The article based on the empirical analysis of Russian and foreign literature in human resource management (HRM) and on the results of research work carried out by the Russian Economic University named after G.V. Plekhanov in 2016 - 2018 by order of the Federal Center for Management Training with the participation of the authors of this article. The analysis of the efficiency of implementation of the state plan for training managers for the organizations of the Russian Federation have showed the problems at enterprises of various industries and regions of the country. In addition, the authors used the results of sociological survey AMBA&BGA of accredited foreign business schools in 2018-2020. We also used the results of a survey of 220 students who trained at the Master of Business Administration program at the Russian University of Economics named after G.V. Plekhanov. The authors identified global trends and modern challenges that have arisen in this area because of the systemic economic crisis and the consequences of the spread of new coronavirus infection. The most frequently raised problems analyzed in scientific works devoted to the theory and practice of human resource management, could summarized as follows: talent management, managing diversity, development of key personnel competencies, changing employee behavior and motivational preferences.
In the studies of Russian and foreign authors, conducted in previous years, it was repeatedly noted that the work on human resource management in the last decade has become noticeably complicated and filled with new content. In the course of numerous studies, global trends have formulated that necessitate a change in approaches to HRM and bring it in line with new tasks and requirements. An objective contradiction has developed between the strengthening of the role of human resources in ensuring the sustainable development of enterprises and society as a whole and the insufficient speed of response of the heads of these enterprises and HR specialists to the new needs of the economy and society. Moreover, the modern development of the world economy is undergoing through significant qualitative changes in the transition from the stage of industrial development to the post-industrial level, which is characterized by an increase in the degree of intellectualization of all types of activities and the informatization of all technological processes. The need for a special kind of knowledge, scientific and innovative technologies are based on deep and advanced empirical knowledge and highly efficient engineering activities. The use of digital technologies changes the content, nature and organization of labor, contributes to the emergence of new professions and the disappearance of old ones, makes new demands on knowledge and skills, and creates new relationships between subjects of the labor market. Above all, these changes are affecting on the theory and the practice of human resource management.
1. In connection with the transition from the spring of last year, in order to ensure the safety of a significant part of employees, the approaches to the organization of workers' work have radically modified. The ongoing changes necessitate a change in the approaches of enterprises to the development of HR strategies, policies and procedures. In a short period, the priorities of their motivational needs have changed. On the other hand, the expectations of employers and their preferences regarding the most demanded competencies of personnel have changed. Approaches to the performance appraisal methods have transformed. It was necessary to make adjustments to the formation of the compensation policy and the personnel training and development system.
2. Successful overcoming of the new challenges in the HRM area at most enterprises will largely depend on the level of economic thinking and managerial worldview of managers and their social responsibility for the consequences of personnel decisions. A significant role in solving the problem and searching for new opportunities will played by HR managers. They are dealing with several responsible roles such as a business partner (member of the management team), a defender of the interests of all internal and external stakeholders (employers, employees, shareholders, consumers of products and services, etc.). The role of the HR department as a conductor of changes increases many times over in the period of drastic and large-scale changes.
Most experts rightly point out that the changes and challenges that have arisen are not temporary, but long-term. In addition, after the end of the pandemic, there will be no return to the former. All this necessitates research and systematic solution of three groups of interrelated problematic issues. The global challenge that many countries face today is to find an answer to the question of how the trends and directions of HRM that have emerged in previous years will manifest themselves in the coming period and what obstacles may arise in the way of their implementation. The second problem is associated with forecasting new patterns that will come to the fore and will determine new directions and priorities in the activities of HRM departments and managers. The third challenge is relating to identifying the necessary changes in the HRM strategy, policy and procedures of companies. The forth challenge is associated with looking for an answer to the question of what Impact new HR strategies will have on ensuring employment, maintaining incomes of the population and the well-being of citizens both at the enterprise itself and outside it at the level of the industry, region, country and the world community.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to assess the global trends in HRM that have developed in recent years and determine in which direction they will change in the coming decade. This will require solving the following tasks. First task is to identify what adjustments will need to do the content and methods of human resource management to overcome the crisis and identify reserves for ensuring sustainable development in the future. Second task is to generalize the ideas and concepts prevailing in recent years in the field of personnel management. Third task - to predict transformation HRM global trends in new conditions. Forth task is to determine the directions of further scientific and applied research in this field, ensuring the rise and sustainable development of the economy in the post-crisis period. The increased use of digital technology in the workplace increases the demand for new digital skills and for development of key personnel competencies. There are high and urgent demand in training of employees in order to correspond the modern challenges and will create opportunities for further development of all personnel.
