In the context of the global education reform in the Republic of Moldova, its reorganization in the European education system, the improvement of teacher training for a changing world is of particular importance. At the same time, it is necessary to create a model of a teacher, to formulate the purpose of its preparation in the form of developing students’ certain qualities of personality. Today the preparation of the teacher, both theoretically and in practice, is carried out only in the field of teaching and educational work. The preparation of the student for the organization of the correct relationship between the teacher and the student is not provided. Therefore, in this area, teachers tend to experience the greatest difficulties and make numerous mistakes. The purpose of the publication is statement of the main components in development of the identity of the student of necessary professional competences in the organization of the correct relationship with the pupil within the corresponding special course ‘Relationship of the Teacher and Pupil’ developed by us. The program of a special course leans on the developing paradigm which is often designated just as ‘variable’, ‘humanistic’ or ‘personally focused’. The practical importance of this special course is in the solution of the studied problem that increases quality of vocational training of students and efficiency of educational process in general.
Keywords: Teacher's modelprofessional trainingstudent's personalitycompetenceteacherspecial course
Reorganization of the education system of the Republic of Moldova and Russia in response to the global education reform, use of innovative technologies in teacher training consistent with the development processes of the country undergo qualitative improvement.
Preparing highly qualified professionals for working in the main fields of human activity is viewed as one of the challenging tasks of the education system today. Pre-service teachers’ professional growth is closely related to the development of their professional competency rather than building knowledge as the latter has stopped being the primary aim of education in today’s context (knowledge for the sake of knowledge). In the digital era success can no longer be guaranteed only by such nonetheless necessary educational outcomes as knowledge and skills. It is more essential for pre-service teachers to be able to apply general knowledge and skills to real life situations to solve problems at hand rather than to just have that knowledge and skills.
The improvement of teacher education in a changing world is of particular importance. At the same time, it is necessary to design a teacher model and set educational goals with the development of students’ certain personal qualities in mind.
Today both theoretical and practical aspects of teacher education are focused only on training and educational work. Students are not prepared to build proper teacher-student relationships which is why in-service teachers experience difficulties and, consequently, make numerous mistakes when interacting with pupils.
There are three main components that help to specify the nature of this kind of teacher preparation:
Developing positive attitudes to pupils means that a student holds a respectful and tolerant attitude to pupils, is interested in their future and expresses faith in their ability to change for the better if necessary help is provided. Teacher’s attitude is of paramount importance to pupils as it influences their mood, attitude to the learning process and self-development. Teacher’s attitude might also impact other pupils and parents’ attitudes to a certain child. Attitudes are expressed by teacher’s words and actions which then shape a pupil’s behavior. Sukhomlinsky (1979) said that ‘a teacher and an educator should, first of all, inspire pupils to learn. Only if being inspired a person will have a desire to learn, discover, understand the world and other people. This helps a person to be engaged in a relationship with other people at a spiritual level developing and exchanging moral values’.
Developing a certain system of skills based on three problems: psychological analysis of a pupil’s actions; remedial teaching methods; conflicts between teachers and pupils and their development. A student needs to master the above mentioned psychological analysis, the main components of which are examination a pupil’s motives, understanding their state of mind, traits of character, and considering external circumstances. This way, a student will be able to give an unbiased assessment of what might first seem as a misdeed.
Being aware of and being able to apply remedial teaching methods is very important as it helps a teacher to act professionally when facing a pupil’s undesirable actions and behavior. Being diplomatic and tactful helps a teacher to establish good relations with pupils.
Developing attitudes based on kindness, care, encouragement, trust helps teachers to unlock their potential and to get rid of such ineffective methods as judgment and punishment.
It is important to address the problem of teacher-pupil conflicts. Teacher’s disrespectful attitudes toward pupils might have harmful consequences and undermine pupils’ self-respect.
Roza Valeeva head of Janusz Korczak society in Russia, developed a unique approach to teacher education. The approach is based on the ideas of a great Polish educator Janusz Korczak (1979). Professor Valeeva attempted to apply these ideas to modern programs of professional teacher education and in the extended education (Valeeva & Demakova, 2015).
Developing teacher’s personal traits of character necessary to cultivate good relations with pupils. Above all these are integrity, sensibility, resilience and self-control. Kindnesses, quick wittedness, sense of humor are also essential.
Today experienced teachers prefer to use humor rather than strict and categorical requirements when working with children. Our observations showed that appropriate jokes make children smile and laugh which further prevents them from rebellious activities. In addition, an experienced teacher is able to use humor as a psychological and emotional tool to foster moral values.
Makarenko (1972) used the technique called ‘instruct and smile’. The technique proved to be an efficient mean to prevent interpersonal conflicts as teacher’s instructions were accompanied by jokes and laughter. Today teachers use this creative technique at work believing that a sense of humor and a strict attitude work much better in tandem when teaching and educating children. An unexpected joke can alleviate a tense situation instigated by a troublemaker during the class. Observation of experienced teachers and educators at work showed that they skillfully use humorous remarks at exact moments when a troublemaker becomes distracted and inattentive. The most effective jokes are the ones created at the spot right in front of pupils. This kind of humor is called situational. Situational humor is an immediate response to a just emerged conflict which requires changing a certain pupil’s negative behavior to more positive.
