Stages Of Forming A Design Culture From School To Worldskills Russia

Abstract

Today, there is no such types of human activity, wherever we meet the ability to navigate in space (. This is a prerequisite for life, successful knowledge and an active transformation of reality. Free manipulation of spatial images is a fundamental skill that combines various types of high school students’ activities. We consider it as one of the most important qualities of future designers. It is no coincidence that teaching has as its main tasks the development of spatial thinking and the ability to independently solve varied creative tasks in schoolchildren. It is the most important component in preparing for practical activities in various specialties, such as architect, engineer, builder, topographer, artist, draftsman, designer. Some schools in Magnitogorsk still have specialized classes, whose students are guided by professions in the field of design, it was there that the initial training in the basics of design was preserved. The student’s self-determination in the process of studying “Technical Graphics” is possible only if there is a high level of cognitive interest. Therefore, in the 9 th, 10 th and 11 th grades elective drawing courses are conducted. During them, in the process of continuous and successive learning, high school students are becoming determined with the choice of a future profession. While studying in college, students go through the second stage – the integration of training – the systematic formation of a project culture, enhanced information and computer training, which ends with participation in the WorldSkills Russia Championship.

Keywords: Design cultureWorldSkills Russiamodeldesign

Introduction

The basis for the formation of the student’s design culture is laid back in school. It is in graduation classes that professional self-determination is already underway, therefore, it becomes important for the teacher to develop special graphic skills in schoolchildren, such as:

  • spatial and abstract thinking;

  • theoretical generalization;

  • interest-focus on graphic activity;

  • creativity;

  • the ability to work in computer programs to carry out a design project.

In our study, we used the modeling of the educational process, which allowed us to identify and predict the dependence of the level of design culture on graphic learning and its manifestation in various subjects. In the model we use, a visual structure is created in which the reflection of object properties through the conventions of the notation allows us to identify their significant relationships and dependencies hidden from the observer. When modeling the development process of students’ cognitive interest in graphic activity, we determined the subject and purpose of modeling.

The subject of modeling is the process of students’ cognitive interest development by means of drawing graphics. The purpose of the model is to design this process in educational activities to increase the level of cognitive interest development and the level of graphic preparation of schoolchildren to form the basis of project culture. The goal setting is determined by the social order of society and education, connected with the need for a diverse and highly educated personality, with the realization of this need at the stage of school education.

The structural components of our model were:

  • the subject of the cognitive interest development in graphic activity (level approach);

  • graphic tasks and tasks on the technical schedule as a means of achieving the goal;

  • didactic conditions for the gradual formation of a project culture;

  • criteria and indicators for determining the design culture;

  • The result achieved in the implementation of the research model.

The integration of didactic conditions into a certain interconnected complex is nothing but the integration of the educational process (Hongmin, 2018; Zhdanova et al., 2018). Integration combines disparate parts into a single whole, which requires the teacher to develop a unified pedagogical “strategy”, that is, a unified graphic mode in the school (Ainley & Ainley, 2011).

For our study, the most interesting are the didactic conditions (Ekaterinushkina, 2003; Nemtseva, 2005) associated with the development of project culture, the students’ activity and the individualization of the learning process in school. The authors investigated the cognitive interest and activity of students in the learning process (Belikov, 1995; Nemtseva, 2005; Schukina, 1984). The individualization of the learning process in the school was considered by researchers (Ingekamp, 1991; Zhdanov, 1998). Among the studies devoted to teaching graphics at school, one can note successes in works (Makarova & Zhdanova, 1991; Mishukovskaya, 2002). He studied the development of creative abilities and creative activity in the process of graphic learning (Burnetsken, 1990).