The authors used empirical methods based on the analysis of scientific Russian and foreign literature, benchmarking of practical work departments of human resources management. Field research, rankings, a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis, online surveys, personal and telephone interviews were used to assess the staffing problems of organizations and the role of managers in increasing labor productivity and efficient use of human resources in order to ensure the sustainable development of enterprises in various sectors of the national economy and regions of Russia.
The results of research work analysis of the efficiency of implementation of the state plan for training managers for the organizations of the Russian Federation, carried out by the Russian Economic University named after G.V. Plekhanov in 2016 - 2018 by order of the Federal Center for Management Training with the participation of the authors of this article have been used. A study of learning outcomes and acquired knowledge, skills and competencies of managers and specialists trained under the Federal Presidential Program for Management Training was carry out. The main personnel management problems at enterprises of various industries and regions of the country have been identify. The role of managers - graduates of the program is analyze in solving the problem of increasing labor productivity, creating new jobs and maintaining employment. Through in-depth interviews and online questionnaires 515 graduates of the Federal Presidential Program have interviewed. The information has obtained based on a sample analysis of business projects initiated by managers and entrepreneurs have trained in the period from 2015 to 2017.
The foreign experience of preparation of managers and their role in ensuring sustainable development, creating new jobs, increasing incomes and preventing unemployment was analyzed based on a sociological survey by AMBA&BGA in which more than 2,000 graduates, students and employees of accredited foreign business schools were involved in 2018–2020 (AMBA, 2020).We also used the results of a survey of 220 students have trained at the Master of Business Administration program at the Russian University of Economics named after G.V. Plekhanov during the course on Human Resource Management conducted by one of the authors of the article. The summary results of the analysis obtained by MBA students during the preparation of certification research projects at enterprises of various sectors of the national economy (2017 – 2020) were also taken into account.
In a globalized economy, there is a lot more studies dealing with the role of business leaders and HR specialists in ensuring the sustainable development of the economy and society. Based on these studies, it is possible to formulate a several global trends that have dominated the theory and practice of management in previous years. Many of them will retain their importance in the future. However, at the same time they will undergo changes and been filled with new content. Below is an analysis of these trends and the projected directions of their transformation in the new conditions. Some of them have already clearly manifested themselves now. Others can be identified at this stage only at a hypothetical level. The most frequently raised problems analyzed in scientific works devoted to the theory and practice of human resource management, published over the past decade, in our opinion, could be summarized as follows (Table
Below we will consider global trends that are most significant for Russia, and formulate the main directions for their further research.
Research on this problem, without exaggeration, can been said to have occupied one of the central places in the scientific literature. Today companies operate in the era of technological advancement, digital transformation, workforce flexibility, and talent shortage. To stay competitive in an industry, companies look for talented people with high potential. Many big international companies attract the best young talent since their brand image is strong. There is little doubt that the attraction, development, and retention of talent are nowadays one of the most critical challenges faced by companies worldwide. Despite the increasing scholarly attention during the last years many questions remain, particularly, those related to how and why talent management is conceiving, implemented and developed within organizations (Babynina et al., 2021). Talent management is directing towards the creation of creativity-stimulating atmosphere and work conditions. One of the key elements of this trend is that leadership and creativity are greatly encouraged. There is no material motivation or control of employees. This approach focuses on the fact that it is impossible to manage talents but the company can provide them with sufficient working conditions and stimulate their creativity indirectly so that they are able to open their potential at their own pace. Since the scarcity of talent has become obvious, companies should start to pay attention to the new challenges action in attracting, raising and retaining talents.
