The research relevance is caused through attaching the big importance to foreign economic activity (FEA) stimulation in the Russian economy. FEA institutional factor (stimulating norms, rules, mechanisms) will be developed including on the regional level. The article’s purpose: to estimate this factor’s influence on FEA. Scientific novelty and importance of results consist in implementing such estimation by complex inclusion of variety of displays of institutional support’s factor. Research methods included the quantitative and “qualitative” analysis, including on basis of statistical analysis, content analysis of legal documents, reports and press releases of assistance institutions: the analysis of dynamic series by indicators of international exhibition’s effect (contracts’ number, regional export); the analysis of statistics and branch structure of export and investment contracts, concluded by various support forms; the analysis of indicators of development of FEA’s material infrastructure. Analysis on example of Sverdlovsk region Russia’s has shown: all considered institutional factor’s displays will be actively realized and bring appreciable positive effect – quantitative and qualitative, sometimes remote in time. The fastest effect will be brought by assistance to enterprises’ business communication. Results can be used by both FEA support system and business by planning the increasing the fullness of use of FEA assistance effect.
Keywords: Institutional factorforeign economic activitystate supporteffectregion
The research relevance is caused through attaching the big importance to stimulation of foreign economic activity (FEA), including of non-raw export, international investments attraction, in Russian economy. Non-raw export development is designated as one of basic target directions of the country’s development, national project “International cooperation and export” is passed. There was revealed earlier in the research, that FEA institutional support is expressed in FEA institutional provision, that is an aggregate of norms, rules, procedures, practices of assistance to FEA, as well as of mechanisms of their realization (Andreeva et al., 2019). FEA institutional factor on regional level in Russia in addition to the displays already existed has become to be expressed recent years in Regional export standard, that will be applied in 22 regions. FEA institutional factor will be expressed as a result in mechanisms and instruments of FEA state backing. Earlier in the research there was revealed a variety of these instruments and theoretically shown, that institutional factor’s influence in case of its various displays can by illustrated by various effects’ expressions for region’s FEA. But this influence’s estimation wasn’t yet implemented.
The need of effective FEA functioning in context of its institutional provision puts the scientific and practical problem – the problem of estimation of the institutional factor’s influence on region’s FEA. This supposes to reveal, what effect gives institutional provision for FEA. At that there should be considered a variety of this factor’s displays, and, accordingly, variety of the effect’s displays. Various aspects of the problem of estimation were studied in existing scientific works. So, in Russian literature there will be estimated:
number of international exhibitions, business missions organized by export support institutions (Shirokova, 2019);
studying courses conducted (number) (Shirokova, 2019), service for companies’ web sites in foreign languages, putting goods to international standards (Minin, 2017); common number of assisted companies (Voronov & Kruglov, 2016);
regions’ programs in part of export strengthening (Shirokova, 2019);
fact of issuing the exporters’ catalogue (Voronov & Kruglov, 2016);
signed export contracts (number) (Shirokova, 2019), promoting the companies’ export offers (Minin, 2017);
effect (including for FEA) of special economic zones (SEZ), techno-parks and investment attracting agencies (Gutnick & Trofimova, 2018); effect for companies’ export potential from state backing for their development (Sapir et al., 2016).
Actively will be analyzed the export support on national level [for example: (Panteleeva et al., 2017).
However often works contain estimation only of a part of possible displays of FEA institutional factor, the effect will be estimated only of some chosen FEA helping institution.
Foreign researchers more use statistical, econometric tools:
influence of export promotion programs on export of supported enterprises will be estimated for various states (Comi & Resmini, 2019; Malca et al., 2019), including on region’s level (Comi & Resmini, 2019). Positive effect is marked, first of all, of seconding for participation in exhibitions, business delegations, of trade delegations. But less attention will be paid to “qualitative” analysis, not whole spectrum of FEA institutional support will be involved. More will be considered a national, but not a region’s scale, and federal regulating measures (Brambilla et al., 2018; Ünal, 2018). Studied more will be influence of enterprises’ export on their well-being [for example: (Bao, 2016)], while effect of export stimulation – less;
some investigations consider influence of aggregated institutional environment on export (Asongu et al., 2018; Rehman et al., 2020), while it seems expedient to concentrate in this research only on institutional assistance;
like in Russian literature, the effect will be studied of institutional support for foreign direct investments’ inflow. There’s concluded on example of a number of not large economies about positive effect (Irandoust, 2016), on example of large quickly growing economies – about not big role of institutional quality (in comparison with trade openness) (Asongu et al., 2018). Difficulty of effect defining is marked (Narula & Pineli, 2019), institutional factor will be studied basically in national, but not region’s, scale, and separately from influence on export;
some works mark relevance of wide spectrum of FEA institutional seconding (including of strengthening the international cooperation, industrial zones, high schools) (Dong & Truong, 2019), but the research subject not always includes estimation of its effect.
