The Educational Program For Transition From Training To Professional Work

Abstract

The relevance of the problem presented in this article stems from the long period of professional adaptation of graduates from pedagogical programmes. New teachers often find that their teaching skills do not meet the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard of Basic General Education and the professional standard of a teacher. This calls for the modernization of the structure and contents of pedagogical educational programmes (PEP) – they need to become more practice-orientated. The practical preparation of future teachers requires ensuring the transition from one type of activity (educational) to another (professional) with the corresponding change of needs, motives, goals, actions, means and results. The dynamics of students’ transition from educational activities to teaching can be described in the context-learning technology at the level of constructing and implementing individual academic disciplines of PEPs. The dynamics of transition from educational to professional activities will be more effective if PEPs are specifically designed. The desired outcome of PEPs is the ability of teachers to build their professional activities in accordance with the professional teaching standard which ensures the possibility of organizing a full-fledged educational activity of students. Achieving this goal implies that PEPs will adopt practice-oriented and evidenced-based approaches. The educational module is defined as the basic unit of an educational program. It allows the future teacher to effectively transition from academic activities to professional ones (it is a small transition cycle).

Keywords: Educational programeducational activityprofessional activity

Introduction

The analysis of pedagogical education shows that the period of adaptation of graduates lasts on average from three to five years (Neustroyeva, 2016; Shmeleva, 2010 & ets). Many researchers note that the subject adaptation is easier than the socio-professional adaptation because students are not prepared for professional actions at university; by the end of their studies their professional identity is not fully formed. Young teachers are not equipped to use effective pedagogical methods and technologies and their teaching abilities do not meet the requirements of the Federal state educational standard of basic general education and the professional standard of a teacher (PST) (Professional standard teacher, 2014). Moreover, they experience negative emotions because of the lack of professional skills in organizing class work effectively.  Regush believes that the difficulty of young teachers’ adaptation to professional activities is a problem that has a "chronic" character. Every new generation of teachers when starting their professional activities experience problems in solving professional problems. These problems appear as a contradiction between the requirements of professional activity for the teacher and the degree of his professional competence (Regush, 2008).

Problem Statement

The aforementioned problems call for the modernization of the structure and contents of the relevant professional educational programs (PEPs), the forms of the organization of educational processes, the actualization of teaching practices and assessment methods for ensuring the correspondence of graduates’ competences and the requirements of professional standards.

The design of PEPs is carried out either on the basis of training through providing theoretical knowledge or on the basis of training through practical activities over the course of pedagogical internships.

The main problem in higher pedagogical education lies in the transition from educational activities of students to their professional work. Within one type of activity it is necessary "to grow up" and prepare for fundamentally different types of activity.

Effective transition from educational to professional activities can be achieved through the development of skills based on various training models (semiotic, imitative, and social learning models) which are provided by means of simulation-based forms of activity. The basic forms include traditional educational activity of an academic type, educational and professional activity and quasi-professional activity. This transition from one activity to another is described in the technology of contextual learning, at the level of constructing and implementing of individual educational disciplines of the PEP.

With the help of a system of adequate forms and pedagogical technologies, the movement of the student's activity from the actual educational to the professional, together with the transformation of needs, motives, goals, objective actions and acts, means, subjects and the results of teaching is set in contextual instruction. There arises the possibility of realization of a dynamic model of the movement of students' activity from learning to work (Verbitsky, 1991).

In our opinion, the transition from training to professional activities will be more effective if PEPs are specifically designed with it in mind (Vinogradov et al., 2015).

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of work is to determine the components of emotional intelligence, which contribute to the prevention of burnout syndrome of the subject of educational activity.

Research Methods

Requirements for PEPs.

In this research, PEPs are designed according to the logic of managing by the set of competence formation (universal, general professional, professional, and additional professional) and by the dynamics of the transition from academic activity to professional. The principle characteristic of the PEP is the modeling in the language of competences of functions and labor actions of future professional activity. The fundamental importance is attached to the practice-focused training of future teachers in the PEP. The main educational result is determined by the ability to build future professional activities in accordance with the PST, which in turn ensures the possibility of organizing a full-fledged educational activity of students in accordance with the FSES of basic general education. The achievement of this result assumes that the BPEP is realized both in the space of the university and on the basis of the general educational organization within the framework of the network interaction of the higher educational institution and school.

