Motivation And Values Of Children And Adolescents: Identification, Support And Development Methods
The article analyzes the existing methods for identifying, supporting and developing the motivational - value sphere of children and teenagers, including those with special educational needs. The study of the motivational and value sphere of children and teenagers is considered from the perspective of the formation of new competencies and the continuous improvement of the professional competence of teachers. Essential understanding, identifying the relationship and correlation of the categories of “value”, “motive”, “motivation”, “need”, “meaning” is carried out from the standpoint of interdisciplinary analysis. The differences between needs and personal values are identified. Special attention is paid to the analysis of methods for studying the Self-concept. The features of the development of the motivational-value sphere of children and teenagers with disabilities are revealed, a comparative analysis of the characteristics of the socialization of the personality of such teenagers and healthy children is carried out. The features of methods for identifying subjective value characteristics of adolescents with disabilities, methods for studying the characteristics and level of the process of socialization of schoolchildren, and a psychodiagnostic method for assessing the emotional well-being of children are considered. The features of the semantic personality structures of adolescents with disabilities are identified and the features of the use of semantic technologies in the learning process are described.
One of the key principles of the national system of professional development of teachers in the Russian Federation, including the national system of teacher growth, is the "creation and implementation of a unified federal system of scientific and methodological support for teachers" (Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of 31.12.2019 №3273-p) which quite obviously determines the need for continuous improvement of professional competence of teachers.
Modern conditions for the development of society determine the need not only to improve existing (for example, psychological, pedagogical or communicative competencies), but also to form new competencies, for example, in the context of the implementation of inclusive education programs. The most specific, multifaceted and multifaceted is the motivational-value sphere of children and teenagers, including those with special needs.
It is the formation of new living standards in the modernization of modern society, filling them with new meaning that determines the study of the motivational and value sphere of children and adolescents, including people with special needs, both in general and in particular.
Application of a systematic approach to the analysis of the categorical apparatus allows us to classify empirical methods for identifying the motivational - value sphere of children and adolescents. The study of the multivariance of the developed and applied in practice methods of studying the motivational-personal sphere allows not only to systematize existing methods, but also to develop a specific methodological model for studying the motivational-value sphere of children and adolescents.
In the context of this topic, it seems necessary to define such concepts as “value”, “motivation”, “need”, “meaning”, since it is a meaningful understanding of these categories that determines the existing empirical approaches to the development of methods for identifying, supporting and developing the motivational-value sphere of children and teenagers.
Purpose of the Study
The study of the motivational-value sphere of children and adolescents, including persons with special educational needs, from the standpoint of the formation of new competencies and the continuous improvement of the professional competence of teachers.
As key research methods, we highlight the following general scientific: analysis (including comparative), generalization, systematization, and classification.
The problem of the essential understanding, interconnection and correlation of the categories of "value", "motive", "motivation", "need", "meaning" has deep historical roots and is interdisciplinary in nature. In the methodological and substantive sense, the existence of different approaches to understanding the designated categories plays an important role.
In existing psychological concepts, "value" is presented in different ways: as a "sense-forming motive" (Leontyev, 1996), "dominant relationships" (Myasishev, 2000), "dynamic tendency" (Rubinstein, 2002), and "main life orientation" (Ananyev , 2001).
Values are attributes of the personality that are closely "woven" into it and characterize the personality as integrity, as if defining the richness of its inner world:
in the study of a person as a personality, the status of the personality is especially distinguished, that is, its position in society (economic, political, legal, etc.); social functions performed by a person depending on this situation and the historical era in the form of various roles; the motivation of her behavior and activities depending on the goals and values that form her inner world; worldview and the totality of the relationship of the individual to the world (nature, society, labor, other people, himself); character and inclinations. (Ananyev, 2001, p.73)
Rokeach (1973) is the founder of the concept of value orientations of a person. He distinguishes two types of values: terminal values (values-goals) and instrumental values (values-means).
Leontyev (1996) identifies three forms of the existence of values, that pass one into another: "1) social ideals - developed by the public consciousness and the generalized ideas about perfection in various spheres of public life present in it, 2) the substantive embodiment of these ideals in the acts or works of specific people and 3) motivational structures of the personality ("models of the due"), encouraging them to objectively embody in their behavior and activities of social value ideals" (p. 37).
