In recent years, Russia has seen the creation of a massive information and propaganda campaign to promote the image of a healthy lifestyle of the population. This work, in turn, creates favorable conditions for the development and expansion of the promotion of sports goods and services in the country, which contributes to the development of sports marketing in particular and the rapid development of the sports industry in general. The paper outlines the main tasks of physical culture and sports organizations to conduct effective marketing. The main ways of promotion of goods and services in the sphere of physical culture and sports, possible ways of improvement of system of sales and promotion of goods, services are considered. The relevance of this study lies in the identification of criteria for the interaction of economics and sports. The authors believe that the analysis of the theoretical foundations of the promotion of sports goods and services makes it possible to modernize and expand the sports industry in Russia. The development of sports marketing defines physical education and sports activities as a specific product (service) and involves its own marketing approach in the field of physical education and sports. The general conclusion of the authors suggests that the tendency to improve the quality of sports marketing in the country depends on the use of a consumer-oriented strategy by physical culture and sports organizations, and, therefore, an increasing level of his(consumer's) satisfaction with physical education and sports services.
Keywords: Consumereconomic growthmarketingpromotionphysical education
Currently, physical culture and sports are becoming relevant and significant not only in the everyday life of Russians, but also occupy a special place as a separate branch of the country's economy. The macroeconomic environment has been radically changed, property relations in the system of sports organizations and their infrastructure have been qualitatively transformed, and the activities of many sports clubs and federations have been put on a market basis. Of course, these processes of fundamental transformations in Russian sports are far from over. Much remains to be done to bring the domestic sports industry to a leading position in the world (Ivanova & Shikhovtsov, 2017). The sports industry uses significant financial resources and a large amount of labor (Diaz-Fernandez et al., 2017). New models of sports management and its financing are constantly being improved and developed, and marketing is actively used to promote sports goods and services. Therefore, the study of the theoretical foundations and aspects of the promotion of sports goods and services in this field of the market is obviously relevant, since this information allows more effective use in practice of existing sports marketing methods. Also, the analysis of the theoretical foundations for the promotion of sports goods and services makes it possible to modernize and expand the sports industry in Russia (Aleksina et al., 2010).
The study of sports marketing methods is impossible without taking into account a number of theoretical problems that require, not only the most detailed resolution but at least a clear definition by the authors of their position in relation to them. One of them is the problem of the concept of marketing (Diaz-Fernandez et al., 2017).
Often, the meaning of the word "marketing" is interpreted as the usual ability of conducting business in enterprising and clear ways or as a general understanding of economic management methods, primarily managing the sale of producer products. However, this is only a simplified interpretation of this concept.
Currently, there is no consensus among economists on the definition of marketing. Undoubtedly, its main attribute is consumer orientation. Marketing can be interpreted as a market philosophy, strategy and tactics of behavior in the market of not only manufacturers, suppliers and intermediaries, but also consumers, practical economists, scientists and necessarily government bodies. Also, marketing can be understood as a set of certain functions, a type of professional activity to promote products on the market, a management system, a way of thinking, a style of behavior, a science that studies the market, and a training discipline (Pochinkin, 2010).
We agree with the opinion of scientists who define sports marketing as a continuous search for the possibilities of a comprehensive solution to the direct and indirect problems of sports consumers, companies working in the sports field, and other individuals and organizations associated with sports in a volatile and unpredictable environment typical for the concept of "sport" (Pochinkin, 2010).
In sports marketing, first of all, effective satisfaction of consumer requests is fundamental. If, for example, consumers do not feel effectiveness and are not satisfied with the quality of the sports spectacle or the service received, they are unlikely to resume this interaction. Therefore, the concept of market success includes a certain freedom of the business entity from a daily assessment of the direct effectiveness of the sports business. Market success is estimated not only in terms of the current profit, but also in increasing the market share of the organization, in gaining additional prestige, authority in the market and in society as a whole. Understanding of this principle makes it possible to modernize and expand the sports industry of Russia with the help of a deep analysis of the theoretical foundations of the promotion of sports goods and services (Pochinkin, 2010).
The idea of the economy of sports in our country would be difficult to track without analyzing the needs and interests of citizens. They act as a driving force that generates internal motivation in the development of sports marketing (Cahyaningsih et al., 2017). Next, the requirements go into interest, which extends to the requirements objects. Demand for sports goods and services contributes to the response from manufacturers (Popova et al., 2017). Manufacturers of goods and services create supply. Demand and supply are generated by market mechanisms. As a result, the necessary conditions are created for the dynamic development not only of sports marketing, but also of the entire sector of physical culture and sports (Díaz-Fernández et al., 2014).
