The article is devoted to the problem of the formationof future teachers’ value-sense guidelines for work with students with disabilities in inclusive education. In the process of training, the basic clusters of value-sense guidelines are “Man as a value in itself” and “Pedagogical culture”. A teacher as a subject of multifaceted professional activity should have versatile competencies, combine knowledge of various human sciences, and most importantly, for effective social support of people who need social protection and assistance, teachers should rely on personality-oriented and axiological approaches in their activities, which determines their professional position as social assistance. At present, there is a need for an interdisciplinary synthesis of knowledge about a human as a pedagogical goal, since transformations in all spheres of the life of Russian society require a bachelor's training system that can provide assistance and support to students with disabilities. The competent performance of the socio-pedagogical function plays an important role in teachers’ professional activities, where their main characteristics are value knowledge, value relationships and value actions. Hence, the value aspect involving the formation of value-sense guidelines becomes a significant factor in the vocational training of the future teacher as a bearer and translator of professional and personality-significant qualities.
Keywords: Teachervalue-sense guidelinesinclusive space
Federal Law No. 273 of the Federal Law “On Education in the Russian Federation” adopted on December 29, 2012 introduces into the Russian educational space two concepts that are fundamentally new for our society: inclusive education and special educational needs (SEN).Paragraph 27 of Art. 2 of the Law reads as follows: "Inclusive education - ensuring equal access to education for all students, taking into account the diversity of special educational needs and individual opportunities" ( Federal Law "On Education in the Russian Federation", 2012). Due to the fact that today the Russian Federation is a state providing for the implementation of this law, a modern teacher educates students with disabilities in the framework of the BPEP that implements this activity. Since the educational system is the key institution of sociocultural adaptation, the value aspect that implies the future teachers’ formation of value-sense guidelines for work with students with disabilities in the university space becomes an important factor in the vocational training of the future teacher as an integrative personality. Changes in the nature of education related to inclusion and integration are increasingly reflected in the main functional components of the competencies of future teachers.
The analysis of the formation of future teachers’ value-sense guidelines for work with students with disabilities in inclusive education is connected with the resolution of the contradiction between the need for modern teaching practice in performing the integrative socio-pedagogical function by a future teacher when working with students at universities and the insufficient development of pedagogical support that implements and controls this process.
The functional components of the competencies of future teachers are being transformed into modern adaptive ones for new sociocultural conditions. Teachers should enhance such competencies as: the manifestation of pedagogical ethics, the manifestation of congruency; manifestation of emotional responsiveness, manifestation of professional creativity, manifestation of generalized volitional qualities, manifestation of research activity and manifestation of verbal accessibility in communication, which requires a qualitatively new approach to teaching a future teacher. Most competencies are developed through the creation of pedagogical conditions, a combination of various forms, methods, techniques and teaching tools. Among pedagogical conditions the following can be considered: positive motivation of students, psychological and intellectual properties of the individual, independent positive activity.
During the study, the following questions were raised.
What is the content of vocational training of future teachers, taking into account inclusive education?
What content is embedded in the basic clusters of value-sense guidelines "Man as a value in itself" and "Pedagogical culture"?
What stages have been developed for the formation of future teachers’ conscious attitude to personal and socially significant values in the process of vocational training in an inclusive space?
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the present work is to disclose the content of vocational training of future teachers for work with students with disabilities through their inclusion in the construction of information-cognitive model;
Methodological analysis of the content of professional training of future teachers working with students with disabilities
One of the main tasks of higher education is to prepare a bachelor as a professional and creative person, a person with a civil position, able to think globally humanistically and act locally constructively. Moreover, the formation of the student’s professional and personal values, which determine the quality parameters of his subsequent professional activity, is of particular importance ( Baksheev et al., 2017).
The main aspects of teacher training in the inclusive space of the university are revealed in the personal-activity and contextual approaches.
The analysis of scientific works devoted to the study of teachers' professional readiness for inclusive education of children shows that researchers define it differently depending on these theoretical approaches.
