designing experience in the context of the national system of educational achievements assessment and, accordingly, international trends in diagnosis and evaluation of educational results (Kravtsov & Muzaev, 2017). Many researchers highlight the necessity for a modern teacher to master comprehensive professional knowledge and skills for diagnosis and evaluation of educational achievements in the activity paradigm (Donina & Lyakh, 2018; Kovalenko & Kuzub, 2015; Kuznetsova, 2017; Margolis & Safronov, 2018)
Within the framework of the study, teachers were asked to perform special diagnostic tasks aimed at identifying professional skills in the field of verification and evaluation of educational achievements. The results of the tasks are presented in table
In addition to the survey, teachers had to name forms of testing and the types of testing tasks that are most often used in the practice of teaching these subjects. The majority of primary school teachers named oral questioning and such verification methods as text retelling, concepts explanation, project tasks performance, oral reports preparation, and gamified surveying (a quiz, the game called "interpreter", etc.). Respondents teaching in the primary school also named retelling textbook chapters and answering questions in written, preparing reports and library-research papers, closed-ended and multiple choice tests. It should be noted that among the listed forms and methods of organizing educational achievements verification prevail either survey forms that require replicating information, or creative tasks in forms of writing an essay and preparing a message. At the same time, it was found that a teacher does not use definite criteria to assess an essay or report that would reveal a level of skills mastery and objectively assess them, including universal learning activities. The predominance of the traditional approach to results verification indicates that mass education practice has much to be done to develop a new methodological mindset in teachers in the area of diagnosis and assessment of learning achievements, and special attention should be paid to the pedagogical training of teachers for the organization of diagnosis and assessment of learning achievements, development of common approaches and introduction of continuity in the training of primary and middle school teachers to design and use diagnostic tools that take into account conceptual provisions of the federal educational standards of new generation and the national system of education quality assessment.
An obvious question arises about professional readiness of a modern teacher and a future teacher, who graduates from a pedagogical university, to carrying out control and assessment of educational achievements in accord with the concept of the national system of education quality assessment and, respectively, international trends. In this context, readiness of a teacher assumes understanding functional significance of the subject taught in the development of the universal learning activities and achievement of personal results, acquisition of experience in planning, formation and diagnosis of educational achievements.
Within the framework of the study, the educational module "Diagnosis and evaluation of educational achievements" was developed and tested in the process of teacher training. Development and implementation of the educational module are aimed at creating conditions to help a future teacher master the necessary professional skills that would allow to effectively carry out planning, assurance, diagnosis and assessment of educational results in the process of teaching school subjects in the unity of approaches and principles of assessment and verification of educational achievements, provided by the national system of education quality assessment. In the substantive-technological aspect, the implementation of the module program means sequential acquisition of the necessary knowledge and ways of action to perform corresponding professional tasks on planning learning results in a subject, bearing in mind educational potential and functional value of a given subject area, ensuring achievement of results, diagnosis and evaluation in the activity paradigm based on the approaches and principles of the national system of educational achievements assessment. At the same time, ensuring unity of the conceptual provisions of the national system of educational achievements assessment in school education and higher pedagogical education and continuity in designing assessment tools are one of the main conditions of efficient module program implementation. Organizing the process of module program mastering and designing evaluation tools in accordance with modern means of verification and evaluation of educational achievements used by the national system of education quality assessment in schools, allow a future teacher to comprehend various ways to achieve results based on reflecting on their own educational and quasi-professional activities.
The planned result of students' mastering of the module program is presented in the form of a bunch of outcomes varying from the most generalized formulation of significant results of its mastering to specific ways of action based on the acquired knowledge. Therefore the substantive basis for decomposing outcomes on each selected activity (planning of educational results, assuring results achievement, diagnosis and evaluation of educational achievements) is the purposes and requirements for results of the Federal Educational Standard for school education and the conceptual provisions of the national system of education quality assessment. The testing of the module program involved by undergraduate students enrolled in the Pedagogical Education degree program with the specialization on social science basics. Since the contents of the taught subject and its functional significance determine certain differences ins teaching methodology, the content of the module program and, accordingly, the results of its mastering can be adjusted to the subject specifics (table
Thus, the results of module mastering (descriptors) are learning outcomes visible to teachers and students, which positively influence formation of efficient thinking in a future teacher and mastering of these activities. The contents of the educational module program and the technological component of its implementation in the process of teacher training suggest constant updates and adjustments, taking into account advanced trends in the development of the educational achievements evaluation system, ensuring continuity between the stages of school education, in the diagnosis of educational results, in improving the qualification requirements for teachers.
The technological component of mastering the contents of the module includes a system of forming tasks for each of these activities. For example, when mastering such type of activity as educational achievements diagnosis, students are invited to perform various tasks, each of which is aimed at formation of certain results-actions:
Make a card of students' educational achievements assessment choosing one of the course topics (select course topics using recommendations from the tentative teaching program in social studies for school education) based on the requirements for the results of social science education in middle school (table
Check out the indicator tasks for 6-grade students on the topic of interpersonal relationships. Formulate activities concerning the subject contents which are aimed at to be checked by these tasks. Make your indicator tasks to identify the level of subject contents mastering for any topic of the course in accordance with the tentative teaching program for school education (Yangirova & Shamigulova, 2015). Create a table to present your answer (table
List the possible social roles of students, typical for everyday social experience of a teenager and those that one will have to perform in future. Determine the knowledge and skills needed to perform these social roles properly. Match them with specific social science topics and formulate personal results of subject contents mastering. The following elements should be mentioned in the answers:
list of typical social roles of a teenager (including future social roles of a school graduate);
subject contents that should be mastered for the competent performance of these social roles;
characteristics of the personal results of subject contents mastering.