Marketing takes place in many areas of social and economic activity today. In the field of physical culture and sports, it is important to distinguish the following independent areas of physical and sports marketing: ideas of competition, sports, teams, famous athletes, sports organizations, holding major sports competitions; programs of physical education and sports work with the population, etc. (Kosova, 2019).
To determine the role of sports marketing in the economy of our country, it is necessary to solve a number of problems. Namely,
- define sports marketing as the main method of promotion of sports goods and services;
- formulate methods of successful development of sales of goods and services in the sports industry;
- identify the components of sports marketing, with their subsequent detailing;
- to define the pricing policy of the sports organization with emphasis on social factors of promotion of goods and services.
Sports marketing defines sports activity as a specific product (service) and involves its own marketing approach in the field of physical culture and sports. To successfully promote sports goods and services, it is necessary to develop a marketing policy of the institution, which will determine the types of sports services and pricing policy that can be provided (Kosova, 2019). We agree with experts that marketing policy should include:
- study and analysis of the environment, identification of the real possibilities of the organization;
- study of sociocultural, economic and demographic situation (Becker, 1994);
- positioning of services;
- formation of the image of the organization;
- a previous study of the demand for future goods and services (Machlup, 1984).
Advertising, propaganda and promotion are key elements in stimulating demand for goods and services. When a sports organization produces a particular product (service), the main goal is to make this product or service consumer-oriented. Before you start advertising, you need to study your consumer (Sari & Kuchta, 2013). Practice shows that each consumer can relate differently to the same product. From this it follows that the product or service can be provided to different groups of consumers, for this there is a division of the market into segments in marketing. Market segmentation allows you to identify groups of potential consumers of a particular product (Aleksina et al., 2020).
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to consider the theoretical foundations of the promotion of sports goods and services through the development of sports marketing. As you know, the main goal of marketing activity is to ensure the maintenance of the sports organization’s activity. In order to see an increase in financial indicators in the activity of the sports organization, it is necessary to develop the basic principles of the organization's work. Such as,
- provision of sports-oriented goods and services should correspond to the needs of potential consumers;
- continuous improvement of the provided goods and services;
- unity of strategy and tactics for instant response to changing demand.
For successful promotion of sports goods and services it is necessary to identify the following components of sports marketing. In our opinion, these include: determining the target segment and the potential consumer, to develop a pricing strategy for a sports organization.
As you know, price formation is made under the influence of external and internal factors (Popova et al., 2017). Internal factors include: goals and strategies of a sports organization, costs, organization of pricing. External - the nature of the market and demand, competition, the economy and the influence of the state. Therefore, the pricing strategy in the sports institution can be based on the following marketing statements:
- offering a combined set of sports and recreation services;
- flexible system of discounts and benefits;
- pricing of services is lower than in commercial sports organizations (Pochinkin, 2010).
As noted earlier, the sector of sports organizations is classified as a cultural and social sphere and the social factor plays an important role in the promotion of services and goods here (Cosenz & Noto, 2018). Sociologists in the healthcare industry have found that the health of absolutely every person is half dependent on his lifestyle. In this regard, sports services in consumer behavior are considered as a social advantage, which is expressed in the desire to lead a healthy lifestyle.
Therefore, the social factor must be taken into consideration in determining price policies. When pricing, it is also important to follow the basic principles of pricing:
- the principle of targeting;
- the principle of validity (taking into consideration economic laws and market pricing factors);
- the principle of control (manifested in state price regulation) (Pochinkin, 2010).