From the position of a personal approach, the teacher’s readiness for inclusive education of children is determined not only by the possession of special knowledge about the developmental characteristics of students with disabilities and the ability to use various methods and techniques of working with them in the educational process, but also “the formation of certain personal qualities that provide sustainable motivation for this activity."
Professional preparedness in the works of Slastenin ( 2002) is defined as "a special mental state, as the possession of the subject's image of the structure of a certain action and the constant focus of consciousness on its implementation" (p. 114).
A number of scientific studies consider the teacher’s readiness for inclusive education from the perspective of a competency-based approach.
According to the analysis of these studies, professional work is considered as activity in a specific microenvironment in the interests of harmonizing the life and social relations of an individual or groups of people ( Smirnova & Smirnaya, 2017). It is generally recognized that pedagogical strategies also provide a significant social effect in the activity of the future teacher. In this regard, the socio-pedagogical context of the teacher’s activity is one of the important components of his profession.
If we consider the future teacher’s training for work with children with disabilities, it should be comprehensive in nature, which is connected with the need to perform several professional functions simultaneously at different levels: micro-individual, child, meso-group, family members, macro-society state. The features of the university stage of bachelor’s training in preparing for interaction with students are connected with the specifics of the professional activity itself as humanistic one, as well as with the practice-oriented training, which should have health-preserving character ( Bartnovskay et al., 2017; Osipov et al., 2017).
The pedagogical process is carried out in specially organized conditions that are related to the content and methods of pedagogical interaction. Training a future teacher for interaction with students with disabilities and their families involves the development and implementation of certain content and methods of training, allowing to obtain the necessary level of the teacher’s preparedness to solve problems of interaction with students. Improving the process of future teachers’ training for work with migrant children allows us to consider this training as a system, process and result of focused educational activities based on value-sense guidelines of multiculturalism and a dialogue of cultures aimed at mastering a system of knowledge, skills, and methods of work that characterize the effectiveness of coordination actions of subjects and their cooperation ( Lukina & Shepeleva, 2017). At the same time ( Kumykov et al., 2017) to the pedagogical factors influencing the effectiveness of the pedagogical process, attribute such factors as the condition of the educational system, the level of conducting classes, personal qualities and skill of teachers, their teaching methods.
The quality of education includes the following components: quality of the educational program, personnel and scientific potentials of the educational process, educational technology and other components ( Korchagin & Safin, 2019; Osipova, 2016; Stromov & Sysoyev, 2017).
From our point of view, the practical socio-pedagogical context of the activity of a teacher of any level of preparedness is a necessary component of successful professional activity. In our opinion, the following should be singled out as the main tasks of socio-pedagogical activity and the ways to solve them. The first task - the formation of the teacher’s social competence is carried out through his social training. The second task is the education of the set of qualities (social adaptability, social autonomy, social activity, tolerance and others). The third task - assistance in overcoming the difficulties of sociocultural adaptation that arise in the process of interpersonal relations among students, is realized through social and pedagogical support.
Thus, the socio-pedagogical activity of the teacher when working with students with disabilities is aimed at helping to mobilize internal resources; stimulation and organization of active actions to solve a life problem. In the course of socialization, the basis of students' attitudes towards values (both material and spiritual) is formed, which determines its subsequent adaptation process in the social environment ( Malimonov et al., 2016).
Analysis of the construction of an information-cognitive model of students' mastering value-sense guidelines
In the context of the future teacher’s work in the sphere of “person-to-person”, we should consider one of the ways of the future teachers’ mastering the value-sense guidelines, such as the construction of a cognitive model ( Smirnaya, 2017). The formation of the presented guidelines by future teachers for work with students with disabilities occurs through their inclusion in this model, where they should master a fairly high level of praxylogical culture ( Devyatlovsky & Ignatova, 2019).
The development of the model is aimed at introducing humanitarian students to concepts "guidelines", "value-sense guidelines", "professional values", the identification and analysis of basic value-sense guidelines: Man as a value in itself and pedagogical culture.