Select (or make up your own) level indicator tasks for each topic.
Invite students to complete these tasks and evaluate the results.
Check out the tasks from the demonstration versions of diagnostic tests on social studies issued by The National Institute for the Quality of Education for grades 8 and 6.
What educational results allow to check each of the tasks. Formulate subject and interdisciplinary skills necessary to perform each diagnostic test.
Based on knowledge on specifications of testing and assessment materials for different procedures of the national system of education quality assessment, create complex tasks for intermediate control on one of the sections of the social studies subject that allow you to check formation of the following skills (one task for each skill):
"the ability to search for social information presented in unadapted text sources; the ability to identify cause-effect relationships between social objects; the ability to analyze relevant information about social objects, identifying their common features and differences; the ability to formulate one's own judgments and arguments based on the acquired social science knowledge; the ability to specify social phenomena and events with the help of examples, the acquired social science knowledge and personal social experience."
A teacher evaluates how students work during practical classes, their individual work, execution of current control tasks (homework) and answers to questions during presentation of a professional portfolio at the end of educational module program. The final assessment is cumulative and is a system of educational achievements evaluation. A special program card is aimed at helping student to independently assess the results of module program mastering. It contains information on a list of diagnostic tasks for each module section, relative share of each task and number of points for their correct execution. At the same time, execution of each type of tasks involves a criteria assessment, for example (table
It is significant for the implementation of the module program to provide continuity of methods of subject teaching and specialized disciplines providing subject training: using unified forms of training sessions organization, verification and evaluation of educational results on teaching methodology and disciplines of modules that provide the contents of the subject that a student is prepared to teach. For example, in the course of subject teaching methodology, students master the technology of designing certain types of tasks aimed at checking and evaluating universal educational achievements. Students transfer their knowledge on organizing verification and evaluation of educational achievements to the environment of future professional activity independently designing diagnostic tools at practical field classes on methodology and during practice.
An effective means of ensuring the continuity of evaluation procedures and teacher training for organization of verification and evaluation of educational achievements is the identity of indicator tasks with the stage of school education, as well as students' execution of those types of tasks that are the most difficult for school students. One of these tasks is a mini-essay on social studies. This type of task indicates global trends of searching for tools to identify and assess the formation of a whole range of subject skills and universal learning activities: to reason one's point of view, to explain the essence of the phenomena relevant for modern society, to reflect on one's own social experience. Formation of these skills is an indicator of the level of social maturity, readiness of an individual for successful socialization. Mini-essay is used as a tool of comprehensive verification and evaluation of interdisciplinary results in various educational systems of the world. For example, in Singapore it is used within the study of civil literacy, global awareness and cross-cultural skills, it is also used in Tajikistan since 2016 as an interdisciplinary task aimed at determining civil literacy of school graduates, in schools in the UK it is used to test students' mastery of subject contents in literature, history, as well as the formation of general educational skills. Therefore, execution of this task by a future teacher in the process of his professional development would allow to successfully apply the acquired professional skills in teaching.
An analysis of employers' assessments, who in this case are experts that assess the quality of a graduate's training in general, is an independent aspect of future teachers' training for implementation of educational achievements diagnosis (Kolokoltseva, 2017).
When describing the organizational and pedagogical conditions of implementation of the module program, it is also necessary to highlight the importance of continuity of pedagogical disciplines of the basic cycle and subject teaching methodology, the possibility of simultaneous learning of certain topics; ensuring the continuity of subject teaching methodology and specialized disciplines, that make up subject training; creating a flexible functional practices schedule that allows to combine theoretical and practical training in studying each new didactic unit.
Thus, procedures of educational achievements diagnosis that make up the system of education quality assessment have become a challenge and resulted in the revision of the way students are taught to successfully perform various diagnostic tasks of the national system of education quality assessment, as well as the way teachers are trained to execute verification and evaluation of educational achievements in the activity paradigm. Qualitative changes in the procedure of verification and evaluation of educational results, described in the conceptual provisions of the national system of education quality assessment and corresponding to the global trends, certainly influence both quality of school subjects teaching and provision of educational results at all stages of education. Ensuring the continuity of the conceptual provisions of the national system of education quality assessment in the system of school education and teacher training in pedagogical universities, using modern diagnosis and evaluation tools complying with the contents and specifics of future professional activity in the system of teacher training are necessary conditions for ensuring the professional preparedness of a teacher to implement the requirements of the Federal Educational Standard for school education and conceptual provisions of the national system of evaluation of educational achievements.
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15 November 2020
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Teacher, teacher training, teaching skills, teaching techniques, special education, children with special needs, computer-aided learning (CAL)
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Yangirova, V., & Shamigulova, O. (2020). Teacher Training For Educational Achievements Diagnosis And Evaluation: Approaches And Tools. In & I. Murzina (Ed.), Humanistic Practice in Education in a Postmodern Age, vol 93. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1165-1178). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.11.121