The article dwells on the relevance of using visual profiling as a propaedeutic means of pointless conflicts in an educational institution. Conflict situations are considered from the point of view of the object and often aggressive attitude of a teacher towards a child, provoking the retaliatory aggression of schoolchildren. The article presents research data on the level and self-assessment of forms of aggressive behavior of future teachers. The research results highlight the range of problems of students who are trained to be teachers in the framework of the triad which includes irritability, guilt, and physical aggression. The authors emphasize the absence of the relevant parts regarding the formation of the humanistic orientation of the teacher in the training programs of teachers and in the requirements of the “Professional Standard”. Parallels are drawn between the requirements for the teacher in the framework of the “Professional Standard” and the requirements for the selection of specialists in other professions, in particular for police officers. The research data obtained suggest the use of interagency cooperation and interdisciplinary relationships to achieve a safe and developing educational environment. As one of the options, presumably optimizing the current situation, it is proposed to introduce an analysis method and predict the behavior of employees applying for the position of teacher. The article presents definitions related to the understanding of profiling and visual profiling in Russian criminology; the possibility of its application in the present-day educational environment is examined.
Keywords: Aggressioneducationprofessional standardpropaedeuticsteachervisual profiling
The process of present-day society development, as well as society itself, is now extremely unstable. In addition to difficulties caused by both economic, technological, social crises (completely logical from the point of view of political economy) and physiological age crises, a person is influenced by historical memory formed by years of deprivation, wars, and a change in socio-economic formations (for example, the collapse of the Soviet state system). In such unstable conditions, it is a difficult task even for an adult to be a holistic, harmoniously formed, subject-oriented and psychologically healthy person. Neurotization, psychopathization and deviations of various genesis could be found not only among the marginalized population, but also among citizens who seem completely prosperous. Crisis states of an individual, not provided with competent prevention, support and in some cases with medical support, often go beyond the norms of behavior.
Nowadays the school is an absolute reflection of the processes taking place in society. The requirements for a professional teacher who builds up a young personality are formulated in the “Professional Teacher Standard”; they emphasize the humanistic orientation of the teacher who considers the child as a healthy personality, capable of maximizing the development of abilities and capabilities in all kinds of activities (Kolpakova, 2019). However, teacher training does not imply a deep study and forming of this focus. The training is aimed at studying the disciplines of the professional and methodological cycles depending on the specialization of a teacher. Therefore, conflict situations in schools, provoked by the object attitude of a teacher to a student, and in some cases by the aggression of teachers are not uncommon. The emotional state of children is, in most cases, a response to adult behavior.
The developer of the hierarchy of human needs, Abraham Harold Maslow (Maslow, 1970), considered the humanistic orientation of the personality, however, Maslow’s (2016) studies show that one can grow “ferocity, aggressiveness or cruelty in the same way as certain anatomical characteristics during the growing process” (p.157).
The manifestation of unmotivated aggression, as a search for a way out of internal tension, in some cases is the only possible option for the child. Markova and Nikonova (1987) point out that the pedagogical abilities of a present-day teacher include “the teacher’s professional activity in reconstructing the pedagogical situation” (p. 48). The ability to reconstruct needs to be strengthened both legally, by reviewing vocational training and selection for the teaching profession, and methodologically, by using interdisciplinary opportunities as a resource.
What requirements for professionally important qualities of a teacher included in professional standard are relevant in the present-day educational environment?
What level of aggression is inherent in future teachers?
What does the structure of aggressive behavior forms include according to the self-esteem of future teachers?
Is propaedeutics of aggressive behavior of schoolchildren possible through the use of visual profiling during professional selection for study at an educational institution?
Purpose of the Study
In this article, we will not only analyze the situation with the training of teachers, the modern structure of professional courses and provide comparative data on requirements for “person to person” types of professions, but also confirm with statistical data the need to change approaches to the professional selection of educational institutions specialists and training of educational institution management in new methods of propaedeutics of conflicts in the educational environment. The analysis of the obtained data contributes to the consideration of an interdisciplinary approach to the problem solution. One of the options for such a solution seems is considered the use of visual profiling methods in an educational institution as a way to prevent a teacher from displaying aggressive behavior that provokes students’ aggression.
To achieve the research purpose, an analysis of research literature that meets the stated purpose was carried out. The analysis of literature was aimed at the most complete disclosure of the basic research concepts such as visual profiling and aggression. The comparative analysis method allowed us to compare the basic requirements for the professionally important qualities of a teacher and a police officer. Testing of students helped determining the components and the current level of aggression in the personality structure of a future teacher.
Experimental and observational data show that normal children do indeed often display hostility, a tendency to aggression, and selfishness. However, “children whom their parents love and respect show fewer tendencies to aggressiveness. Consequently, children’s hostility can be interpreted in a reactive, instrumental or protective aspect” (Maslow, 2016, p. 161). Thus, children’s aggressiveness, as well as most positive and negative experiences and feelings, is generally formed and provoked by adults.