The implementation of the first stage of the students’ inclusion in modeling lies in their understanding the essence of value-sense guidelines. At this stage, which is substantively connected with the “idea of value-sense guidelines”, students are invited to write a discursive essay on the topics: “Man as a value in itself” and “Pedagogical culture”. Comparing and discussing their ideas about values, the teacher helps the students to comprehend its cultural forms. At the same time, students are offered the following tasks: constructing a "Model of a moral-responsible student", "Qualities characterizing moral responsibility", "Cooperation"; exercise "Responsible assignment"; situations of role-playing experimentation “Telephone conversations”, “Planned vacation” ( Saprygina, 2016).
After writing an essay and working with “verbal formulas”, future teachers are united in groups. Each subgroup gives a general consideration to their work in the form of a discussion. In the process of activity, the need to develop students' willingness to work together in accordance with the principles of business communication and cooperation, to interact in concert with various participants in professional activities, becomes apparent.
At the second stage of the modeling process - “comprehending” the professional significance of value-sense guidelines - each student is given an individual task: to make a portrait of a teacher interacting with students with disabilities. The portrait must be conferred with certain socio-pedagogical values, which are reflected in his professional qualities. These tasks are performed by students as part of independent work on the discipline "Psychology of social work. "At this stage of work, heuristic methods such as mass brainstorming; method of self-organization of learning - work with textbooks; free association method are used.
At the third stage of the modeling process - the construction of an information-cognitive model - it is necessary to create a model which would reflect basic values and value guidelines. This work is carried out by using heuristic methods of organizing group work (review method, project method).
As a result of the work, an information-cognitive model is constructed that reflects basic axiological guidelines (spiritual, creative, organizational, praxiological) of the future teacher.
Within the model, two groups of value-sense guidelines are distinguished: Man as a value in itself and Pedagogical culture. The spiritual indicator reflects the guideline of the teacher, working with students with disabilities, on the highest universal values. The creative indicator reflects the teacher’s guideline on the values of pedagogical creativity. The organizational indicator is connected with multiculturalism as a socio-pedagogical value. The praxiological indicator shows the abilities and skills of social and pedagogical activity, which, in turn, indicates atonement to social and pedagogical values.
The study of the problem of the formation of value-sense guidelines of future teachers for work with students with disabilities in the university space allowed us to consider the concept of “value-sense guidelines” in the context of working with this category through the unity of spiritual, creative, organizational, praxiological guidelines: Man as a value in itself and Pedagogical culture that determine the effectiveness of solving professional problems.
It should also be noted that in the process of vocational training at the university, the stages of the formation of the future teachers’ conscious attitude to personal and socially significant values through the involvement of students in the construction of the information-cognitive model have been developed.
The practice-oriented form of work helps the future teacher to master the value-sense guidelines for work with students with disabilities in the context of vocational training. Training a future teacher for work with students with disabilities in inclusive education has always been considered a difficult task. In fact, interaction with such students remains formalized. In this context, training future teachers for work with students at a university is quite difficult, and this confirms the relevance of finding ways, conditions, methods and techniques to prepare them for this activity. This article describes one of the stages in the formation of future teachers’ value-sense guidelines. In the process of practical activity, future teachers solve various socio-pedagogical problems, including those related to their interaction with students, since one of the functions of a teacher is socio-pedagogical, which involves working with people who require special care and attention. This function is manifested in the system of value guides in the unity of spiritual, creative, organizational and praxiological guidelines.
It should be taken into account that it is highly unproductive to reduce all pedagogical actions to theoretical training of students, since only experience in interacting with various types of families will allow them to reach the level of parenting agreed with the family.
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21 October 2020
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Economics, social trends, sustainability, modern society, behavioural sciences, education
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Smirnaya, A. A., & Smirnova, A. V. (2020). Formation Of Value-Sense Guidelines Of Future Teachers In Inclusive Education. In I. V. Kovalev, A. A. Voroshilova, G. Herwig, U. Umbetov, A. S. Budagov, & Y. Y. Bocharova (Eds.), Economic and Social Trends for Sustainability of Modern Society, vol 90. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 840-846). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.03.99