Both household and work activities of a person or group of people have certain goals and objectives. To achieve the desired result, it is necessary to clearly understand the own goals. If you want to partially or completely delegate tasks to another person, it is important to convey to him - what you need to get at the end. In addition, the person should understand what is expected of him and why he does it, and what will be the benefit. It is determined by the fact that resources are always limited, and the priority will belong to those tasks that meet the own interests. All this leads to the fact that a person must be motivated by something to realize certain actions (in particular labor activities). Motivation should be understood as the incentive for activities aimed at achieving certain goals (own or organizational). Motivation factors (motives) are determined by needs. Needs reflect the physiological or psychological lack of something, they are dynamic. In addition to needs, the reasons for certain actions are views, beliefs, culture, values. All these reasons are also mobile and can change throughout the life. Motives can be influenced by the stimulation. Stimulation and motivation are not identical concepts. Stimulation is understood as an external impulse that leads to the performance of certain actions. Stimulation will be effective if it leads to motivation. The aim of the study is to identify specific motivation features, analyze the relationship between motives and standards of life.
Keywords: Motivating motivesmotivationquality
The motivation function is one of the key functions of management. With an effective motivation tool, managers achieve their strategic goals. Poorly motivated and disinterested employees will not be able to bring maximum benefit to a company. In the future it may lead to a decrease in the competitiveness of the organization. The issue of staff motivation is relevant at all stages of the life cycle of the company. The personal interest (which is based on motives), understanding of the final result and awareness of the own role in its achievement are necessary for an employee to work effectively and efficiently.
It is difficult for managers to determine motivating factors, in particular, because of their inherent variability. The same methods stimulating one employee can be both motivating and demotivating at different points in time. In this regard, the following questions arise: how the productivity and enthusiasm of the staff can be increased with the help of a motivation tool and what can lead absolutely different people to achieve a common goal.
The issues of motivation have not left aside in the works of both foreign and domestic researchers. Such foreign authors as Vroom (1964), Herzberg (1993), Porter and Lawler (1968), Maslow (1954), McCleland (1975) and others contributed to the study of the essence of motivation, the allocation of its main types, the construction and development of motivation theories. Among the domestic authors considering motivation factors are Lazursky (2019), Leontiev (1975), Uznadze (1961) and others. The key issue in the study of motivation issues is the increase of work efficiency and achievement of results due to internal motivation to carry out professional activities, increase of interest and participation in the common business.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this research is to study the relationship between standards of life, needs and motives. It is necessary to answer the question of how to increase the productivity of individual employees, and improve the efficiency of the organization. The authors examine features and techniques of motivation used in foreign countries and Russia. Thanks to the study, it is possible to determine the most effective mechanisms of motivation at the present time.
In the framework of this research, the following methods were used: collection, study, systematization and analysis of information presented in the works of foreign and domestic authors on the issues of motivation and stimulation. The authors studied motivational components established in companies of different countries, as well as in Russia. On the basis of this analysis, the authors concluded about the choice of the most optimal ways of motivation.
Employees are considered as one of the main values of the company, and the motivation is the basis of their effective activity. Due to the motivation of the staff, the company can be successful in the short and long term perspective, it is necessary to inform the staff about the long-term plans of the company, this allows maintaining confidence of employees in the stability of their position. Employees who are interested in the success and growth of the company attach special importance to the assigned duties, work with maximum efficiency and are aware of the responsibility and possible consequences if they fail to perform their functions. It is important to ensure the recognition of the personality of each subordinate, to show respect, it gives a person confidence, a sense of utility for the company, which, in turn, contributes to the growth and development of the whole organization, the disclosure of potential of each employee.
Motivation can be material and intangible. Examples of financial incentives include: award by results of work for a particular period payment, the provision of additional medical and social insurance, examples of non-financial motivation include: commendation, preparation of stands highlighting the best employees (for a month, quarter, year) and others methods.
An effective motivation system takes into account individual characteristics of each individual, and is not applied according to a ‘template’, the evaluation of the results of employees’ work should be the most objective. Motives are influenced by different preferences, interests, needs and many other parameters.
The experience of using motivation tools in different countries was considered by the authors. The specific features of motivation in such countries as the USA, Japan, France, Sweden and Russia were summarized and presented in Table
The motives for performing any tasks are interrelated with the needs for a specific period of time. Needs can change with the formation, development and growth of the individual, moving up the career ladder, as well as with changes in the quality and standard of life.
There are various metrics for assessing the level and quality of life of the population. One of the most common indicators that reflect the standard of life in a particular state, is the consumer basket, namely its composition and cost. The composition of the consumer basket is different: in more developed countries, the share of basic necessities is less than in less developed countries due to the expansion of the share of services, durable goods in the consumer basket. Currently, in Russia, the consumer basket consists of 156 items and includes a minimum of goods and services, not including recreation, education, high-quality medical treatment, savings and others (Moskaleva & Saranchina, 2015). In developed countries, the composition of goods and services in the consumer basket includes several hundred items. For example, the consumer basket of Germany includes about 750 items of goods and services, it contains such services as ordering food at home, visiting a fitness center, bicycle workshops. In France, the consumer basket includes expenses for restaurant visits, hairdresser's services, purchase of decorative cosmetics (Moskaleva & Saranchina, 2015).