Activity and research are the leading approaches in the design and implementation of the PEP. The activity-based approach, according to the curriculum content of the program, is the ability for effective organization of educational activity of students, which involves the development of the process of solving of a number of generalized educational and professional tasks modeling the real professional activity of the teacher in the course of their preparation. Research approach is the program which is aimed both at the formation of professional competencies that provide readiness for the performance of labor actions, assigned by the PST, and for the formation of research competencies. They provide an opportunity for the reorganization and development of teacher’s work in case of problems and difficulties on the basis of a small-scale research which is built into the professional activity (Margolis, 2015)

The structural elements of the PEP

A training module, a holistic fragment of the PEP, is defined as the basic unit of the educational program. A module is a unit of the formation of labor functions and professional actions (Margolis, 2014)

Together, the modules ensure the development of universal, all-professional, professional and additional specialized professional competencies required for the graduates for mastering specific labor actions.

The general structure of the training module and the stages of its study are presented in the Table 01 (Gurujapov, & Margolis, 2014).

Table 1 -
See Full Size >

This scheme represents a complete cycle of entry at levels of ability and readiness to carry out professional activities.

Results of the study

To assess the dynamics of the transition from educational activity to professional one, we will use the experimental program of the training module “Methodology, methods and organization of professional activity”. The training module was designed as part of the implementation of the State Contract of August 17, 2016 No. 05.015.11.0016 according to the project: “2016-01.01-05-015-Ф-129.010. Introduction of the competence approach in the development and approbation of the basic professional educational programs of higher education in the enlarged groups of specialties and directions” Education and Pedagogical sciences “(the level of education is bachelor's, master's and postgraduate courses, the profile “Teacher of basic general education“)”.

Purpose of the module.

The program of the training module “Methodology, methods and organization of professional activities” is a part of the main professional educational program of the Bachelor's degree in the direction of preparation of higher education 44.03.01 “Teacher Training”.

The module includes the following sections: “Modern pedagogical technologies”; Practical work “Development of basic and additional educational programs”; Practical work “Development of the programs of the academic disciplines in the Basic Education Program (BEP)”; Information and communication activities of a teacher; Practical work “Control and assessment of formation of students’ educational results”; Educational practice with SRW.

Purpose, objectives, planned outcomes of the training module.

Purpose: the ability to participate in the development and implementation of basic and additional educational programs, monitoring and assessing the formation of educational results of students, including the use of the information and communication technologies (hereinafter - ICT).

Tasks:

1. Formation of knowledge of the fundamentals of teaching methodology, of the basic principles of the activity approach, ways to achieve educational results in the field of ICT.

2. Formation of the ability to develop and apply individual components of basic and additional educational programs in the real and virtual educational environment.

3. Formation of the ability to develop and implement curriculum discipline programs within the framework of the basic general educational program;

4. Formation of the ability to apply tools and methods of diagnosis and assessment of indicators of the level and dynamics of students’ development; to conduct pedagogical diagnosis and correction-developing work with underachieving students, including ICT.

The module meets the requirements of the Professional Standard of the Teacher, the FSES of the basic general education and determines the main results (see Table 2 .)

Table 2 -
See Full Size >

Characteristics of the module graduate: the designer of basic educational programs, capable for independent selection and professional use of ways and methods of their implementation at the class level.

The training module is designed and implemented on the basis of network interaction between university and school.

The gap between theory and practice is one of the main shortcomings of the existing PEP, implemented in the professional training of teachers. When constructing the PEP, we have relied on a key position: in the process of professional training, it is required to achieve a balance between the theoretical knowledge of students and practice-based learning. This was done by increasing the training time for practice: a) thematic practices of the training module aimed at mastering professional actions (teaching and learning, training practice – a distributed form) are determined by the purpose and content of the training module; b) long-term production practices aimed at developing a holistic professional activity in accordance with the objectives of the PEP. Thus, practice: within the training module allows to master individual professional activities; the production practice will allow implementing: a) the synthesis of professional actions into a holistic professional activity; b) the student's integration into the “school social environment”.