It seems that two groups of contradictory factors will influence the development of this progressive trend. On the one hand, the deterioration of the economic situation of many enterprises will push them to save money on personnel: on remuneration, training and development. Reduced investment in development may also affect key talented employees. On the other hand, in crisis, the role of talented employees increases significantly. The possibilities of an early exit from the crisis will first depend on them. At the same time, the problem of retaining valuable personnel in the organization is becoming increasingly difficult. As shown by the studies carried out by the authors of this article (Kartashova, 2020) it is during the period of the forced use of alternatives to reduce staff, such as a reduction in working hours, division of work for all, forced vacations, the threat of loss of the most valuable personnel in demand on the labor market increases. Therefore, it is no coincidence that progressive international practice proceeds from the assumption that the use of alternatives to dismissal can be effective only for a limited period. As a rule, no more than 6 months and if the organization has a strategic plan for overcoming the crisis. The heads of enterprises and employees of HRM department, municipal authorities should proceed from the fact that it is unacceptable to maintain an excessive number of personnel for a long time, despite economic expediency. Finding the optimal balance between economic feasibility and social responsibility for the consequences of staff reduction made will be one of the difficult problems when justifying personnel decisions in current crises.
Another challenge faced by modern practice is the problems associated with Managing Diversity. The managers and the scholars alike have been interested in understanding the impact of workforce diversity on organizational outcomes. Workforce diversity has begun as a core strategic value that many organizations consider they have a duty to follow to promote fairness and equality in the organizations. Workforce diversity management refers to the management of all differences such as differences in race, gender, age, ethnicity, education, experience, interest, status, and functional diversity (Manoharan & Singal, 2017).
In the research of other authors (Mor Barak et al., 2016) presents the conceptual model which concludes diversity characteristics of two main domains: surface-level and deep-level diversity characteristics. The results of this model indicate a strong direct relationship between favorable perceptions of organizational diversity efforts and beneficial work outcomes.
Human resource department has a great deal of responsibility in managing the overall diversity of the organization. HRM should consider diversity within the following areas: hiring promotion, compensation equality, training, employee policies, legal regulations, ensuring accessibility of important documents, for example, translating human resource documents into other languages so all staff can read them. Administrative department’s efforts have been stimulated to establish and develop a positive awareness in working environments, select skilled employees, and create advanced concepts to deal with job-related issues. The study showed that the 42.6% of the contacted organizations (n = 549) apply the concept of diversity management. The results indicate that there is a statistical dependence between the application of diversity management and the commercial sector in which the organization operates and the size of the organization. Only 20.2% of organizations have sufficient information about the concept of diversity management (Urbancová et al.., 2020).
Other studies have shown higher job satisfaction and job performance also depend upon effective workforce diversity management (Vanderschuere & Birdsall, 2019). The largest number of studies and publications related to gender diversity. This problem was considering both as an independent scientific problem and in the context of other economic and management problems, such as, for example, female unemployment, features of the female leadership style, etc. It can be say without exaggeration that none of the international conferences, with rare exceptions, did not pass without including in its program problems related to gender diversity. A considerable amount of research has been devoted to age diversity, especially the specifics of approaches to work performance, perception and communication characteristics of representatives of generation Z.
In our opinion, in the future, the objective trend will continue to strengthen the role of using a variety of management methods in the formation and maintenance of the optimal diversity of the staff of most organizations. Additional opportunities will appear to ensure synergies in increasing productivity by integrating the diverse qualities and abilities of workers, the experience and knowledge they have acquired. At the same time, the transition of a significant part of employees to remote mode with individual work schedules in a distant format, can to a certain extent, complicate the process of identifying and analyzing the abilities, skills, values and motivational expectations. In addition, consequently, the use of these opportunities in overcoming crisis phenomena and ensuring the development of enterprises becoming more challenging;
Development of key personnel competencies
In previous years, serious research and development was carry out in the field of the development of key personnel competencies, which play a decisive role in ensuring the strategic development of the organization. The research data concerned the approaches to defining the conceptual apparatus, substantiating the role of the competence-based approach in increasing the efficiency of a business and ensuring its competitiveness (Sinay & Graikinis, 2018). The difficulty of assessing the competencies, especially personal competencies, was note. In order to eliminate subjectivity and obtain a comprehensive and complete assessment, various classifications of personnel competencies and methods of their assessment were used, including on the basis of the “360 Performance Management System” method, which has become widespread in personnel management practice.