Another indicator (based on purchasing power parity and allowing to assess the standard of life) is such a specific indicator as the Big Mac index. The ingredients of a big Mac (made in McDonald's) are the same in all countries, the recipe and cooking techniques are the same, but the burgers differ in price. For example, in January 2019, it cost 130 rubles in Russia, 312 rubles in the Eurozone, which is 2.4 times higher, in Switzerland, Norway and Sweden the price of a Big Mac was 3 times higher than in Russia (Guk, 2019). The cost of a Big Mac is formed, including, based on the wages of workers involved in both growing ingredients and cooking a burger. The low cost of a burger in Russia may indicate a low level of remuneration for employees.
Since 2013, Sberbank CIB publishes information and analytical reviews with the calculation of the consumer confidence index of the middle class called "Ivanov’s Index". The consumer sentiment index in the 2nd quarter of 2019 rose from minus 22% to minus 21%. According to the public joint-stock company "Sberbank Russia", the share of food costs in Russia is 38.9% [the 2nd quarter of 2019] (Bussiness FM, 2019). The more income is redistributed to meet primary needs (in particular, to buy food), the less is left to meet the more "high" needs. People find it difficult to afford a rest, additional education, high-quality medical care, savings. The result is that the needs remain at a primitive level.
The lower the standard of life is, the lower is the priority of higher-level needs. This is due to the fact that it becomes difficult to maintain needs of the lower level (physiological), and people concentrate on them, for example, you can see that the lower the income is, the more people try to earn (typical for Russia). High debt burden, lack of funds to maintain a normal life can lead to the fact that a person gets a job in more than one company, in this regard, he both physically and morally becomes more loaded, which also leads to emotional burnout, and the productivity can decrease. Physiological needs begin to prevail. In such a situation, it is necessary to note the special importance of material motivation, namely money. The higher the salary level is, the higher the needs and demands are. At a certain point in time, the importance of material motivation begins to decline.
When building a motivation system, the key task is to find and find exactly those motives that will really contribute to achieving the expected result. What motivates is what is outside and within the individual, what sustains enthusiasm and arouses interest. If the manager knows what drives his subordinates, it is possible to achieve the best performance of duties. Weak motivation leads to increased turnover and increased costs (for example, to find and train new employees). In normal circumstances, people always seek to improve the quality of their own lives, if the employer does not contribute to it, the employees look for another companies that are more suitable for meeting their needs.
Currently, the workflow should be of interest to the employee (for someone the work should be standard, clear and unchanged, while others on the contrary need constant updating, search for something new, ways to resolve issues). Everyone seeks to gain recognition among managers, respect among colleagues and achieve a comfortable interaction environment in the team. Special attention should be paid to meeting the self-expression need, which contributes to the potential development.
It is common to build a motivation system based on KPI (key performance indicators). At the same time, the employee should know in advance the set KPI values, a premium for their performance should be fixed and guaranteed, as well as clear ways and methods to achieve the specified values should be clear for employees.
As a result of the study, it was concluded that effective motivation programs contribute to achieving the organization goals, increasing the productivity and efficiency of employees, their interest and personal development. The motivation of each individual employee is influenced by many factors, including mentality, interests, standard of life at a certain time period, needs – both basic (physiological) and more "high" (social), determined by the position in the society (organization), status, roles and other parameters. It is not necessary to copy the experience of individual companies and countries in the construction of incentive schemes and programs, they need to be adapted to specific people and organizations. The increase in the employees’ productivity requires an individual approach, motivation should be periodically reviewed to meet changing needs.
- Bussiness FM (2019). Russians continue to spend most of their salaries on food. Retrieved from: https://finance.rambler.ru/money/42492514-rossiyane-prodolzhat-tratit-bolshuyu-chast-zarplaty-na-edu/?updated Accessed: 30.09.2019. [in Rus.].
- Guk, A. (2019). Big Mac index. Retrieved from: https://bigmacindex.ru/2019-01. Accessed: 05.10.2019. [in Rus.].
- Herzberg, F. (1993). The motivation to work. New York, N.Y.: Routledge.
- Lazursky, A. F. (2019). Essay on the science of characters. Moscow: Yurayt Publishing House. [in Rus.].
- Leontiev, A. N. (1975). Activity. Consciousness. Personality. Moscow: Politizdat. [in Rus.].
- Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York, NY: Harper & Row Publishers.
- McCleland, D. C. (1975). Power: The inner experience. New York, N.Y.: Irvington Publishers.
- Moskaleva, N. A., & Saranchina, T. A. (2015). Consumer basket as an indicator of the standard of living of the population: A comparative assessment. Innovation Science, 1(5-5), 209-213. [in Rus.].
- Porter, L. W., & Lawler, E. E. (1968). Managerial attitudes and performance. Homewood (IL): Irwin-Dorsey.
- Uznadze, D. N. (1961). Experimental bases of psychological identity settings. Tbilisi: Publishing House AN Gr.SSR. [in Rus.].
- Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York, N.Y.: Wiley.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
About this article
09 March 2020
Print ISBN (optional)
Business, business ethics, social responsibility, innovation, ethical issues, scientific developments, technological developments
Cite this article as:
Smolina*, E. S., Greshnova, M. V., & Shepelev, A. V. (2020). Dependence Of Motivating Motives On The Quality And Standard Of Life. In S. I. Ashmarina, & V. V. Mantulenko (Eds.), Global Challenges and Prospects of the Modern Economic Development, vol 79. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 601-605). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.03.86