Developing the theory of M. Rokeach, D. Leontyev proposed distinguishing between two classes of individual values: terminal values (values-goals) and instrumental values (values-principles). In general, they can be represented as follows (table
It is this division that allows the use of techniques aimed at identifying a system of value orientations. If it is not possible to identify a single pattern, this indicates either the lack of formation of the system of value orientations in the subject (this can be observed, in particular, in adolescence), or the falsification of the results.
Such an approach allows not only to identify "three basic options for understanding the psychological nature of individual values" (Leontyev, 2003, p. 202), but also to determine the differences between needs and personal values (Table
Developing the ideas of A.N. Leontyev on the relationship of needs, motive and values, L.I. Bojovich and Blagonadejina (1972) focus on the close relationship of the need, motivational and value spheres of the personality of a teenager.
In those cases when the acquired values themselves acquire the power of direct impulses, they can determine the behavior of people regardless of decisions made consciously, involuntarily subordinating to themselves all his other impulses, including those that are not conscious of him. In this case, we can talk about the harmonious structure of the motivational sphere of a person, and, consequently, the harmonious structure of his personality. (Bojovich & Blagonadejina, 1972, p. 41)
The moral development of adolescents is closely related to the motivational sphere, since the main motives for human behavior are moral feelings. The basic structural formations of the personality (orientation, character, abilities, emotions, activity) are "permeated" with motives.
The value-humanistic approach to personality seems interesting (Abulhanova, 1999), which is based on the philosophical concept of S.L. Rubinstein. For a person, the main criterion is the criterion of “value acceptability”. This is the basis by which a person either engages in a situation and transforms this situation until it becomes solvable and “value acceptable”, or refuses such a situation at all.
One of the founders of humanistic psychology Maslow (1997), who developed the "hierarchical theory of needs", believed that the highest human need is the need for self-actualization. This approach allowed him to distinguish two groups of motives for human behavior (deficit motives and growth motives) and describe the characteristics of a self-actualizing personality.
Another representative of humanistic psychology is Rogers (2001). The basic concept of Rogers' theory is the "I-concept", where the reflection of the essence of the personality is the self-esteem in which the "I" is expressed. It is self-esteem that "guides" behavior and helps to understand what a person needs - communication with people, interests, and profession. Realizing themselves, children begin to realize their abilities and aspirations in accordance with self-esteem. It is in this case, when behavior is determined by self-esteem, it characterizes the abilities and skills of the individual.
The versatility of the category “personality” determines the multidimensionality of the approaches used and the multivariance of the developed and applied in practice methods for studying the motivational-personal sphere. Taking into account existing approaches to understanding key categories, it seems appropriate to classify empirical methods for identifying the motivational - value sphere as follows:
1. Diagnostic techniques for the leading, dominant value orientation, personality orientation, or motivational tendency (Allport-Vernon-Lindsay, Edwards, etc. tests).
2. Techniques aimed at the study of a holistic system or hierarchy of value orientations of a person (Rokich, Schwartz tests).
3. Projective methods for studying the value-semantic sphere of personality (Kantril’s, Allport-Gilespie’s methods).
4. Methods of studying processes and the level of personal development, allowing to judge the formation of the value-semantic sphere (Self-actualization test, Level of subjective control).
5. Methods of studying life goals, the level of meaningfulness of life, and life-meaning orientations (PIL, Life Orientation Test) (Seriy & Yanitsky, 1999).
Considering that personal values are the "source of motivation" (Asmolov, 2007) and it is in the motivational sphere (Bojovich, 1968) that the main neoplasm of adolescence is located, it seems advisable to highlight the methods aimed at studying the motivational sphere.
Special attention should be paid to the methods of studying the Self-concept. The analysis of classical and modern literature showed that a fairly wide range of techniques (applied in practice) aimed at identifying, supporting and developing the motivational-value sphere of the individual is equally stable used for different age categories.