Our research used the following methods: study and analysis of scientific and methodological literature on the problem of research, content analysis, qualification, standardized observation. We agree with opinion that marketing research will be an effective way to investigate a potential consumer. Marketing research is a systematic determination of the range of data required in connection with the marketing situation facing the sports organization, that is, the collection, analysis and report on the results carried out. So, today the main in the activity of a sports organization is the consumer and their needs. Marketing research provides information about the lifestyle and needs of potential consumers. So, for example, we analyzed the type of activity in the sale of sports services and goods in Russia based on the study of special literary sources and identified several areas of the sports market (Table
Thus, the directions of the sports market in Russia, as well as abroad, are quite diverse. The implementation of all directions of this market directly affects the development of the physical culture, mass and professional sports industry. At the same time, the objects of sports marketing as the most important component of the existence and development of modern man are various forms of physical activity, and a healthy lifestyle as a significant social phenomenon in society. Therefore, due to the large social function of physical activity and a healthy lifestyle of the population, the responsibility for creating conditions for their implementation and popularization lies primarily with the state. At the present day, non-governmental organizations that use mass and professional sports marketing tools also play a significant role in this. Currently, mass sports marketing is one of the most developing areas of non-commercial marketing in Russia. So, as we found out earlier, the main thing in the activities of any sports organization is the consumer and his needs. And marketing research provides information about the lifestyle and the needs of potential consumers. Therefore, it is important to understand that the sustainable financial situation of any organization depends on the level of consumer demand (Melentieva & Shekhovtsov, 2019).
Only after all the methods listed earlier you can start promoting the products (services) of a sports organization. Promotion implies:
- creating reliable, favorable information about the products provided by the sports organization;
- formation of the image of prestige of goods and services (PR (advertising) activities and advertising);
- the answers to the queries of consumers.
Undoubtedly, PR activities and advertising are the most common ways to use personal sales and stimulate sales markets. Therefore, at the stage of opening a sports organization, it is necessary to attract new clients. But attracting new customers is an easier process than retaining existing ones. Therefore, we agree with the opinion of researchers that in order for customers to return, it is important to increase the loyalty of users of goods and services (Cosenz & Noto, 2018). At the same time, it should be remembered that the activity of users of sporting goods and services is seasonal, so in the spring and summer it is necessary to conduct a more "aggressive" policy to attract customers (sale of discount and preferential cards, conducting bonus programs). And in the autumn-winter period, you need to conduct "supporting" advertising events.
Everyone knows that the market for sports goods and services is a market that is aimed at wide coverage of the population. Consequently, a massive awareness-raising campaign is required. The media in the promotion of physical culture and sports should convincingly demonstrate the importance of physical culture and sports in people's lives, the prevention of disease, the extension of active longevity, the fight against drug addiction, smoking, alcohol use, and other negative phenomena.
Thus, it can be concluded that:
1.It is necessary to promote the domestic market of sports goods and services by advertising and promoting the popularity of the sports style and healthy lifestyle of the population both by private sports organizations and by the public media.
2.Today, in sports marketing there are many ways and concepts to promote sports products and services, some of which were discussed in this paper.
3.The tendency to improve the quality of sports marketing depends on the application of a strategy by organizations of physical culture and sports, aimed mainly at the consumer, and, therefore, at increasing its level of satisfaction with physical education and sports services.
4.Promotion of physical education and sports organization is a complex process of formation in Russia. And only through qualitative market analysis, taking into consideration all aspects, it is possible to achieve high results of economic indicators in a short time.
From the above, it should be noted that marketing in sports needs to be correlated with certain features inherent in the field of physical culture and sports, for example, such as non-commercial goals, voluntary work, etc. The marketing program will not succeed unless it is linked to traditional values of physical education and sports, and market orientation and maximization of profits will not be brought into line, in particular, with social and pedagogical goals. Thanks to marketing, the Olympic and sports movement is able to form and maintain a high image of Olympism and other advanced ideas of the Olympic and sports movement (Popova et al., 2017). And in modern Russian society, there is currently a symbiosis of sports and the economy. Intensive development of physical culture and sports directly affect the economic life of the state and society as a whole. As a result, the sphere of extensive entrepreneurial activity is actively developing, which provides employment for our population in the sports industry and tourism business. On the other hand, the above-mentioned business sectors replenish federal and local budgets with tax revenues. It is one of the main components of the training of quality labor resources. If we consider this aspect in the cultural and social sphere, then every citizen of society has enormous opportunities for self-expression, self-improvement, self-approval. In addition, physical education and sports are an alternative to bad habits.
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30 April 2021
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Socio-economic development, digital economy, management, public administration
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Ivanova, L. А., Danilova, A. M., & Voronin, A. D. (2021). Sports Marketing And Its Role In Promoting Sporting Goods And Services. In S. I. Ashmarina, V. V. Mantulenko, M. I. Inozemtsev, & E. L. Sidorenko (Eds.), Global Challenges and Prospects of The Modern Economic Development, vol 106. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 68-74). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.04.02.8