The principle goal of the practical training of the future teacher is the formation of the ability for the independent professional development, i.e. the development of his activities in new and each time unique conditions. Such conditions can be ensured by networking between the university and the school, built on the principles of school and university partnership.

The implementation of the university's interaction with the general education organization, built on the principles of school and university partnership, involves a fundamental revision of the traditional (for the pedagogical education) approach, in which the school is perceived as the “younger brother” of the university, fundamentally not equivalent in social status and “weight”, from the point of view of influence to the preparation of the future teacher. In the network interaction, there is a strengthening connection between theory and practice in the process of module implementation, which will allow the future teachers to apply theoretical knowledge and practical skills even before the end of the program.

The novelty of the training module is: in the design of the module program “from the planned educational results”; in the revision of the content of sections of the module, methods, tools and technologies of teaching in order to strengthen the practice-focused training of future teachers; in increasing of the volume of practical work; in the inclusion in the module of practice; in the construction of sections of the module in a certain logic and sequence that facilitates the implementation of transition from educational activity to quasi-professional one, then to professional; in the organization of the network interaction of educational organizations implementing higher education programs and the basic general education, which allows effectively to carry out multiple “entrance and exit” to school and university; in changing the means and methods of assessing the result achievements of the training module learning content.

Student's trajectory module development

The training module has a practice-oriented nature; its most important elements are network educational events. The network educational event is a personally significant situation of the meaningful activity of the student, realized through the recognition of the educational problem and the determination of ways and means of solving it in the information and educational space. Moreover, the result of the educational event is the knowledge increment, experience, methods of activity (first of all, future professional activity) of each of its participants.

The educational event is one of the ways of practice-oriented mastering by the student of the teacher's professional competencies and ensures the entry into the educational space of the training module and exit from it.

There is an interest for the notion of “learning (educational) event”, in the pedagogical environment which is associated, first of all, with its effectiveness in the development of the learner's personality. Indeed, according to Asmolov, the educational event is a completed act of activity - from the motive to the result, and the “story” about this act “to oneself” and “to the other.” It is clear that the “story to yourself” is one or another level of reflection of the “lived event”, and “the story to the other” is a “message about an essential fact.” And here it is important clearly to understand - there is no event without its “activity foundation” - the “deed” should really happen, but there is no event and without its reflection and “information” about it to everyone around (Asmolov , Levit ,2016).

The essence of the educational event in the training module is that special conditions are created for the student's actions, on the basis of which he creates a certain product, then - the strengthening of this action through reflection. Students in an educational event are really participants, but not spectators: everyone has their own thoughts, their own activities, and their experiences. Thus, the educational event is a means of expanding the space of opportunities for the subjective action of each student in the training module.

Educational events in the module are built in such a way that the student moves from the position of a “student” performing the training activity to the position of a “reflexive teacher” who realizes the labor actions (professional tests during the fact-finding practice or professional activity in general during the training / production practice).

There is a set of various educational events in the module, to which a student “is brought”. Including “introductory” (Round table “Educational results as the basis for the design of educational programs”), “intermediate” (master classes) and “attestation” ("Educational results as the basis for designing educational programs”). Educational events are held both in the university with the invitation of teachers-mentors in the role of experts, and on the basis of the network school.

The sections of the training module are built according to the logic of consecutive immersion to the corresponding labor actions.

Each section of the module contributes a specific component to the system of mastering labor. (Figure 01 . The logic of the deployment of the module” Methodology, methods and organization of professional activity” and Figure 02 . The effective model of the module” Methodology, methods and organization of professional activity “). Studying the module sections goes in parallel.

Figure 1: Logic of deployment of the “Methodology, Methods and Organization of Professional Activity” module.
Logic of deployment of the “Methodology, Methods and Organization of Professional Activity” module.
See Full Size >

The educational content of the module includes educational sections which in total provide an opportunity to create necessary knowledge at the student, abilities and labor actions at the level of ability or readiness to perform labor functions. (All-pedagogical function: Training, the Educational activity, partially the Developing activity).