Thus, the problem remains important of complex estimation of influence of institutional support factor on regional FEA, with consideration of possibly broadener spectrum of this factor’s displays.
The research subject is institutional factor of region’s FEA. Research has revealed and is called to answer questions: How does institutional factor influence region’s FEA? Whether can be this effect quantitative and (or) qualitative? How will be expressed estimation of the effect of institutional help for region’s FEA, with account of variety of this support’s displays?
Purpose of the Study
The study’s purpose: to estimate the influence (positive effect) of institutional factor (in part of institutional provision of support) on FEA on example of one of the Russian regions. Scientific novelty and importance of results consist in estimation of the influence of institutional support’s factor on regional FEA by complex inclusion of variety of its displays and their effects. Also, scientific novelty and importance of results consist in differentiation of final and “initial” expression of effect.
Analyzed displays and information base
Following displays of the factor of FEA institutional assistance, having place in a region’s scale, were analyzed:
organization of international events with economic basis: exhibitions, visits (receptions) of business missions, interstate meetings, sport events;
consultant and complex support for enterprises’ FEA;
information work and work for improving the region’s image;
forming the infrastructure of production development, furthering FEA; organizing the training the staff potential related to FEA;
concluding by region the international agreements about economic partnership (isn’t considered in the article because of volume limitation).
The region analyzed was Sverdlovsk region, actively implementing the FEA, one of the Russian regions, where Regional export standard will be applied. By necessity the other regions’ experience was considered.
Research’s information base was: region’s strategy of foreign economic development; reports of Sverdlovsk regional Ministry of international and foreign economic relations; press releases about results of activity of Center of export support of Sverdlovsk regional fund of entrepreneurship support and regional Ural chamber of commerce and industry; press releases about the international events of economic character conducted and other assistance displays; statistics of region’s international trade; official web sites of other FEA support’s institutions.
Methodical provision of analysis of final expression of effect
The methods of statistical (quantitative) and qualitative analysis were applied in the research. The indicators of final and “initial” (intermediate) expression of effect of influence of FEA institutional factor were analyzed. In part of analysis of final expression of effect, namely in part of economic-statistical estimation, the analysis was carried out by indicators of final efficiency of support measures, i.e. analysis on following indicators:
dynamic series (analysis of dynamic series) on indicators of the international exhibition’s effect (number of treaties concluded, region’s export to lands – partners by the organizing etc.)
number of the export contracts concluded by other seconding forms;
number of the foreign economic projects got organizational support (passports’ drawing up);
number of the projects with international investments initiated by helping institutions;
indicators of creation of the infrastructure furthering the FEA – exhibition, transport, hotel, sport infrastructure, – as result of preparation to international events of economic character;
growth of economy’s income on background of organizing the international sport event (including through services’ export).
Qualitative analysis, in process of data search, supposed the use of facts’ analysis, content analysis of strategy of region’s foreign economic development and of press releases about conducting the international events and about other support. Also, the comparative analysis was used (by comparing the large projects of foreign production localization in regions with the presence of SEZ or industrial parks in the place of localization). Qualitative analysis was related to following aspects:
branch structure (of region’s export to lands – exhibition partners; of the bargains struck as result of exhibition or of other backing from FEA furthering institutions);
forming the cluster, export oriented or with foreign investments, by support of SEZ, techno-parks, agencies, funds.
Methodical provision of analysis of “initial” expression of effect
Analysis of “initial” expression of effect was considered as addition to the final effect analysis. “Initial” expression of effect was estimated through a number, scales and qualitative parameters of furthering measures organized, i.e. it doesn’t reflect final efficiency, but reflects the efficiency intermediately.
Quantitative analysis here supposed the estimation of following indicators: quantitative presence of enterprises on international exchanges of contacts and exhibitions in region, number of exhibits on exhibitions, quantitative participation of regional enterprises in national export catalogue; number of the international events organized by regional FEA support institutions; number of the specialists being trained in region in FEA sphere and in branches with promising for regional FEA development.
Qualitative analysis was related to following aspects:
technological level of the products presented at international exhibitions; branch and geographical specifics of exhibition guests;
organization within exhibitions of “active” formats of participants’ interaction;
presence at events of helping institutions’ representatives as guarantors and consultants;
comfortability of use of consultant seconding from FEA support institutions;
presenting in regional document of FEA stimulation the directions of development and furthering.