Among the most noticeable conceptual trends in the field of human resource management, it is necessary specially to note the attention to increasing the role of managerial competencies. Experts pay special attention to the broad management thinking and worldview of leaders, which is necessary for making strategic management decisions in the face of risks and uncertainty. The importance of Multi skills for business leaders of the future was emphasize: cross-functional, cross-industry, cross-cultural skills. Along with the preservation of the importance of special knowledge and skills in a specific industry and functional area (Hard Skills), attention is focuses on the development of personal qualities and competencies of a modern leader (Soft Skills). The literature especially emphasizes the importance of such competences as social responsibility for the consequences of personnel decisions, preservation of the natural environment and minerals, poverty alleviation, and support for income and employment of the population. In addition, this already means a fundamentally different approach to the formation and role of managerial competencies - the expansion of the competences of enterprise managers beyond the boundaries of these enterprises themselves. In the long term, the role of the professional competencies of managers and their leadership qualities in overcoming the crisis and the consequences of the pandemic will further increase. Business leaders in the post – Covid-19 period will need the highest art and a combination of seemingly incompatible qualities and competencies. They will need to be able to think globally, but act locally; make extraordinary decisions in the face of risks and uncertainty and at the same time ensure the sustainable development of the organization. They must find the optimal balance between solving the issues of social protection of employees of the enterprise and at the same time ensure the efficiency of its activities in harsh economic conditions, make forced operational decisions and at the same time not lose sight of long-term strategic goals development. It will inevitably have to make economic decisions that are unpopular for employees and at the same time take care of maintaining a positive HR Brand of the organization.
Because of the rapid integration of information communication technologies (ICT) in the workplace, professionals need to adapt to changing job requirements and organizational practices related to new skill-intensive technologies. Today requirements to staff focuses on the following skills: information, critical-thinking, creativity, and problem-solving skills. These skills are considering highly important, as work is increasingly knowledge-based and performed in digital environments. In present time, the authors distinguish between users and creators of digital technologies and argue that digital skills are necessary for both, albeit at different levels. For example, basic and intermediate digital skills will be increasingly required in non-tech jobs (users of technologies) whereas more advanced digital skills will become necessary in jobs that build and maintain the digital tools required in different industries.
Also of interest and significance are recent studies devoted to the problem of developing the competencies of employees who have switched mainly to work in a distance format. The need to comply with health safety requirements has forced many companies to transfer a significant part of their employees to a remote work format. At the same time, the issues of comfort and accessibility of the digital technologies used, adaptation of employees to new conditions, the formation of cross-functional teams and a supportive organizational culture came to the fore. Surveys of employers in enterprises in various industries conducted in 2020 show that remote work, along with the difficulties at first, opened up new opportunities, both economic and social. As the pandemic subsides, many companies will continue to incorporate modern information technology and flexible working hours into their personnel cost management strategies on an ongoing basis. In addition, this will force a rethinking of the attitude to the role and priorities of various competencies of personnel. The peculiarities of performing work remotely necessitate the strengthening of self-management, self-motivation and self-organization, time management competencies.
A high degree of digitalization, a large amount of work using modern digital technologies will also require increased attention to such competencies as stress management. According to the results of a survey of employers recruiting graduates of business schools accredited by the reputable international association AMBA – International (UK based), employers ranked stress management as one of the 3 most valuable competencies for modern leaders, along with leadership and digital skills (AMBA, 2020). At the same time, employers noted that most business schools do not yet pay sufficient attention to the development of this competence in the preparation of professional managers in business education programs.
Changing employee behavior and motivational preferences
The experience of mass implementation of remote work in Russian companies during the isolation regime caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, to assess the opportunities for further development of this type of labor relations and emerging trends in the labor market. The remote work has affected the staff of the companies in different ways. The experience of working remotely for three months allows us to generalize the variety of judgments about the effectiveness of such work. So one study shows that 85% of employers believe that after switching to a remote format, the quality of work has decreased, 14% - did not see any difference. The causes of the negative experience during the remote work and in total there are the following: 9% of respondents noted that they were hinder by difficulties with monitoring the effectiveness of personnel and employee motivation. In contrast to managing employees who are located in the same office, remote employees are initially endow with greater independence and responsibility (NAFI, 2020).
Which decisions would be HR in the field of reward when the staff would like remote work? For applicants, this is an opportunity to be part of a team and still feel free and mobile, travel to different cities and countries, discover something new, meet interesting people and earn money. For employers, there is possibility to attract highly qualified specialists and young talents without "linking" to the office, find employees to solve specific tasks, save on overhead costs.