Figure 2: The effective model of the module “Methodology, methods and organization of professional activity”
The effective model of the module “Methodology, methods and organization of professional activity”
See Full Size >

So the “entrance” to the training module begins with the round table “Educational Results as the Basis for Designing Educational Programs” according to the sections of the module that is conducted with the invitation of teachers-mentors of the network schools as experts. The round table “Educational Results as the Basis for Designing Educational Programs” allows to identify the pressing problems of teacher training and to reflect on the students' personal qualities that help them to master this profession. Students receive from the network schools an order for the development of lesson constructs and educational matters using various pedagogical technologies.

Portfolio with developed constructs of lessons and educational matters with the use of various pedagogical technologies is presented by students at the Pedagogical Fair, which is the final educational event of the module.

After receiving an order for the development of specific curriculum programs in the section “Developing the curriculum of educational disciplines in the BEP”, students start working with working programs of educational disciplines in the classroom and protect program projects in the network school during the teaching practice.

The students present their developed and protected working program for the academic discipline of the basic school's curriculum at the final educational event module in the network school.

After defining the problems, studying the social order during the round table “Educational Results as the Basis for Designing Educational Programs” with the participation of teachers-mentors of the network schools, receiving an order for the development of specific curriculum programs in the development of the section “Developing Programs of Educational Disciplines in the BEP” the students begin the work with the curriculum working programs of the basic school. The work is conducted during the training practice of the module:

1. Analysis of working programs of educational disciplines in the network school, the process of their implementation;

2. Construction of possible working programs of educational disciplines and their testing in quasi-conditions in the university, and then their protection in the network school.

By the “training practice” in the module is understood a complex of all types of educational activities aimed at the formation, fixing, development of practical skills and competencies in the process of performing of certain types of work connected with future professional activity. All the topics of the section are aimed at constructing of this complex.

For small groups of students, a university practice supervisor is appointed for networking. Accordingly, the groups are attached to the teacher-mentor at the network school. The tasks of the two curators are coordinated in accordance with the program of practice.

The current control of the content of the training module assumes an accumulative system of assessment results of the studying sections in the form of a portfolio (essays, written reports of the SRW module, participation in the discussions, business games, practical work, the results of educational and training practices, etc.). The university teacher assesses the work of students at the seminars and practical classes, takes into account the activity of students in the discussions, the correctness of solving practical problems and case studies at the seminars and practical classes. The teacher-mentor carries out an assessment of the students' activity in the network school. The final control of the module's study is completed by assessing the final training events of the section and the module as a whole, as well as the qualification exam in the educational module.

Each content block of the section of the training module represents a cluster of educational and professional activities on the way for developing the student's ability to act as a teacher, in conditions of active interaction with participants of his team of students (in the framework of educational and quasi-professional activities), with teacher-mentors and university teachers, showing at the same time scientific character, creative thinking, the ability to assess their activities, and the activities of others, to build predictions, to correct mistakes.

Network educational events in the context of supervision assume the organization of collective activities of the teacher, teacher-mentors and students in the interactive form in the form of round tables and master classes. The teacher-mentor transfers his professional experience to the students during such events. The students themselves take an active part in the discussion of the problematic issues that arise while fulfilling the professional tests during the training practice in the module (professional activity).

Determination of the mastering result of the educational block is made at the conference “Information and Communication Activity of the Teacher’, which is conducted with the participation of teachers and mentors as experts. A student defends his portfolio, paying special attention to the analysis of his activities in preparing and conducting lessons with students in the network school.

Findings

The criteria have been developed to assess the effectiveness of the curriculum of the educational module (see Table 03 ).

Table 3 -
See Full Size >

The study involved two groups of students studying in the direction of “Pedagogical Education”: the first group (28 students) mastered the presented training module with all the structural elements, the second group (26 students) mastered the module sections as a set of academic disciplines. After mastering the content, the students of both groups assessed the effectiveness of the program (See Table).

