The literature review draws from divergent schools of thought and various academic disciplines to explain the research variables. Also, the study highlight the existing knowledge. Firstly, the researcher discusses the impact context of the study with the roles that tourism sector has on economic growth and the significance of tourism sector’s contribution towards national economy which is essentials. Secondly, the researcher discusses the literature and its assumptions arrived via moderator, mediator and outcome of the study. Thirdly, the researcher explains the theoretical foundation supporting all the studied variables. The development of the research conceptual framework is also discussed. The previous study underlines on the theory and the research that has been formerly done surrounding perceived value, destination image, satisfaction, novelty-seeking, and visit and / or revisit intention. This study elaborates on how the research objectives can be investigated effectively using proposing conceptualization of novelty seeking tendencies as mediating effect between the IV and DV in the research approach.
Keywords: Novelty-SeekingPerceived ValueSatisfactionDestination imageTourist revisit intention
It is agree that in the past, the description of tourism is only focused on the characteristics of visitors, and the conditions in which they travelled, stayed and the purpose of their visit but there is an increasing awareness nowadays on the role that tourism plays (WTO, 2002). The role play is either directly, indirectly or through induced effects in the national economy in terms of generation of value added such as: creating an employment, contribute to personal income and contributing tax revenue to government. Tourism, as its continues to be one of the world’s largest and fastest growing industry sectors, it is agreed that tourism sector create jobs, supporting livelihoods and fast growing economic activities, and connecting people around the globe. Due to the relevant of tourism sector in today world businesses and in creating an edge among the competitors and also, for the fact that there are identified gap in previous research study which mainly focus to get tourist revisit a destination (Williams & Soutar, 2009). Meanwhile, (Assaker & Hallak, 2013) suggested the moderating effect of tourist through novelty seeking tendencies among the variables. ( Assaker, Vinzi, & O’Connor, 2011) also examine the effect of novelty seeking on tourists among the variables.
Therefore, this research is based on tourist intention to revisit a destination, even though the topic has been in the research discussion for over a decade. Tourist’s satisfaction is one of the major focus and their behaviour to make a comeback decision to a destination. Hence, the researcher motivation to expand the important issue of previous literature research. (Assaker & Hallak, 2013) describe novelty as “Customers” tendencies to purchase a new product as opposed to purchasing the same product over and over again, hence tourist revisit intention has been identified as a significant gap in tourism management which draw the gap that enough research has not been carried out to weigh the temporal dimension of revisit intention and the importance of study to focus on determinants of perceived value (Assaker & Hallak, 2013). (Assaker & Hallak, 2013) also explained that for organizations to attract travelers based on novelty-seeking tendencies, they should find ways to build the knowledge of the travelers about the places, people and things as well as to give them the opportunity to see and experience unique aboriginal or native groups and people from different ethnic group. Further stated that, it is also important to let the tourists experience local cuisine and meet friendly local people (Assaker & Hallak, 2013; Petrick & Backman, 2002).