The managers can see there is a gap between perception of employees and employers towards the remote work. On the one hand, this means that the manager need to carefully select such employees, paying attention to such competencies as the ability to plan your work and adhere to the plan, the ability to set goals, and the willingness to be responsible for the result. On the other hand, the manager initially needs to focus more on controlling results than on controlling intermediate indicators. When the employees working remotely, there is a risk of their dishonesty when performing work functions outside the office. It is necessary to ensure sufficient control over the quality of their performance. A positive effect of removal is possible when employees take responsibility for the quality of work and are motivated to achieve results. Managing remote teams requires systematization of management skills and additional work to motivate the team. Clear management of the process begins with determining the day and time of regular weekly calls at a convenient time for participants. Regularity and respect for the personal time of employees gives discipline and productivity on calls. Examples of control can be the following methods: setting goals for the day and providing a detailed daily report on the work done; delegating one project to several people for the purpose of mutual control; systematic collective discussion of issues via videoconferencing; recording time at the computer using modern technical devices. A written agreement on the allocation of roles and responsibilities will added the transparency and the clarity to the processes.
The trend for remote employment will continue to grow for next years to come. Since 2019, a number of laws on self-employment could been adopted in Russia. They explain professional areas and categories of individuals related to the self-employed, and establish reduced tax rates for such categories. Such measures are supportive and create an enabling environment for self-employment opportunities, and not on the staff of a particular company, develop initiatives and entrepreneurial abilities, which will help to solve the tasks of national projects, such as “Labor productivity and employment support” and “Digital economy.” The possibility of remote forms of labor organization can be available for not only IT specialists, designers, representatives of creative activities, but also for accountants and HR specialists, lawyers and any areas that provide consulting services that do not require a continuous stay in the office.
This lifestyle will become more and more popular. These working relationships are radically different from popular model in Russia, when the most important indicator of an employee's performance is their presence in the workplace. Remote work affects not only the legal and economic aspects of the relationship between the parties to the labor relationship, but also the socio-psychological ones, which affect the work process to no lesser extent. The resistance of workers due to personal barriers complicates the changes, in particular, the transfer to remote work: fear of losing a job; the need for guarantees when the job itself is threatened; reduction of wages and cancellation of benefits. Remote employees have been said to be considered more motivated to achieve results, and therefore, in most cases, they are more productive. However, such organization of work requires not only competence and discipline, but also mutual trust between different members of the virtual team, between remote employees and the company. Non-financial rewards such as gamification and mutual recognition of achievements will be more effective, than administrative control for remote workers.
The working time of a remote employee is blurred. There are no clear boundaries for the beginning and end of the working day. The time previously spent on the road increases in favor of the working time of the company. Therefore, in order to maintain working capacity, it is important for the emotional state of employees, daily communication with them using accessible information and communications technology.
Optimization of employer costs can be achieved by expanding or eliminating certain benefits as part of the company's social package. This will increase employee satisfaction and the motivational effect of the benefits provided for remote staff. So, 30% of employees of Russian companies, with experience in remote work, and 26% without such experience, one of the disadvantages of working remotely consider the absence of a social package (Habr, 2017), but 5% of employees are working remotely consider as a minus the need to independently equip their workplace (Head Hunter, 2018).
The unwillingness of employers to participate in organizing a remote workplace for employees and a social package for them, along with working employees in the office, reduces the motivation for quality work. At the same time, the revision of the structure of social package for remote staff helps reduce costs, as the provision of food workers, payment sports and fitness facilities, the availability of additional medical care in the office, as well as compensation for staff travel become irrelevant. During COVID-19 compensation of home Internet and telephone communications, purchase or partial compensation of the cost of a scanner, printer and stationery, office furniture and computer could be additional social benefits. It is important, because have associated with the workplace organization. In order to ensure that employees can balance work and personal life, a social package can include of full or partial payment for access to various online resources, electronic libraries, professional and language courses in remote work with software, courses on personal self-development and sports.
Considering the growing use of technology, and the consequent increase in flexibility around where work is conducting, organizations and employees need to be aware of both the benefits and drawbacks of remote e-working practices. Remote e - working may potentially link to knowledge workers’ well-being at work in opposing ways. Knowledge workers can benefit by working away from a traditional office environment, as the nature of their work requires concentration on individually - based tasks, eliminating interruptions.