Problem Statement

Today, the problem of mastering a high level of design culture in training is relevant. Understanding the factors of its formation by the means and capabilities of technical graphics as a means in an integrated education system is undeniable for the training of a future designer. The solution to this problem was not previously comprehensively considered as an independent topic. In addition, in school education, there is an annual reduction in subjects related to graphic activity, with an increasing need for the profession of designer. Thus, the relevance of the problem was determined by the following factors:

  • increasing requirements for the learning process of drawing and the inadequacy of studying the ways of intensive inclusion of a student in educational and cognitive activities through the development of a stable cognitive interest in project activities;

  • the fragmentation of goals, approaches, methods and means of developing cognitive interest in various educational subjects containing graphic activity;

  • poor connection with best practices, with the practice of educational institutions, the introduction of compulsory computer education for students from elementary school.

When setting the problem, we were guided by the resolution of contradictions between the constantly complicated process of teaching technical graphics and the current level of knowledge and skills of students; between the classroom system, a must for everyone, and the individualization of instruction.

The study of theoretical and practical questions on the topic under study provided the basis for formulating the research problem: ensuring a high level of the design culture development of schoolchildren by implementing a model for its phased development in graphic activity, taking into account a set of didactic conditions.

Research Questions

The subject of the study is the phased design culture development of schoolchildren by means of technical graphics in the learning process. In the formation of the design culture, in the educational graphic activity of schoolchildren, it is customary to distinguish the following levels of interest development: curiosity; inquisitiveness; cognitive interest; theoretical interest (Schukina, 1984). Thus, cognitive interest is the most important personality formation. It takes shape in the process of human life and its subsequent socialization. At the same time, cognitive interest forms a variety of personal relationships: a) selective attitude to various fields of science; b) cognitive activity; c) participation in various types of activities; d) communication with partners in knowledge. Undoubtedly, cognitive interest is one of the means of creating design culture in the school.

Figure 1: Competition of architectural projects “The City of My Dreams”, Magnitogorsk, 2019
Competition of architectural projects “The City of My Dreams”, Magnitogorsk, 2019
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Today, the subject environment of human life, work and leisure has become one of the most important areas of the designer’s activity ( Chernyshova et al., 2017). Therefore, schooling must include art design, technical aesthetics and its basis technical graphics. Technical graphics are the science of how scientific information is transmitted. It examines all types of images, the basics of visual perception of the form and its image on the plane with parallel rays orthogonal drawing and axonometry; conical rays perspective. High school students should understand the tasks and essence of graphic activity, as well as have some practical skills, since in his work the designer creates things, environmental objects, interiors (sociotechnical environment), the exterior of the house, etc. Teaching the basics of design is carried out in optional classes on the "Technical schedule" starting from the 9th, 10th and 11th grades. Already in high school, students participate in city competitions of architectural projects "City of my dreams" in 2019 Magnitogorsk (Figure 1 ), the All-Russian contest for high-speed 3-d modeling and visualization "3-d day, 3-d night" in Saratov »Both as a team and individually, defending their research projects and design projects.

This proves that the future designer must master a large complex of both artistic and aesthetic, as well as scientific and technical knowledge and skills, developing and shaping the skills of project culture

Purpose of the Study

The modern school gives priority to the upbringing of a comprehensively developed personality. This is feasible when creating special conditions for changing the student’s motivation for cognitive activity, socializing him in society and immersing himself in the world of information technology and scientific and technological progress. This result will be obtained when implementing the goal aimed at determining, developing, theoretical justification and experimental study of the model for the effective development of the design culture of schoolchildren. We understand design culture as the focus of design on cultural creation and transformation; cultural examination of design in the system of universal values ​​and politics.

The object of study is the process of training students in technical graphics. Hypothesis – the phased development of the design culture of students in grades 9–11 by means of technical graphics will be more productive if it proceeds within the framework of a model whose effective functioning is ensured by the following set of didactic conditions:

  • the implementation of the continuity of graphic education through the establishment of a unified graphic mode in the school;

  • the variety of types of independent graphic and practical activities of schoolchildren, relying on information technology and knowledge of graphic programs;

  • realization of the possibilities of in-class individualization of learning;

  • the creation of an educational and methodological complex that stimulates the gradual development of cognitive interest of schoolchildren in graphic activity, increasing computer literacy to form the basis of project culture;

  • study of basic computer programs needed to create your own design projects.