Literature have noted that tourism industries had continues to be one of the world’s largest and fastest growing industry that create jobs, supporting livelihoods and fast growing economic activities which is also connecting people around the globe. The decision of tourist behavior play important roles to the prospect growth of the industry. However, many researcher has agreed to tourist satisfaction as one of the factor that lead to tourist decision behavior when it comes to destination visit and or revisit intention. (Assaker & Hallak, 2013) tend to address this issue by introducing novelty seeking tendencies as a means to moderate satisfaction and other variables in respect to get tourist revisit destination. As it’s agree that Novelty seeking tendencies theory provide a strong theoretical ground in elaborating the behavior of tourists in terms of their destination choice (Assaker & Hallak, 2013; George, 2004). Assaker & Hallak, 2013 further added to the body of literature stating that novelty-seeking means tourists seek optimal level of stimulation which in turn influences their behavioral choice. The scholars also revealed that tourists switch their services and seek new services even though they are satisfied with the original services received. It is abundant to give a close attention to the research of moderating effect of novelty seeking tendencies and mediating effect of novelty seeking tendencies in tourist revisit intention due to the different perception of literature theories. From the preceding research it is noted that moderating effect of studies have gained momentum among the factors that considered to be affected by destination choice such factors as satisfaction, destination image and perceived value. Meanwhile, Novelty seeking tendencies seems to be the focus in the latest research. And literature has primarily emphasized on the importance of novelty-seeking tendencies (Assaker & Hallak, 2013), such importance has not been fully explored by testing novelty-seeking tendencies as mediating factor to mediate between the IV and DV. And since it is noted that satisfaction of tourists is one of the core concepts of tourists’ behavior to make a decision on their revisit intention. Hence, ratifying the exact catalysts of growth is important to formulate effective instruments of policy that will enhance economic growth in the long-term. As therefore,
Mediating effect of novelty-seeking tendencies in Tourists’ Revisit Intention is considered the value added contribution towards the body of knowledge, proposed as conceptual model of this study as shown in
Indirect effect of X
In compare to moderator variable which can be express as a third party that refine the either known or unknown relationship between IV and DV. Its purpose is to measure the ability or strength of the relationship between the IV and DV. From the preceding discussion, it is clear that expansive research has been done on the tourists’ revisit intentions that suggest that destination image and satisfaction affects tourists’ intention to revisit a destination (Nguyen & Leblanc, 2001; Ramseook-Munhurrun, Seebaluck, & Naidoo, 2015) However, limited researched has addressed the relationship of perceived value when examining tourists’ intention to return to a destination (Assaker & Hallak, 2013). Similarly, novelty-seeking tendencies has gained momentum in marketing research especially when related to products (Bigné, Sánchez, & Andreu, 2009). Nevertheless, studies done on service industry is scarce and is considered as a research gap (Shawn Jang & Feng, 2007; Assaker et al., 2011; Bosque, Martín, Collado, & Salmones, 2009; Niininen, Szivas, & Riley, 2004). Bigné et al., 2009) stated that novelty-seeking tendencies is an under-researched area in the literature. Therefore, this study will attempt to narrow this research gap by exploring the mediation role of novelty-seeking tendencies between satisfaction, perceived value destination image and revisit intentions’ of tourists. Various researches have attempted to identify the tourist revisit intention in short-term, mid-term, and long-term such as (Jang & Feng, 2007; Huang, Weiler, & Assaker, 2014) Although there is contrary with (Assaker et al., 2011)which revealed that novelty-seeking tendencies have an important effect on revisit intention regardless of it being short-term, mid-term or long-term. This has later been contrary to the research done by (Yin, Chew, & Jahari, 2014) as well. Therefore, this research will focus on revisit intention as a whole. In supporting of this study researcher has applied System theory as the measure to conceptualization framework of novelty-seeking tendencies as mediation effect between the IV and DV. System theory can be express as an interdisciplinary theory in which that can be used as a measure to all disciplines including social behavior as in this current study. A distinctive characteristic of systems theory is that it developed simultaneously across various disciplines such as natural and ecological sciences chemical and biological disciplines and sociology and psychology (Mele, Pels, & Polese, 2010). From the conceptualization framework and its theoretical perspective, the system is on the notion that tourist behavior and their decision making especially to visit or re-visit a destination can be visualized as a system or interrelated aspects that operate as a whole in pursuit of common goals (Mele et al., 2010).
