The modern industrial production development tasks determine the relevance of the research presented in the article. One of the determining factors for the efficiency of a modern industrial enterprise is resource conservation. At the same time, given the importance of the Russian economy's petrochemical industry, it should be understood that the organization of effective resource conservation in this industry is one of the essential tasks of the country's socio-economic development. In turn, the activation of resource-saving processes requires high-quality analytical support, which will reveal the factors and directions for increasing resource use efficiency. The identified issues have become a prerequisite for the study conducted by the authors. The purpose is to improve assessment methods and develop directions for increasing the resource efficiency of petrochemical production systems. Modern monitoring and integral assessment of the resource efficiency of an industrial enterprise have been investigated and systematized. Based on the studied methodological aspects, a system for monitoring the petrochemical production system's resource efficiency was proposed. Based on the assessment results, problematic aspects and reserves for increasing the level of resource conservation of the studied enterprises were identified.
Keywords: Cluster form of production organizationmonitoringpetrochemical industryresource efficiencyresource saving
Resource saving is one of the determining factors of the efficiency of a modern Russian industrial enterprise. This is confirmed by the national project "Labor productivity and employment support", the goal of which is a 20% increase in labor productivity by 2024. Its content indicates that resource conservation issues at specific enterprises are becoming a priority of state support.
The problem of resource conservation is exacerbated in the context of increasing competition and economic crises of various levels. The current situation gives rise to challenges requiring the search for optimized production and economic solutions. Integration is one of the time-tested solutions. However, economic integration through the pooling of equity capital and other forms of merger of business entities has, to a certain extent, exhausted itself. The current economic conjuncture requires forms of integration that retain the key driver of technological and economic development of enterprises – competition.
A well-known form of integration of industrial enterprises, based on the principles of fair competition and effective cooperation, is the cluster form of organization of production (Ketels et al., 2006). The effectiveness of the cluster form of the territorial organization of production is confirmed by the high level of socio-economic development of the territories of location and the leading positions of companies participating in world famous clusters, such as the world leader in the field of computer technology - Silicon Valley (USA); the market leader in the perfumery and cosmetics industry - Cosmetic Valley (France); automotive cluster in southern Germany; cluster of high technologies "Valley of Sapporo" (Japan).
The cluster mechanism for the development of production systems in Russia has been implemented since 2008. The cluster mechanism for the development of production systems in Russia has been implemented since 2008. The priority project of the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia, "Development of innovative clusters - leaders of investment attractiveness of the world level" indicates that the cluster form of the territorial organization of production is a key tool for socio-economic development.
The cluster mechanism for the development of production systems is very effectively synchronized with resource saving tools. This is due to the fact that under the conditions of the correct operation of the cluster, a single resource and technological base is formed, which provides the participants with the necessary human, material, technical and information resources (Fomin et al., 2017). Moreover, an efficiently functioning cluster management apparatus makes it possible to rationalize the use of resources and increase the return on their use. Among other factors, this is due to the synergy effect arising from the pooling of experience, technology transfer and diffusion of innovations in the cluster. Factors of cluster efficiency as a form of territorial-industrial integration are the focus of many modern studies (Charykova & Markova, 2019; Ivanova, 2018). The innovative orientation of the cluster form of organization of production makes, in modern conditions, makes it a locomotive for the development of national industry. The methodology of innovative industrial development based on the clustering of territories is the subject of research by many authors (Lubnina et al., 2017; Razminiene & Tvaronaviciene, 2018; Zaraychenko et al., 2016).
In this regard, the development of projects for cluster development of territorial production systems is an urgent task of the general strategy of resource conservation of the Russian economy. Moreover, the domestic conditions for the functioning of production and business, as well as the sectoral specifics of production systems, require the development of existing methods for monitoring and assessing the efficiency of production enterprises. It is on the solution of the designated tasks that the authors' research is focused on the development of a cluster development strategy and methodology for the integral assessment of petrochemical production systems.
At the end of the 20th century, the category "cluster" appeared in domestic and foreign economic literature (Porter, 1990). From the standpoint of economics, a cluster is a new form of organization of production and cooperation in business. Its theoretical origins are reflected in the studies of representatives of three scientific schools:
The American school of new forms of organization of production is represented by Porter's concept of industrial clusters (Porter, 1990), Enright's theory of regional clusters (Enright, 2003), as well as oter scientific research (Maskell & Larenzen, 2003; Rosenfeld, 1997).