Research Objectives:

  • the rationale for the phased development of the design culture of schoolchildren in graphic activity;

  • the allocation of the structure of the model and the establishment of communication between them;

  • definition and testing of a set of didactic conditions conducive to the implementation of the model;

  • determination of criteria and indicators of the level of cognitive interest development in graphic activity among students;

  • determination of the stages of the formation of design culture.

Research Methods

The study was carried out by a team of professors of the department of Design of MSTU named after G.I. Nosova in collaboration with schools and colleges of Magnitogorsk, Krasnodar and Novosibirsk. Describing the conditions conducive to the productive training of students in graphic literacy, scientists emphasize the need to consider the specific cognitive processes of a student – memory, imagination, thinking, motivational-volitional sphere, the ability of self-control and introspection of their project activities. The study is based on a comprehensive study of theoretical and design materials to identify the features of the formation of the design culture based on graphic activity. It is aimed at developing interest-oriented design activities, according to the developed methodology. In the process of modeling the learning process, the main structural components were identified. Initially, we identified criteria for the cognitive interest of schoolchildren (Table 01 ).

Table 1 -
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In accordance with the selected criteria, we determined a set of methods (Table 02 ).

Table 2 -
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Next, we developed the stages of scientific research (Table 3 ).

Table 3 -
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Partially, the model passed its testing at The 6 th Regional Championship of the South Urals “Young Professionals” of WorldSkills Russia in the competence “Graphic Design” in 2018. The modules developed by the experts (draft assignments) were quite complex; 4 hours each were given for their implementation. They included: module 1 – corporate identity development and brand book products; module 2 – information design; 3 module – multi-page design; 4 module – packaging. Without a sufficiently high level of design activity, prototyping, orientation and deep knowledge of graphic programs, it was impossible to complete these tasks, in addition, the contestants had to have knowledge of printing finished products on a printer. Evaluation criteria included: the creative process; final design; technical parameters of product creation; printing and prototyping; knowledge of technical parameters for printing; save options and formats; Soft skills. The results prove the need to improve the design culture of students.

Findings

Thus, in the process of mastering the design culture, the development of imaginative thinking of the student is carried out in the following areas:

  • the transition from single, subject-subject images to abstract, conditionally schematic and vice versa;

  • the possibility of fixing in the image of theoretical relationships and dependencies (spatial, structural, functional, temporal);

  • the development of the dynamism of the image, which is expressed in its mobility, multi-aspect;

  • mastery of various ways of creating an image and operating with it, which is characterized by the interchangeability of these methods, their arbitrary and free choice, depending on the goals and objectives of the design activity, specific conditions for its implementation. These indicators of the level of formation of the project culture are significantly higher in the EG (experimental group) than in the CG (control group) (Figure 02 ).

Figure 2: Formation levels of the project culture in the experimental and control groups
Formation levels of the project culture in the experimental and control groups
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The used model of teaching schoolchildren clearly demonstrated that this method of teaching technical graphics in the school allows you to create a steady interest-focus on graphic activity and creates a fertile ground for increasing the level of student’s design culture.

Conclusion

The growth of industrial and information technologies, universal computerization requires a high level of graphic knowledge, human skills. Currently, the requirements for mastering technical graphics have risen sharply, which has placed teachers in front of the need to comprehensively develop the deep knowledge, skills of students that are inextricably linked with the motives of learning and the level of cognitive interest which are the components of the design culture.

The introduced model included an educational and methodical complex aimed at the phased formation of the design culture of schoolchildren by means of drawing graphics. The developed materials can be used by teachers and teachers of colleges in teaching disciplines of the graphic cycle, both in the system of general and additional education. The study does not exhaust the entirety of the problem of the formation of the design culture of schoolchildren in the educational process, it is necessary to study and adjust each stage.

Acknowledgments

The 6 th Regional Championship of the South Urals “Young Professionals” WorldSkills Russia 2018

References

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Publisher

European Publisher

First Online

31.10.2020

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.05.177

Online ISSN

2357-1330