The overarching research objective is to investigate the relationship between perceived quality, destination image, overall satisfaction, and mediation effect of novelty-seeking tendencies on tourist visitation intention to Singapore. The specific objectives are:
To determine the relationship of perceived quality on tourists’ overall satisfaction, and revisit intention in Singapore
To examine the relationship of destination image on tourists’ overall satisfaction, and revisit intention in Singapore
To identify the relationship of satisfaction to revisit intentions (long-term and short-term) of tourists in Singapore
To identify the relationship of novelty-seeking tendencies to revisit intentions of tourists in Singapore
Purpose of the Study
In this research preceding, the research is align into psychology, marketing and tourism in which to state that the research model will illustrate causal relationship among the construct such as satisfaction, destination image, perceived value, mediating effect of novelty seeking tendencies and revisit intention. Hence, the research objectives is based on investigating into overarching research guideline that facilitate tourist’s decision behaviour towards destination revisit intention. And also, to give the clear picture of mediating effect of novelty seeking tendencies through satisfaction, destination image, perceived value and revisit intention. Further, to identify the relationship on satisfaction, destination image, perceived value and revisit intention. Finally, to determine the relationship on satisfaction, destination image, perceived value and revisit intention. This study is significantly abundant to the government of tourism economy country, it is also significant contribution to the body of knowledge (academia) by narrowing research gap of moderating effect of novelty seeking tendencies and mediating effect of novelty seeking tendencies in tourist revisit intention. Finally the study will abundantly and significantly contributes to tourism sector and other industries to help reinforcing the mind-set of marketing management and the decision maker in the aspect of the factors that lead to tourist visit and or revisit intention, satisfaction and novelty-seeking tendencies that affiliated to it.
Researcher has obtain and adopt quantitative research approach with the help of questionnaire as a tool in order to fulfil the research objectives. Scholars such as: (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2012) have agreed on two type of research design which are qualitative and quantitative hence, for the purpose of achieving the research objective of this study which is exploring the mediation role of novelty-seeking tendencies between perceived value, satisfaction, destination image, and revisit intentions, quantitative research approach with questionnaire as a tool has been adopted. It’s also prudent to apply cross-sectional research approach due to the time factor of the study. This is because by applying cross-sectional research approach and obtaining quantitative research approach with questionnaire as a tool will enable the researcher to reach out to a wide range of respondents in quick time (Deng & Wang, 2015; Zikmund, Babin, Carr, & Griffin, 2013) and will help to meet with the respondent face to face. It is agree that research design is the overall plan of the way a scholar will collect and analyse the data and identify the methods (Saunders et al., 2012). Hence the research objectives of this study uses both explanatory and descriptive Meanwhile, convenient sampling technique was used in this study with a sample of 450 respondents’ population. According to Raosoft calculation 377 respondents will be the target out of remain of 450 questionnaire that have been distributed. And Within this approach out of 377 questionnaires distributed, 324 questionnaires are believed to be valid with 72 percent response rate. The exact point of unit of analysis of this study is Harbourfront Centre (Ferry Terminal) and the questionnaires was only targeted to international tourists in Singapore. The research also adopt deductive research approach which enable to support the hypotheses that have been formulated and the research framework that has been developed.
Sample of the study were conducted and collated at the HarbourFront Center (Ferry Terminal) in Singapore with permission obtained from Berlian Ferries Pte Ltd. Berlian Ferries Pte Ltd is one the major and largest ferry transportation at Habourfront Center (Ferry Terminal). This ferry terminal is akin to the Singapore Changi Airport as being the famous ferry terminal compared to other ferry terminals in SingaporeThis center is also a popular location for tourists who visit Singapore through sea and going out of Singapore to places in Indonesia and Malaysia. It is a very convenient place as it houses a rapid rail station, shopping complexes via-link with Vivo City, including food and retail shops. Procedure First, the descriptive analysis of the demographic characteristics was attained and using SPSS software version 20. Second, study has tested the research model structural equation modelling (SEM) via partial least square (PLS) technique. PLS modelling was used to examine the relationships and was used to obtain the full-scale data that is cleaned by factor analysis. The scope of study gathered its sample from tourists visiting Singapore at Harbour Front Centre (Ferry Terminal), participant were above 18 years old of age, Male and Female. The empirical evidence justifying the sample size chose is explained in