The research of remote e-workers (Charalampous et al., 2018) has aim is to gain a deeper understanding of the association between remote e-working, within knowledge workers, and the five dimensions of wellbeing at work: affective, cognitive, social, professional, and psychosomatic. This research provides a rigorous theoretical and contextual framework for both academics for understand the relationship between remote e - working and well-being at work and for practitioners, to enhance their knowledge surrounding implementing and managing remote e-working policies and strategies in a more effective manner.
Analysis of Russian and foreign literature shows that these studies demonstrate both the advantages and disadvantages of remote work. Therefore, it is necessary to continue a deeper study of the behavior and motivation of workers are using remote work for their well-being. In addition, organizations disadvantage of remote working process should take into account that affect the efficiency of labor. For increase employee engagement and motivation, the authors to advice the gamification. Taking into account the peculiarities of the young generation and the fact that the spirit of competition is inherent in human nature, the use of game methods for solving business problems, when work and play take place at the same time, allows you to add additional meaning to ordinary activity, activates emotions, reveals creativity and intuition, increases employee engagement.
In this article, the main challenges faced by the heads of enterprises and specialists of HRM departments were substantiated. They include of discussions on the conceptual framework and the role of Talent Management in ensuring sustainable development; the opportunities that HRM diversity opens up and the challenges that business leaders and HR managers had to face; the requirements to staff focuses on the following skills: information, critical-thinking, creativity, and problem-solving skills. These skills are considering highly important, as work is increasingly on knowledge-based and to perform in digital environments. A high degree of digitalization, a large amount of work using modern digital technologies will also require increased attention to such competencies as stress management. The managers can see there is a gap between perception of employees and employers towards the remote work. There are necessary to continue a deeper study of the behavior and motivation of workers are using remote work for their well-being. Separate proposals have formulated aimed at identifying and using the existing opportunities in the HRM area to overcome the crisis and ensure sustainable development. It is necessary to continue a deeper study of the behavior and motivation of workers are using remote work for their well-being. Organizations disadvantages of remote working process should take into account that affect the efficiency of labor. For increase employee engagement and motivation, the authors to advice the gamification. It is necessary to continue the research outlined in the "dock-like" period of global HR trends in order to determine the directions of their further development and the direction of improving the work on human resource management department in accordance with new realities and requirements.
Since the decisive role in overcoming crisis phenomena and identifying reserves in the field of human resource management will belong to managers at all levels of management, it seems appropriate to start with large-scale retraining and advanced training of managers and specialists of human resources services. It is important to continue training Russian managers on MBA and DBA programs that have proven their significance and their impact on improving the efficiency and development of the society. Within the framework of the national project "Education", it seems expedient to expand the scale of training leaders and specialists on the Presidential program for the sectors of the national economy and regions of the country. As the analysis has shown, in the current situation and in the future, new approaches and criteria for assessing the impact of HRM department will be required, while many personnel services have not realized this and are not yet ready for new approaches. This will require the support of these processes from all stakeholders. It would be advisable to implement it in the following areas. The first is the formation of an appropriate public consciousness in the field of popularization of new approaches to human resource management in society. The second is a large-scale professional development and retraining of HR managers. This direction could be successful if, within the framework of social partnership, the efforts of all interested participants in this process: associations of employers, associations of workers, the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation will be integrated.
The paper based on the results of research, carried out in 2016–2018. The research entitled Conducting an Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Implementation of the State Plan for Training Management Personnel for National Economic Organizations of the Russian Federation. The agreement between the Federal Resource Center for the Organization of Management Training for national economic organizations and Plekhanov Russian University of Economics with the participation of the authors of this paper (contracts: FRC-REU-17-16 of 11.09.2016; FRC-REU- 02.18 of 17.09.2018). The study has funded by the Federal Resource Center for Management Training for the National Economy.
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30 April 2021
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Babynina, L. S., Kartashova, L. V., & Pilipenko, P. P. (2021). Transformation Of Approaches To Human Resources Management In The New Reality. In S. I. Ashmarina, V. V. Mantulenko, M. I. Inozemtsev, & E. L. Sidorenko (Eds.), Global Challenges and Prospects of The Modern Economic Development, vol 106. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 741-752). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.04.02.89