The British school is based on the eclectic OLI paradigm of Dunning, the concept of interaction between the value chain and the cluster by Humphrey and Schmitz, as well as the concept of the technical and economic paradigm of Freeman.
The theoretical basis of the Scandinavian school of new forms of territorial organization of production is the theory of the economics of teaching Danish scientists Lundvall and Johnson, the Norwegian theory of the regional innovation system by Asheim and Isaksen.
Russian scientists are also actively involved in the development of the theory of the cluster form of organization of production. The cluster strategy of territorial development has become widespread in Russia largely due to the methodological foundations developed by specialists of the Institute of World Economy and International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences Gazimagomedov and Kondratyev.
Along with a significant number of studies devoted to the theoretical aspects of the formation and development of clusters (Markov, 2015; Kudryavtseva et al., 2015; Shinkevich et al., 2016), there is a relative lack of works in the literature focusing on the tasks of monitoring the resource efficiency of clusters.
In addition to the methodological problem of monitoring, there is also the task of activating Russia's cluster initiatives. This can be facilitated by the rich heritage of the territorial-production complexes formed in the USSR. They left behind territorially concentrated production capacities, united by single technological chains. Large enterprises of the former territorial production complexes can form a cluster's core and determine its industry specialization. The task of cluster development is the integration of the production core with the social and innovative infrastructure of the territory and the formation of a centralized management apparatus based on the principles of public-private partnership. The united structure should in every possible way contribute to the economic and technological development of the territory, while simultaneously solving the national tasks of resource conservation.
The designated problems form a number of questions that must be resolved within the framework of the study:
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the research covered in the article is to develop a methodology for monitoring the resource efficiency of a petrochemical cluster's production system. The proposed system should facilitate the identification of problematic aspects of integrated enterprises' functioning and the preparation of management decisions for their optimization. The object of research is the potential Nizhnekamsk petrochemical cluster. Based on the approbation results, it is supposed to identify the level of resource saving of cluster enterprises and identify specific problem points of the production system.
Ensuring the efficient functioning and sustainable development of the production system is difficult without regular and high-quality monitoring. The methodological part of the research is devoted to this task. In the literature, there are many approaches to assessing and monitoring the performance parameters of industrial enterprises (Shevchenko et al., 2020). This study is based on a resource-based approach. The level of resource conservation of a manufacturing enterprise can be characterized by such an integral indicator as resource efficiency (RE). In the context of this study, resource efficiency should be understood as the rationality and efficiency of the use of three types of resources:
Certain methods for assessing the effectiveness of cluster initiatives are based on mathematical processing of data obtained using the expert method (Kapoguzov et al., 2019). This approach is typical for studies that use qualitative characteristics as indicators of cluster performance that can be assessed only through an expert survey. The resource-based approach allows the use of quantifiable parameters of the production system, as well as the use of known and development of new performance indicators, the quantitative values of which can be easily interpreted; Based on the indicated categories of resources, it is proposed to evaluate the resource efficiency of the enterprise and the production system as a whole by three analytical units. To prepare analytical indicators adequate to the tasks of monitoring the resource efficiency of an integrated production system, a variety of methodological studies were analysed (Kudryavtseva, Shinkevich, Ostanina et al., 2016; Razminiene et al., 2016).
It should be noted that only relative indicators were selected for the monitoring system. Absolute indicators do not always reflect the performance of the enterprise. For example, the profit may be negligible compared to the investment that brought it. Or a large amount of income can come from a huge workforce. Therefore, it is advisable to correlate the absolute indicators characterizing the result with the resources' quantitative parameters, due to which this result was obtained.
The indicators of the efficiency of using fixed assets included indicators of profitability and profitability of fixed assets, as well as capital-labor ratio. The efficiency of using current material and technical resources is determined by the parameters of the turnover of the main categories of current assets. As for labor resources, their efficiency is determined by the parameters of productivity, profitability and capital-labor ratio.
The authors of this article do not claim to be exclusive of the proposed set of indicators. On the contrary, we believe that the methodology for monitoring complex integrated production systems should leave room for parameter variation. This explains the flexibility of the proposed valuation model.
