The article considers the issue of the activity or passivity of the functioning of a concept in the formation of a picture of the world. The presence of polysemy at the basis of a speech situation very often causes the emergence of enantiosemy, which often causes the problem of interpreting the concepts implied in the speech situation. As the analysis of the texts showed, the specificity of emergence depends on the invariance of the position of a concept in the basis of the picture of the world reflected in the text. In all speech situations, an emergence field is formed, within the boundaries of which the addressee produces an increment of meaning. The very increment of a speech situation in a certain verbal form is the subject of many branches of scienceIn the process of studying the motivation for the formation of certain verbal forms of a speech situation, we concluded that there can be countless reasons for the verbalization of a speech situation in a specific system, that is, in a text. Nevertheless, in our opinion, it is possible to determine the most global vectors of perception motivation and interpretation of the picture of the world, which become, as it were, the macro basis of the text, respectively, affecting the emergence of the text. We made the conclusion that the specificity of emergence depends on the invariance of the position of a concept in the basis of the picture of the world reflected in the text.
Keywords: Conceptpicture of the worldemergenceinterpretationinvariantspeech situation
The functioning of the language goes beyond the purely communicative properties. One of the first functions of a language is the understanding and interpretation of a picture of the world. It does not matter in which society or even outside a society a person exists, he will certainly do an analysis of the environment and phenomena, mark it with some symbols, and thus his understanding and interpretation of the picture of the world, in the main areas regulated by instincts, will not differ much from the one of an individual who grew up in a particular society (Albekov, 2015).
It is also important that the materialization of this interpretation will occur by means of the organs of speech, and not by some other organs of the human body, provided that the person is physically healthy, i.e. the biological system is not defective. Speaking about the role of thinking in language, Sapir admits that “language is an instrument originally intended to be used at a level lower than the level of conceptual structure, and that thought arises as a refined interpretation of its content” (as cited in Albekov, 2015, p. 224).
Today, any branch of science asks questions that erase interdisciplinary boundaries, because the philosophy of any science is to know the secret, hidden, inexplicable picture of the world surrounding us (Luria, 1979; Mamardashvili, 1992). In this context, Prigozhin and Stengers (1986) note that the pathos of the world view that is being born before our eyes is a call for a “new dialogue between man and nature,” understood holistically, evolutionarily (Arshinov, 1999; Klimenko, 1990).
According to the author, a person will have to think not only about his survival, in the modern world it is also important that a person understands his role and responsibility in the tandem of co-creation with nature, a person needs to learn the laws of co-evolution with nature. For this, a person needs to know himself and the world better, thus knowledge of humanity’s natural and social genesis, laws of thought is necessary; as well as reflexion of oneself’s understanding, modeling of reality (Ufimceva, 2014).
It is not always possible to determine the causes of the emergence of the text. The reasons for the specificity of the emergence of the text are countless, ranging from the physical state of the interpreter to his nationality (Albekov, 2015; Bronnik, 2009; Ufimceva, 2014).
Nevertheless, in our opinion, the cause factor is less important than the result factor, since the result is a reflection of the perception of the world picture by the recipient. The end product of this perception, manifested in the form of a linguistic unit, is emergent. The factor of reason can often be the motivation of interpretation.
The correct definition and interpretation of a whole text and a positional semantic stress in a speech situation is one of the conditions for the synchronism of a text and a speech situation. If the text does not correspond to the speech situation, then entropy occurs and destroys the semantic basis. Accordingly, the definition of an invariant concept, based on which a picture of the world is formed is of key importance (Albekov, 2015; Solntsev, 1973; Sternin, 2007).
Purpose of the Study
To determine the degree of activity of a particular concept in the process of constructing the text and to determine the degree of its intensity at the center of the picture of the world, we conducted a study of a significant number of works of art in English, Russian and Chechen. One of the goals of this study was to designate the potential of concepts in the fields of emergence arising based on a speech situation. In the course of the study, we have identified concepts of antonymical and synonymous paradigms and placed them in the Table
To determine the intensity or passivity of the functioning of these concepts, we applied the method of quantitative analysis, which helped us to establish a general picture of the intensity of functioning of the concepts.
Of course, the key position of a concept in the interpretation of a speech situation always depends on the interpreter's corresponding perception of the situation. Nevertheless, in our opinion, an interesting factor is the intensity of a concept in the formation of a picture of the world reflected in the text as a whole.
As a result, we discovered:
There is a list of certain concepts that dominate the formation of a fragment of the picture of the world reflected in the texts.
When a fragment of a picture of the world is represented in a text, the degree of activity of some concepts prevails over other concepts. At the same time, the difference between the stylistic and genre content of the text of a work of art is not significant.
There are certain concepts that are equally involved in the formation of a picture of the world, reflected in the texts of works.
There is a degree of passivity of certain concepts in the formation of a picture of the world, reflected in the texts.
There are concepts that take a minimum part in the formation of a picture of the world, reflected in the texts.
The analysis we carried out helped to identify the potential activity and passivity of certain concepts in the process of forming a picture of the world, reflected in the text. Moreover, the definition of invariant or key concepts made it possible to observe the potential of the field of emergence of concepts underlying the speech situation.
As the analysis of the texts showed, the specificity of emergence depends on the invariance of the position of a concept in the basis of the picture of the world reflected in the text. In all speech situations, an emergence field is formed, within the boundaries of which the interpreter, addressee produces an increment of meaning. The very increment of a speech situation in a certain verbal form is the subject of many branches of science. It is hardly possible to establish all the aspects, factors, causes and grounds that contribute to the transformation of a speech situation into a specific text. In the process of studying the issue of motivating the formation of certain verbal forms of a speech situation, we concluded that there can be countless reasons for the verbalization of a speech situation in a specific system, that is, in a text. Nevertheless, in our opinion, it is possible to determine the most global vectors of perception motivation and interpretation of the world picture, which become, as it were, a macrobase of the text, respectively, affecting the emergence of the text.
Physical perception and interpretation of the universe (everything that lends itself to physical sensation and perception through the senses, actualizing the speech situation).
Emotional and psychological state (emotions as a motivation for verbalization of a speech situation).
Intelligence (consciousness, calculation, analysis, conclusion, plan as verbalization of a speech situation)
Religious factor (faith as the basis for the motivation of a speech situation).
The indicated vectors allow us to analyze at a primitive level the motivation for the validity of the use of a particular concept in certain speech situations, which have become a kind of basis for verbalization of a speech situation, as well as to predict options for interpreting this speech situation. The above parameters allow you to determine the prevalence of social or emotional reasons for the validity of the application of a concept in the interpretation of a speech situation, especially in a bilingual communication environment.
This work was supported by a grant from the Russian Federal Property Fund, project 18-412-200001 “Models for the study of the communicative behavior of bilingual Chechens”.
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31 October 2020
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, translation, interpretation
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Al'bekov, N. N., & Zherebilo, T. V. (2020). Concept In The Formation Of A Picture Of The Worl In Texts. In D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism» Dedicated to the 80th Anniversary of Turkayev Hassan Vakhitovich, vol 92. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 45-49). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.05.7