However, considering the essential aspects of the motivational-value sphere of children and adolescents, it seems necessary to clarify the categories of "children" and "adolescents". To do this, we use the age periodization of the stages of human development Elkonin (1989) (table
The table shows the alternation of the development of motives and needs with functional abilities and the development of various types of activities, which indicates the development at the beginning of the motivational sphere, and then operational, and, consequently, the systematization of existing and existing methods, techniques and technologies for studying the motivational-need sphere, and then intellectual. An analysis of existing methods shows that a fairly wide range of methods is used to diagnose the motivational-value sphere of the personality of children and adolescents. And this is non-random, because "to understand adolescence, to choose the right direction and forms of work, it must be borne in mind that this age refers to the so-called critical periods of a person’s life, or periods of age-related crises" (Prihojan, 2007, p. 6).
Among the key methods can be distinguished: the method of observation (of behavior, activity), the method of analyzing the products of activity, the method of conversation, the method of description, projective methods, creative methods, the method of direct assessment (scaling), the method of questioning. Denote the advantages and disadvantages of some of them.
The main advantage of the method of observing behavior, activity is the ability to obtain data in vivo. However, the forms of behavior under the same conditions can be different, which gives rise to the need for highly qualified "observer".
One popular method is conversation. There are various types of conversations - discussion dialogue, free, etc. The difficulty that may arise when using the method is associated with the peculiarities of the adolescent period, since questions can be perceived by the adolescent as a desire to penetrate into his private life.
Projective methods are aimed at identifying motivational tendencies and deep personality characteristics, which is an absolute advantage of this method. But for schoolchildren, such methods are often quite complicated.
The advantage of the direct estimation (scaling) method is organizational characteristics - low time costs, multiple use, ease of implementation, etc. Moreover, the main drawback is the receipt of only the information that the respondent wants to disclose about himself.
The survey method used to study the motivational-value sphere of the personality is quite reliable, but quite voluminous and requires a long time interval. Among the species can be identified questioning, testing, interviews. All methods are closely interconnected. The integrated use of these methods will allow you to recreate the real picture of the motivational-value sphere of the modern teenager.
An analysis of the materials contained in open sources shows that the study of the motivational-value sphere of children and adolescents with disabilities remains an urgent problem. The main features of the development of the motivational-value sphere of children and adolescents with disabilities are, first of all, the state of health (features of physical development), and secondly, adaptability to living conditions in the family (atmosphere and living conditions).
A number of small modern studies indicate that "the system of value orientations of schoolchildren with disabilities is different from the system of healthy orientations in cognitive, emotional, and behavioral plans and requires special study. It is necessary to identify and scientifically substantiate approaches that contribute to the formation of value orientations of students with disabilities in modern educational practice" (Chijakova & Duda, 2017, p. 12).
The most complete and substantive study on the study of the semantic sphere of adolescents with disabilities is a monograph by Abakumova et al. (2016) “The semantic sphere of adolescents: features of development in the context of included training”. The monograph presents not only the basic diagnostic methods for identifying the semantic sphere of adolescents with disabilities, the key technologies with which you can maintain and develop the motivational and value sphere of the designated category, but also outlines and describes the main conditions for the successful adaptation of adolescents with disabilities. Projective and standardized techniques were used as the main diagnostic methods.
The use of these methods allowed to determine the features of semantic structures of personality of adolescents with disabilities and to describe the features of the use of semantic technologies in the learning (table
The set of principles, the indicated methods and tools can be structured into a methodological model for studying the motivational - value sphere of children and adolescents (Figure
In conclusion, it should be noted that the analysis of existing approaches and methods for studying the motivational-value sphere of children and adolescents, including people with special needs, determines the possibility of further improving existing technologies, as well as modelling the process of improving the psychological, pedagogical and communicative competencies of teachers.
The problem of identifying and developing the motivational-value sphere of children and adolescents is due to the characteristics of the adolescent period and remains relevant, requiring a comprehensive combination of psychological and pedagogical efforts to optimize existing methods and their correct practical application. In addition, the study of existing approaches and methods for studying the motivational-value sphere of children and adolescents, including people with special needs, helps to improve the existing psychological, pedagogical or communicative competencies of teachers and the formation of new teacher competencies, including in the context of implementing inclusive education programs.
Research carried out in the research work of the Federal Institute of Education Development RANEPA "11.19. Development of a system of personalized support for teachers within the national system of professional growth of teachers", commissioned by the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration on 2020.
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