The main requirement for the technique is the possibility of an integral mathematical assessment of the values of the studied indicators. In other words, the indicators of one analytical block should have ranges of values that can be used to identify the level of resource efficiency of the enterprise. If this requirement is met, then the level of resource efficiency can be assigned numerical values and further mathematical analysis of the data obtained.
Based on the presented indicators, the level of resource efficiency of the enterprise can be assessed. It is proposed to use the method of rank rating to assess the integral indicator of the RE. Resource efficiency can be assigned one of the following ranks:
Resource efficiency is assessed using the algorithm presented below:
1) The values of the resource efficiency indicators (IRE) presented in Table
2) The average statistical value of each IRE is calculated by the formula 1:
3) The range is determined, which corresponds to the annual value of IRE. Based on this operation, the rank of IRE is determined:
4) The annual rating value of each analytical unit (AU: EIFA, EMTR, HRE) is calculated using the formula 2:
5) The annual rating value of the resource efficiency of the cluster enterprise is calculated as the arithmetic average of the annual rating values of analytical blocks (formula 3):
6) The annual rating value of the resource efficiency of the cluster is calculated as the arithmetic average of the annual rating values of the resource efficiency of its enterprises (formula 4):
Further, it is advisable to present the results of approbation of the developed methodology on the example of assessing the resource efficiency of the Nizhnekamsk petrochemical cluster.
The Nizhnekamsk petrochemical cluster was chosen as the main object of research. This cluster has not been officially formed and is in fact part of the larger Kama innovative territorial production cluster. However, NNHK has a huge production potential and, to one degree or another, meets the criteria for identifying potential and latent clusters. The Nizhnekamsk territorial production complex, which includes such giants of the oil refining and petrochemical industry as PJSC Nizhnekamskneftekhim, PJSC Nizhnekamskshina, JSC TAIF-NK and JSC TANECO, can become a production platform for the formation and development of the Nizhnekamsk petrochemical cluster. The main characteristics that define the designated Nizhnekamsk production system as a potential cluster include:
It should also be noted that enterprises and organizations of a potential cluster are linked by close personalized ties and a network form of interaction in terms of joint social and economic projects implemented in the city. According to many researchers, the Nizhnekamsk production site has a significant potential for innovative development of petrochemical production (Malysheva et al., 2018; Shinkevich et al., 2019)
As indicated earlier, the production system of the Nizhnekamsk petrochemical cluster was used as an object for testing the developed monitoring methodology. Table
Integral level of resource efficiency of the core of the Nizhnekamsk petrochemical cluster during the period 2015-2019. was at an average level, which indicates the presence of reserves for the development of the cluster through measures to intensify production activities. The proposed methodology allows us to carry out a factor analysis of the reserves for increasing the resource efficiency of the cluster. For this, the AUe values from Table
Based on the obtained values, it is possible to calculate in percentage terms the degree of efficiency of the cluster's use of investment, material and technical and human resources. To do this, each of the obtained values should be divided by the maximum possible total AUe value for four enterprises (max = 60) and multiplied by 100%. Thus, the Nizhnekamsk petrochemical cluster is characterized by the following values of the degrees of resource use efficiency:
Thus, the reserves for the growth of resource efficiency of the cluster by increasing the efficiency of investments are 30.5% by increasing the efficiency of using material and technical resources - 23%, due to human resource management's efficiency - 35.5%.
So, as a result of the study, a methodology for monitoring the cluster's production system's resource efficiency was developed. The developed technique was tested on the example of the Nizhnekamsk petrochemical cluster. Based on the approbation results, reserves were identified for increasing the resource efficiency of the production system. It should be noted that the proposed monitoring system has a high degree of flexibility, since it can be filled with various indicators and allows you to assess the resource efficiency of an unlimited number of enterprises.
The reported study was funded by RFBR, project number 20-010-00655
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16 April 2021
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Sustainable Development, Socio-Economic Systems, Competitiveness, Economy of Region, Human Development
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Fomin, N., Shinkevich, M., Dyrdonova, A., & Vodolazhskaya, E. (2021). Development Mechanisms And Methods For Assessing The Petrochemical Production Systems Effectiveness. In E. Popov, V. Barkhatov, V. D. Pham, & D. Pletnev (Eds.), Competitiveness and the Development of Socio-Economic Systems, vol 105. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 836-847). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.04.89