Measures To Minimize Biological Risks In Dairy Farming: Cost Analysis


The purpose of the research is to consider issues related to the analysis of the costs of measures to reduce the level of biological risks at enterprises of the agro-industrial complex. The object of the research includes measures to reduce the level of biological risks at enterprises of the agro-industrial complex. The article presents the composition of costs for carrying out organizational, economic, veterinary and sanitary measures, describes in detail additional costs of identifying biological risk factors (causative agents of infectious diseases) that show variability under the influence of environmental conditions. One can also find calculations of the economic damage caused to agricultural enterprises as a result of exposure to factors of microbiological risk by the example of 4 especially dangerous zooanthroponoses (diseases caused by biological risk factors common to humans and animals): mycobacterium of tuberculosis, bacteria of the genera Brucella, Leptospira and Listeria monocytogenes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a type of mycobacteria that causes tuberculosis (Tuberculosis) in humans (in 90-95% of cases), cattle, goats, pigs, etc. Bacteria of genus Brucella are the causative agents of brucellosis (Brucellosis). Brucella are thermolabile, they die instantly when boiled, low temperatures have little effect on Brucella. Bacteria of genus Leptospira are the causative agents of Leptospirosis. Listeria monocytogenes is a type species of genus Listeria, which is the causative agent of Listeriosis. This mobile non-spore-forming gram-positive bacillus can transform into L-forms and parasitize inside cells, causing the latent development of infection.

Keywords: Ativities, analysis, cattle breeding, costs, damage, risks


The impact of risks on the activities of enterprises in the agro-industrial complex is significantly greater than that in related industries due to the uncertainty of weather conditions and climatic features, a low degree of probability of the predicted results of the vital activity of living beings. Currently, in order to increase the efficiency of decision-making in the field of management, it is necessary to develop tools that allow achieving optimal forms of management, forecasting and planning measures for the management system in conditions of uncertainty and risk. Failure to accept risk factors at agricultural enterprises can provoke serious problems in the development of the agricultural sector as a whole (Belova, 2019; Zavgorodnyaya et al., 2018).

Problem Statement

To reduce the level of biological risks at agricultural enterprises, it is necessary to carry out a number of control measures (a list of control critical points must be developed). It is necessary to carry out a set of veterinary-sanitary and sanitary-hygienic measures and comply with the rules for quality control of raw materials and stages of production. The implementation of these measures requires high costs (Konkina & Martynushkin, 2020; Krylatykh, 2011).

Research Questions

The article analyzes the costs of reducing the level of biological risks in milk production. In dairy farming, it is more advisable to use preventive measures than to incur significant and unplanned economic losses from the negative impact of risks that periodically arise in this area (Mikhaylovich et al., 2018).

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this work is a comparative analysis of the additional costs of identifying the causative agents of four especially dangerous zooanthroponoses that can cause extremely negative consequences of biological risks. Researchers attribute a significant physical and moral deterioration of laboratory equipment and a lack of qualified personnel in the field of veterinary services to the main factors hindering the development of dairy production in Russia (Bakulina et al., 2020).

Research Methods

During the research, the following methods were used.

1 – General research methods: analysis, synthesis, analogy, deduction, induction.

2 – Data collection and processing methods: one-factor methods, vector methods, multifactor methods.

3 – Methods for determining costs and damage as a result of the implementation of a risk situation: determining the level of costs for organizational, economic and veterinary and sanitary measures, determining the level of additional costs for identifying biological risk factors, determining the level of costs for PCR laboratory equipment, determining the level of economic damage caused to agricultural enterprises as a result of risk factors.


Table 01 presents the costs of economic, veterinary and sanitary measures.

Table 1 - Costs of economic and veterinary and sanitary measures
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A significant part of the costs of veterinary-sanitary and sanitary-hygienic measures is covered by the state (costs of medicines, disinfectants, etc.).

The list of costs does not include the costs of organizing laboratories in the enterprise. At the same time, specific diagnostics associated with the manifestation of the variability of pathogens under the influence of environmental factors (for example, the incorrect use of antibiotics) requires special equipment, which is sometimes too expensive for an agro-industrial complex enterprise to afford its installation (the equipment of veterinary stations and laboratories is often outdated). Most enterprises do not have their own laboratories at all (Krylatykh & Fedorov, 2013).

Approved in December 2010 “Sanitary norms and rules 3.1.7. 2817-10” recommend using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as an additional method of laboratory diagnostics.