Accordingly, the measurement adopted in this study is based on the demographic characteristic and the key variables of this research framework namely, perceived value, satisfaction, destination image, novelty-seeking tendencies, and revisit intentions. Therefore, in this research, together with the demographic details, the questionnaire contains 27 questions which assist the researcher to obtain the research objectives. In relation to this, the questionnaire is divided to six sections. Section A probe the demographic profile of the respondents while Section B investigate the perceived value. Section C review the destination image whereby Section D enquire the satisfaction. Likewise Section E examine novelty-seeking tendencies and Section F explore the revisit intentions of tourists. The questions in Section A is adapted from (Kim, Jung‐Eun Yoo, & Lee, 2012). Questions from B, C, D, E, and F is based on a five-point Likert scale with a scale showing “1” as “strongly disagree” to “5” as “strongly disagree” whereby the respondents were asked to indicate their perception with regard to perceived value, satisfaction, destination image, novelty-seeking tendencies, and revisit intentions. Moving on, a 5 item scale from was adapted from (Dodds, 1991). Section B on perceived value, a 3 item scale was adapted for Section C from (“Nguyen,” n.d.; Nguyen & LeBlanc, 2001) to measure destination image and a 4 item scale was adapted for Section D from (Burnham, Frels, & Mahajan, 2003) to measure satisfaction. A 9 item scale for Section E and a 2 item scale for Section F was adapted from (Assaker & Hallak, 2013) to measure novelty-seeking tendencies and revisit intentions respectively. Table
From the preceding the researcher as fund the following findings: starting from the data received from the profiled demographic characteristics of the respondents were transformed into presentable form. This entails gender, age, education level, and income (in USD) of the respondents. The profile is depicted in Table
Meanwhile, all the variables used in this research have been tested with reliability analysis to check the internal consistency both independent and dependent variables as agreed by (Churchill, 1979; Hair, Black, Babin, & Anderson, 2010; Nunnally, 1979; Sekaran, 2013). Cronbach’s Alpha is used for all the variables as considerably higher than a threshold of 0.7 ranging from 0.8597 to 0.9684. This shows that the instrument used for this research is reliable and consistent. This is abridged in Table
Research finding has indicate the relationship that exists amid perceived value, destination image, and satisfaction, novelty-seeking tendencies, and revisit intentions for tourists intention to revisit. It also portrays the mediation effect of novelty-seeking tendencies between perceived value, satisfaction, destination image, and revisit intention. Hence, the research findings depicted that the satisfaction and novelty-seeking tendencies mediate between perceived values and revisit intention and destination image and revisit intention.
Hypothesis 1 tested the relationship between perceived value and satisfaction for the tourists in Singapore. The result exhibited in Table
Hypothesis 2 tested the relationship between perceived value and revisit intention for tourists in Singapore, thereby stating that A more favorable perceived value results in a higher intention to revisit the destination. The results exhibited in Table
Hypothesis 3 tested the relationship between perceived value and novelty-seeking tendencies for tourists in Singapore. Thereby stating that, A more favorable perceived value results in greater novelty-seeking tendencies. The result portrayed in Table
Hypothesis 4 tested the relationship between destination image and satisfaction for tourists in Singapore. It is thereby stating that A more favorable destination image results in high level of tourist satisfaction. The result depicted in Table
Hypothesis 5 tested the relationship between destination image and revisit intentions for tourists in Singapore. It is thereby stating that A more favorable destination image results in a higher intention to revisit the destination. The result showed in Table
Hypothesis 6 tested the relationship between destination image and novelty-seeking tendencies for tourists in Singapore. It is thereby stating that A more favorable destination image results in greater novelty-seeking tendency. The result portrayed in Table
Hypothesis 7 tested the relationship between satisfaction and revisit intention for tourists in Singapore. It is thereby stating that A higher level of tourist satisfaction with a destination results in a higher intention to revisit the destination. The result illustrated in Table
Hypothesis 8 tested the relationship between satisfaction and novelty-seeking tendencies for tourists in Singapore. It is thereby stating that A higher level of tourist satisfaction with a destination results in a greater novelty-seeking tendency. The result demonstrated in Table
Hypothesis 9 tested the relationship between novelty-seeking tendencies and revisit intention for tourists in Singapore. It is thereby stating that The relationship between novelty-seeking tendencies and revisit intention is mediate. The result shown in Table
The researcher has also fund (Hypothesis 10) to be multi-group invariance analysis which is essential to compare the model. Hence, hypothesis 10 is examined through a series of sub-hypotheses and it is to test the mediation effect of novelty seeking tendencies to perceived value, satisfaction, destination image and revisit intention.