The range of feelings characteristic of experiencing inner disharmony is very wide. A research conducted in the framework of studying the structure of aggressive behavior of young people examined the self-assessment of forms of aggressive behavior with the help of a modified version of the Buss-Durkee methodology (Fetiskin, Kozlov, & Manujlov, 2009). The results of the study (an example of one group of future teachers) showed that three main components are distinguished as dominant in the number of points scored: guilt, irritability and physical aggression. The results of the group are presented in Table
According to psychoanalytic theory, children of parents who do not allow them to act independently often feel guilt. Guilt is also aided by parents “overly punishing children in response to their need to love and to receive love from parents of the opposite sex” (Hjelle & Zigler, 1997, p. 225). In the absence of proper constructive interaction with adults “constant guilt can subsequently cause psychopathological behavior” (Hjelle & Zigler, 1997, p. 225). The obtained data can be confirmed by the diagnostic indicators of the same group of future teachers (average age - 20) using the projective method “Non-existent animal”. To interpret the results, the parameters of the drawing reflecting the signs of aggression, shown in Table
The data in Table
The requirements of the school for the selection of a candidate for the position of teacher ata primary or secondary school do not imply any other verification than the provision of a document on education, whereas in other professions of a “person to person” type such requirements are necessary. For example, the requirements for a candidate for the internal affairs service require verification (checking) of professionally important business and personal qualities (Kudin & Statnyj, 2013). Such a requirement is enshrined in regulatory acts, in particular, in a decree of the Government of the Russian Federation. A comparison of the requirements for professionals in two areas is presented in Table
Under the conditions of the above-shown comparison, it seems possible to use the basics of visual profiling in the process of professional selection for teaching. Such an innovation would help not only to reduce the burden on the school psychologist, increasing the effectiveness of the individual work with students due to propaedeutic activities with the teaching staff, but also to change the situation within the framework of the conflicting school environment and make it safer. One should not forget that psychology as a science is directly related to social policy and must respond to the needs of society, contributing to its development (Bandura, 1977).
The term “visual profiling” includes a combination of personal biological, psychological and social qualities of a person, studied in order to interpret a person’s behavior and actions. In other words, profiling refers to the creation of a psychological portrait of a person. This institute is new for the Russian doctrine both in criminology, to which it owes its appearance, and in other areas, including pedagogy. As far back as the last century, studies have been conducted that prove the effect of verbal and non-verbal signals on recipients (Rosenthal, 1966).
Profiling is a technology in the system of general education institution risk management, which could include psychological testing and interviewing as the main methods.
Psychological testing in the framework of profiling should be understood as an express diagnosis of the internal state of the subject by characteristic signs in one’s appearance and behavior, by one’s psycho-emotional state in order to identify the risk of extreme actions in relation to oneself, to identify victims of violence, as well as illegal actions in relation to others.
Visual profiling, in its turn, means working with a visible object and determining the object’s intentions, psychological state and the possible implementation of illegal actions. Such profiling is intended, first of all, to prevent socially dangerous actions in crowded places: stations, airports, sports and cultural events, based on the behavior and appearance of the object under observation.
Visual profiling is currently widely used in an environment that is not associated with criminology, but includes the need to analyze and predict behavior - in personnel selection. Personnel and other departments of various organizations cаn use using visual profiling (office profiling) to determine the veracity of the statements of candidates for filling a particular vacancy, motives for filling such a vacancy, the possibility of violating the rules of the organization, of relations with colleagues or management. Personnel profiling is aimed at defining the compliance of candidates for the position. This kind of profiling also aims to find out the criminal past, the presence of debts, and addiction to gambling, alcohol and drugs of a position applicant.
The main tasks of office profiling are identifying possible criminal features of character and determining professional burnout, etc. (Karpov, 2017). The visual profiling skills of the administration and specialists of an educational institution during the selection of personnel should become automated, which implies an effective training course for continuous work on the analysis and influence on the educational process and the interaction of its participants. The purpose of this influence, in addition to organizing the work of the educational institution, could be the prevention of a terrorist threat. The relevance of such a threat is confirmed by numerous publications on the topic of violence in educational institutions, however, almost all of them are devoted to working with children and, with rare exceptions, do not indicate the role of the teacher in this situation.
Changes in the requirements for an applicant for a teacher’s vacancy, the content of the “Professional Standard”, the system of training specialists (Filippov, 2017) in the social and educational sphere, as well as the system of civil procedural law must meet modern trends in civil society, be conducted on a scientific basis and rely on fundamental scientific achievements. “Its development goes in several directions: enriching the elemental composition of the system by introducing new norms and institutions; finer specification and specialization of existing legal norms and further integration of system elements at its various levels by enriching the general provisions of the law sector and its structural divisions ” (Sherstyuk, 2013, p.21).
Continuous monitoring of the situation with the help of automated skills for compiling a profile of an applicant for a pedagogical vacancy would reduce the threat level not only by responding to the apparent preparation of a terrorist act, but also by creating a favorable psychological and emotional climate in the educational institution. The school, as a social institution, is actively forming a new civil society, where a socially active and caring citizen, capable of advocating ideals and values, ready for “subject to subject” (Rogers, 1986) interaction with the state on the basis of mutual necessity is actualized (Saglie & Sivesind, 2018).
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26 August 2020
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Educational strategies, educational policy, teacher training, moral purpose of education, social purpose of education
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Kolpakova, A. N., & Kolpakov, N. A. (2020). Relevance Of Using Visual Profiling In Present-Day Educational Environment. In & S. Alexander Glebovich (Ed.), Pedagogical Education - History, Present Time, Perspectives, vol 87. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 601-607). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.08.02.79