A remark made in a funny way leaves a pupil without hero status. Troublemakers themselves highly respect a teacher capable of making a joke in a tense situation during the class. Situational humor can be in the form of a joke, sarcasm, funny allusion, mockery, satire, witty remarks, analogy, metaphor, comparison, hyperbole. Common sense should be applied when using humorous remarks, otherwise, a lesson can transform into ‘an hour of laughing’ (Ushinsky, 2004). Ushinsky underlined that a lesson must be serious in its nature but allows some jokes.
Such positive traits of character are valued in every person but in case of a teacher they become a professional requirement. They prompt in creating successful teacher-pupil relations. In addition, some traits of character are formed and manifested only throughout the interaction with pupils.
Theoretical aspects of teacher training help a pre-service teacher to distinguish between correct and incorrect actions that will either help pupils in self-development or will provoke conflicts and negatively influence their development and education.
Is it possible to effectively prepare teachers to foster humanistic and personality-focused relationships with their students.
Purpose of the Study
Today the preparation of the teacher, both theoretically and in practice, is carried out only in the field of teaching and educational work. The preparation of the student for the organization of the correct relationship between the teacher and the student is not provided. Therefore, in this area, teachers tend to experience the greatest difficulties and make numerous mistakes. The purpose of the publication is statement of the main components in development of the identity of the student of necessary professional competences in the organization of the correct relationship with the pupil within the corresponding special course ‘Relationship of the Teacher and Pupil’ developed by us. The program of a special course leans on the developing paradigm which is often designated just as ‘variable’, ‘humanistic’ or ‘personally focused’. The practical importance of this special course is in the solution of the studied problem that increases quality of vocational training of students and efficiency of educational process in general.
Theoretical (analysis, synthesis, specification, generalization) and empirical (examination of normative and academic documents, lesson observation) methods were used in the research.
Experimental research data base
The experimental research was conducted at Moldova Slavic University.
The research involved two stages:
At the first stage literature review of existing methodological approaches in the field of psychology and teacher training was carried out.
The second stage focused on the development of the special module on pedagogical psychology ‘Relationship of the Teacher and the Pupil’. The module is based on an activity-based approach and aims at developing competencies necessary to build proper relations between teachers and pupils. The module is built on the developmental paradigm which is also known as variable-based, humanistic and learner-centered (Leontiev, 2016).
The module has 80 class hours (40 hours of lectures and 40 hours of seminars). It is possible to study full-time, part-time and there is a possibility of distance learning.
A great attention is paid to the methods used at the module ‘Relationship of the Teacher and the Pupil’. Examples of teacher-pupil relations occurring at schools are discussed during theoretical lectures. Such examples are quite emotional and vivid. It allows to overcome the gap between the general and the singular, between theory and practice. In addition, students can usually recall analogous situations that they have previously encountered.
Students have an opportunity to share their knowledge and experience at seminars and lectures which raises their interest to classes and gives confidence in what they learn. The module influences student self-development, their attitudes and beliefs, help to better understand pupils, provides methods and techniques of pedagogical influence, prevents from using tactless methods all of which have a great impact on relationships between the teacher and the pupil.
One of the prerequisites of a successful implementation of the module is the ability to create activities when students can use their knowledge like in real life classroom situations. In addition, students can also analyze each pupil’s behavior and academic achievements. Seminars, tests and examination sessions are conducted in the form of conference which provides students with an opportunity to apply their professional skills and exchange experience. At the same time student discussions and presentations can be considered as the form of feedback indicating achievement of seminar objectives. Teachers can use literature resources listed in the reference list to the module ‘Relationship of the Teacher and the Pupil’. Teachers can also use additional sources if needed.
The module ‘Relationship of the Teacher and the Pupil’ was proven to be effective in developing professional competences and improving the quality of teacher training in accordance with the new educational standards. In addition, it allows determining relevant routes of continuing teacher development in the context of actual teaching carried out at schools.
The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.
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- Korczak, J. (1979). Selected pedagogical works. Moscow: Pedagogy.
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- Makarenko, A. S. (1972). Collective and personal education. Moscow: Pedagogy.
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- Ushinsky, K. D. (2004). Man as an object of education. Experience of pedagogical anthropology. Moscow: Publishing House FAIR-PRESS.
- Valeeva, R.A., Demakova, I.D. (2015). Humanization of Education in the Context of Janusz Korczak Pedagogical Ideas. Review of European Studies, 7(4),161-171.
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About this article
05 September 2018
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Teacher training, teacher, teaching skills, teaching techniques
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Kobylyanskaya, L. I., & Valeeva, R. A. (2018). The Model Of A Teacher: Relationship Between The Teacher And The Pupil. In & R. Valeeva (Ed.), Teacher Education - IFTE 2018, vol 45. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 537-543). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.09.61