Table 4 -
See Full Size >
Table 5 -
See Full Size >

Analysis of the results of a survey of student groups allows us to draw the following conclusions. When mastering the program module in which the consecutive transition from academic activity to professional is specially designed, interest in the development of professional knowledge, professional actions and holistic professional activity is increased. The students of the first group highly appreciate the possibility of forming methods of professional activity in the process of solving practical problems in the studying area in the mode of network interaction with the school (the module's teaching practice), the possibility of using forms and methods of work that are oriented to real professional activity.

Conclusion

Analysis of the results of a survey of student groups allows us to draw the following conclusions. When mastering the program module in which the consecutive transition from academic activity to professional is specially designed, interest in the development of professional knowledge, professional actions and holistic professional activity is increased. The students of the first group highly appreciate the possibility of forming methods of professional activity in the process of solving practical problems in the studying area in the mode of network interaction with the school (the module's teaching practice), the possibility of using forms and methods of work that are oriented to real professional activity.

Acknowledgements

The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.

References

  1. Asmolov А.Г., Levit М.В. (2016). Cultural anthropology of variational education. URL - www.macsi.ru/publikacii/kulturnaya-antropologiya.doc.
  2. Gurujapov В.А., Margolis А.А. (2014). Designing a model of practical-oriented training of pedagogical staff on bachelor's programs in the direction of preparation "Psychological and pedagogical education" (Teacher of primary classes) on the basis of network interaction of educational organizations implementing higher education programs and primary general education. Psychological Science and Education, vol. 19, no. 3, 143–159.
  3. Margolis А.А. (2015). Models of teacher training in the framework of applied bachelor's and pedagogical magistracy programs. Psychological Science and Education, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 45–64. doi:
  4. Margolis А.А. (2014). Requirements for the modernization of the basic professional educational programs (BPEP) for the training of pedagogical personnel in accordance with the professional standard of the teacher: proposals for the implementation of the activity approach in the training of pedagogical personnel. Psychological Science and Education, vol. 19, no. 3, 105–126.
  5. Neustroyeva Е.Ю. (2016) ю Problems of the beginning teacher in the period of adaptation.URL: http://problemspedagogy.ru/images/PDF/2016/23/problemy-nachinayushchego-pedagoga-v-period-adaptatsii.pdf.
  6. Professional standard teacher (2014). (pedagogical activity in pre-school, primary general, basic general, secondary general education) (educator, teacher). Order of the Ministry of Labor of Russia of 10/18/2013 N 544n (modified from 25.12.2014).
  7. Regush Л.А. (2008). Problems of the Graduate of a Pedagogical University in the period of professional adaptation. Universum: Bulletin of the Herzen University, no. 3, URL: http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/problemy-vypusknika-pedvuza-v-period-professionalnoy-adaptatsii (Date of circulation: 04/03/2017).
  8. Russian teachers in the mirror of the international comparative study of the pedagogical corps (2015). (TALIS 2013) / ed. E. Lenskaya, M. Pinskaya; Nat. Issled. University "Higher School of Economics", Institute of Education. Moscow: Izd. House of the Higher School of Economics, 36.
  9. Shmeleva С.А. (2010). Professional adaptation of graduates of a pedagogical university in the conditions of the modern labor market. Educational technologies, No. 1. - URL: http://iedtech.ru/files/journal/2010/1/professional-adaptation-graduates-labor-market.pdf.
  10. The young teacher Молодой педагог: adaptation and professional development (2015): materials of the II Interregional Scientific and Practical Conference, Kemerovo, April 9, 2015. Kemerovo: MBOU DPO "NMC", 136.
  11. Verbitsky А.А. (1991). Active learning in higher education: a contextual approach. - Moscow: "Higher School", 207.
  12. Vinogradov, V.L., Panfilov, A.N., Panfilova, V.M., Rakhmanova, A.R. (2015). Integrated Educational Environment of the University and the School as a Basis for Practice Oriented Teachers Training // Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2015, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 142–152 (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.). doi:

Copyright information

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

About this article

Cite this paper as:

Click here to view the available options for cite this article.

Publisher

Future Academy

First Online

18.12.2019

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2017.08.02.71

Online ISSN

2357-1330