Currently, PCR diagnostics is available to a limited number of laboratories with the appropriate equipment and trained personnel (the cost of training varies from 11,900 to 76,000 thousand rubles per person). The specifics of the costs of organizing PCR laboratories is due to the fact that their organization requires careful preparatory work (Konkina & Martynushkin, 2020).

Table 02 presents additional costs of identifying the causative agents of four highly dangerous zooanthroponoses.

Table 2 - Additional costs to identify biological risk factors (causative agents of infectious diseases) that show variability under the influence of environmental conditions
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It is necessary to determine in advance what tasks are to be solved in the laboratory. In addition, it is important to understand by what methods the assigned tasks will be achieved. It is necessary to resolve issues on PCR diagnostics, equipment, reagents, consumables, requirements and standards for organizing modern PCR laboratories (Kuhl et al., 2020).

The functioning of the PCR laboratory can be based on three basic methods:

- classical polymerase chain reaction (PCR with electrophoretic detection),

- PCR in “real time” (Real-time PCR),

- “End-point” PCR with fluorescence detection (FLASH).

Other methods can be used in a PCR laboratory with the appropriate equipment. The choice of the method will affect the total cost of the laboratory equipment project (Table 03).

Table 3 - PCR laboratory equipment costs
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In addition to the type of the PCR laboratory, it is equally important to determine the approximate sample throughput of the laboratory, that is, how many analyzes, tests and reactions are planned to be performed per day (week, month) in the laboratory. Based on the expected number, it is necessary to determine in advance the number of employees (operators) who will conduct the tests in the laboratory. To reduce the level of biological risks, costs are necessary for organizational, economic and veterinary and sanitary measures (Zavgorodnyaya et al., 2018).

The highest ones among them are:

- costs of personal protective equipment (Polikarpova & Mizikovskiy, 2018);

- costs of disinfection, disinsection and deratization. They are associated with putting in order all sanitary facilities (sanitary inspection, farm fences, disinfection barriers, maternity ward, quarantine room), taking cattle to summer camps and sanitary repair of farm premises (Ushakov et al., 2018);

- costs for quarantine and veterinary treatment of newly received animals, restrictions on production. For example, it is not allowed to export raw milk obtained from cows in a dysfunctional herd that react to tuberculin. Such milk is subject to on-farm processing (boiling or processing into melted butter) (Beukes et al., 2010);

- the costs of clinical examinations, diagnosis and prevention of diseases are also extremely high (Khaleghipour et al., 2020).

Even taking into account the fact of state funding, the costs of reducing biological risks for agricultural enterprises still remain quite high. But these costs are justified, since in a case of a risky situation, an agro-industrial complex enterprise may suffer both insignificant and very high economic damage. As a result of quarantine and restrictions on the export and import of feed, products, animals, the improvement of livestock, the stoppage of the production process as a result of the detection of contaminated raw materials, enterprises also incur losses.

Economic losses arising from enterprises of the agro-industrial complex due to the negative impact of risk are presented in Table 04 (exemplified by 4 especially dangerous zooanthroponoses).

Table 4 - Economic losses arising from the negative impact of risks in the field of microbiology
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In connection with the above, it is necessary to take into account the following aspects in the work of the veterinary service of agricultural enterprises: technical and technological provision, the level of pharmacological production and a specially equipped vehicle fleet, the level of qualifications of specialists in the field of veterinary medicine, the degree of reasoning for the personnel motivation system (Polischuk et al., 2018).

To improve the safety of products of agricultural enterprises and reduce the level of biological risks, according to Bolshov it is necessary:

1) to contribute to the growth of material and technical security of both the entire agro-industrial complex and veterinary services that monitor the health of animals and the quality of products (Byshov, Borychev, Kashirin, et al., 2018);

2) to increase the level of pharmacological support for the work of veterinary specialists;

3) to increase the efficiency of functioning, employees of institutions of veterinary services should be provided with special transport (Byshov, Borychev, Uspensky, et al., 2018);

4) to increase the level of education, knowledge, skills of veterinary specialists and workers of enterprises of the agro-industrial complex.


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01 July 2021

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Land economy, land planning, rural development, resource management, real estates, agricultural policies

Cite this article as:

Martynushkin, A. B., & Konkina, V. S. (2021). Measures To Minimize Biological Risks In Dairy Farming: Cost Analysis. In D. S. Nardin, O. V. Stepanova, & V. V. Kuznetsova (Eds.), Land Economy and Rural Studies Essentials, vol 113. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 52-59). European Publisher.