Hypothesis 10a tests the mediation effect of satisfaction and novelty-seeking tendencies between perceived value and revisit intention for tourists in Singapore. Therefore, it is to state that; the relationship between perceived value and revisit intention is mediated by satisfaction and novelty-seeking tendencies. From the results illustrated in Table
Hypothesis 10b tests the mediation effect of satisfaction and novelty-seeking tendencies between destination image and revisit intention for tourists in Singapore. Therefore, it is to state that; The relationship between destination image and revisit intention is mediated by satisfaction and novelty-seeking tendencies. From the results portrayed in Table
Hypothesis 10c tests the mediation effect of novelty-seeking tendencies between perceived value and revisit intention for tourists in Singapore. Therefore, it is to that The relationship between perceived value and revisit intention is mediated by tourists’ novelty-seeking tendencies. From the results depicted in Table
Hypothesis 10d tests the mediation effect of novelty-seeking tendencies between destination image and revisit intention for tourists in Singapore. Therefore, it is to state that The relationship between destination and revisit intention is mediated by tourists’ novelty-seeking tendencies. From the results shown in Table
Hypothesis 10e tests the mediation effect of novelty-seeking tendencies between satisfaction and revisit intention and it is to state that The relationship between satisfaction and revisit intention is mediated by tourists’ novelty-seeking tendencies. From the results exhibited in Table
An important research area is revisit intention of tourists that contributes to the economic growth and assist organizations to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage ( Jang & Feng, 2007; G. Assaker & Hallak, 2013; Hui, Wan, & Ho, 2007; Kozak, 2001; Oppermann, 1999; Su & Lin, 2014; Tang & Abosedra, 2014). However, novelty-seeking tendencies have been paid less attention in the tourism literature apart from few exceptions such as ((Shawn) Jang & Feng, 2007; Niininen et al., 2004; Padilla & McElroy, 2007). The theory of novelty-seeking tendencies which is an innate quality in tourists that plays an important role in decision making ( Assaker & Hallak, 2013; Cohen, 1979; Lee & Crompton, 1992; Petrick, 2002) has been viewed as a theoretical lens. The study attempted to examine the relationship between perceived value, satisfaction, destination image, and novelty-seeking tendencies to revisit intention. It also established the mediation role of novelty-seeking tendencies between perceived value and destination image to revisit intention of tourists to Singapore. This is inconsistent with the research done by (Assaker et al., 2011). It has also been found that novelty-seeking tendencies do not mediate between satisfaction and tourist revisit intention. This is in contrary with the research done by (Assaker et al., 2011). Apart from the mediation effect, the present research also revealed that perceived value which is the expand contribution to the model of (Assaker, Vinzi, & O’Connor, 2011), also, satisfaction and destination image has a positive influence on novelty-seeking tendencies. It has been revealed that although perceived value and destination image has no direct relationship with revisit intention, satisfaction highly influences the tourist intention to revisit a destination. Within this backdrop, it is hoped that the present research delivered added empirical evidence on how organizations that are both foreign and local owned will enhance tourist revisit intention as a major driver for success.
My Appreciation to my Supervisor Dr. Farrah Merlinda, Dr. Mohammad Shah Kasim Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Skudai Johor Malaysia (UTM), to my wife Nor’ain Binte Abu Bakar (LLB) University of London, Family and friends for their immensely support.
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Abubakar, A. M., Kassim, M., & Muharam, F. M. B. (2018). Paradigm Of Mediating Effect, Novelty-Seeking Tendencies In Tourists’ Visit And Revisitation. In M. Imran Qureshi (Ed.), Technology & Society: A Multidisciplinary Pathway for Sustainable Development, vol 40. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1036-1051). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.05.83