Research sequence and process
On example of Sverdlovsk region, the analysis was carried out of the effects of displays of FEA institutional factor:
In part of analysis of the effect of international exhibitions’ organization the dynamic series were studied of indicators of the international industrial exhibition “Innoprom” being organized every year in the region by the Ministry of industry and commerce Russia’s, by regional authorities’ participation (table
The dynamics was studied of Sverdlovsk export to the states at most represented at “Innoprom” (table
bThis’s only from the country – organizational partner: 2015 – China, 2016 – India, 2017 – Japan, 2018 – Republic of Korea.
Source: official public releases of “Innoprom” press center.
Analysis of visits of region’s business delegations abroad, where regional authorities, funds, chamber of commerce and industry work, has shown, that they’re used by large enterprises’ number (initial expression of effect). So, in the business delegations’ visits abroad 2019 by assistance of Sverdlovsk Government participated 130 enterprises; the authorities carried out 12 international negotiations about Sverdlovsk export increasing [by public data of the Sverdlovsk Ministry of international and foreign economic relations (the MIFER)]. The number of business missions’ organized by Ural chamber of commerce and industry and of enterprises-participants 2019 has grown to 2016. The Center of export support of Sverdlovsk regional fund of entrepreneurship support (the CES) has organized during the not full 2019 visiting the 69 exhibitions, including by business delegations, what have furthered 55 export contracts’ conclusion, including with products of manufacturing industry (as medical equipment, aluminum, clothes etc.) (by public data of the CES).
Analysis of indicators of the effect of preparation to conducting the interstate summits in the region has shown the effect presence. So, to the summits of Shanghai cooperation organization and BRICS 2009 in Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk region) the modern terminal complex in airport was built, road to the city was broadened and train was organized. As result, passengers’ flow has got multiple growth, what in part of foreign passengers reflects an increase of export of transport and other services. The opening the several new hotels was planned, 340 buildings were repaired. To the same summits 2015 in Ufa (in other Ural region) the new airport’s international terminal was built (capacity was grown in 4 times; airport’s passengers’ flow was grown 2013-2017 on 50-60%); congress hall was modernized, 6 hotels were built and 40 repaired; roads, buildings’ facades, parks were equipped. All the created remained demanded (by public press release). This provides a factor of FEA’s future activation.
Analysis of indicator of the effect of international sport events’ organization by authorities has shown, that, for example, for carrying out the football championship 2018 the stadiums were reconstructed or built in a number of Russian cities, including Ekaterinburg. To the organizational committee, as result of the organizing, small and medium business’ earnings have grown on 0.8 trillion of Ruble, first of all, in construction and tourism, which product was requited including through the services’ export. During 5 years the infrastructure can add to GDP increase up to 0.2 trillion of Ruble.
Effect for the region’s FEA of institutional factor in part of consultant and complex backing for enterprises was estimated by data about indicators of a number of support kinds:
education: so, during the not full 2019 the CES’s educational services were used by more than 300 enterprises, 12 seminars, forums and accelerators were conducted (“initial” expression of effect), what has furthered conclusion of 11 contracts about export. The advising services were used by 51 enterprises, 96 consultations were organized, by which help 22 export treaties were concluded (by public data of the CES);
getting the organizational support for foreign economic projects of enterprises: so, 2016, on the April, the seconding by the MIFER was given by drawing up the 37 passports of such projects of enterprises (including the 20 ratified by Ministry of economic development Russia’s), and on the autumn – there were already 47 passports (30 were ratified) (by public data of the MIFER);
support in reception of foreign business delegations (so, by such furthering of the CES during the not full 2019 the 3 export contracts were concluded), in search for potential partners (the CES has found 147 foreign partners for 32 enterprises, by this support 5 bargains of export were struck), in placing at international trade platforms (such CES’s service was used by 55 enterprises; by the help 1 export contract was concluded), in web sites’ translation and promotion (the CES has given the service to 26 enterprises, what furthered conclusion of 2 contracts of export). Among the goods set on export: medical equipment, tourism services, saw-timber, foodstuffs etc. Analysis of the CES’s activity gives one else quantitative effect’s indicator – the number of the enterprises first coming to export. So, among the companies concluded during the not full 2019 export treaties by the CES’s support, one third carried out export first. In all, during the whole 2019, with the CES’s seconding, 90 companies have concluded 190 contracts on export (by public data of the CES).
The indicators of the effect of information work of support institutions and work for improving the region’s image were analyzed. So, within the MIFER’s work on the Plan of attracting the investments into the region’s economy for 2015-2017, for example 2015 a number of investment projects was initiated: in sphere of common production of medical goods (on territory of techno-park), metal-processing equipment, foundation of common business park etc. (by public data of the MIFER). The region’s authorities 2019 conducted 5 consultations for foreign companies on the questions of common enterprises’ foundation in the region. As result of one of them the equipment export of Sverdlovsk enterprises was agreed. The agreements of intentions between the region’s SEZ and two foreign enterprises were concluded about foundation of productions of high processing degree, and the negotiations were carried out with one foreign company else about localization; the agreement was concluded between one Sverdlovsk and one foreign company about common enterprise’s foundation. This related to manufacturing industry. Also, 2019 the region’s authorities made 20 international presentations of regional potential. Regional export potential (including the concrete companies) was presented on 8 foreign events, and in a number of cases this initiated business links’ establishing. The regional FEA portal “Made in Ural” supposed by the Regional export standard was created on 5 languages, presenting 2 thousand of products of 480 export-oriented enterprises. Number and geography of its visitors grows (by public data of the MIFER).
The indicators of the effect of forming the institutions of infrastructure of production intensification were analyzed. So, in the Sverdlovsk SEZ “Titanium valley” (founded 2010 by federal law) to the key residents belong “VSMPO-AVISMA” (exporter, one of the leading global producers of titanium products), “Ural Boeing Manufacturing” etc. Of the 18 SEZ residents 4 are the foreign. SEZ production belongs to metallurgy, production of transport and construction materials etc. As an example of Sverdlovsk industrial park can be mentioned chemical park “Tagil” (since 2015): its residents produce synthetic resins and plastics, metal constructions and boring equipment etc., a common Russian-Austrian enterprise functions.
The indicators of the effect of the institution of organization of training the the staff potential related to FEA were analyzed. In particular, in part of training the FEA specialists, the MIFER trains annually specialists within realization of the State plan of administrative staff training: 1998-2019 were trained 2.5 thousand of managers (by public data of the MIFER). Training in FEA sphere will be conducted also at federal state universities (chairs at the Ural federal and Ural state economic university). In part of training the specialists in the branches, where FEA strengthening is promising, the analysis shows, that in Sverdlovsk region’s case in the Strategy of foreign economic links’ development till 2035 especial value will be mentioned of export and import of advanced equipment for mechanical engineering. Mechanical engineering’s specialists will be trained, for example, by the Ural federal university [number of corresponding students is more than 1.2 thousand (by public data of the university).
The analysis on example of Sverdlovsk region has shown, that expressions of effect for FEA in case of various institutional factor’s displays are various, and effect is appreciable.
So, tens of agreements have been concluded on international industrial exhibition “Innoprom” every year. Presence of tens of countries and foreign companies (table
Sverdlovsk export to the lands at most represented at “Innoprom”, after the exhibition grew (table
Other “active” formats of exhibition participants’ interaction reflecting qualitative indicator of initial expression of effect are bilateral business forums, B2B platforms for enterprises’ communication with accent on Russian high-tech export promotion (target consumers will be invited), contacts’ exchanges, organized by seconding of the Ministry of industry and commerce Russia’s and Russian export center. Concluding the frame agreements between regional government and foreign companies serves as guarantor of region’s support for investments. Exhibition allows to present new products.
Analogically this’s in the case of visits of region’s business delegations abroad and of organization of visiting the thematic international exhibitions. As result, there will be concluded the agreements about collaboration between companies, and this relates to region’s manufacturing industry.
Carrying out in region the interstate summits renders creation of image and communication infrastructure, what can be expressed in modernization of international airport, roads, hotels, decorative elements of infrastructure, tourism infrastructure.
Organizing the international sport events in region increases export of tourism and “impressions’ industry’s” services, that will be provided by the infrastructure being built, which is aimed at the future.
Effect for region’s FEA of institutional factor in part of consultant and complex backing for enterprises, as the analysis has shown, is reflected: in coming the advised, trained enterprises to export; in getting by enterprises the organizational support for foreign economic projects; in coming to export the enterprises getting the help by reception of business delegations, by search for potential partners, by placing at international trade platforms, by translation and promotion of web sites. In a total by information and advising support tens of export treaties will be concluded in the region during the year. At that the manufacturing industry’s products will be exported.
As for effect of information work of support institutions and work for improving the region’s image: high-tech projects with international investments begin to run, regional export potential will be presented.
The effect for region’s FEA of forming the institutions of infrastructure of production creation (SEZ, techno-parks) is expressed in attracting into region the international investments, creation of high-tech, internationally competitive production.
Effect of the institution of organization of training the staff potential related to FEA can be observed in initial expression – in regular training in region the specialists in FEA and in branches, where FEA intensification is promising (for example, in mechanical engineering).
Thus, the analysis carried out has shown, that all of the considered institutional factor’s displays bring appreciable positive effect for the region’s FEA – various, qualitative and quantitative, what is caused through variety of institutional factor’s displays. Basic effect’s expression is number of the export contracts concluded by furthering of the support institutions, and their belonging to non-raw export. In the region considered (Sverdlovsk region) all the analyzed displays of factor of FEA institutional assistance are presented. In particular, by organizational role of federal authorities a large international exhibition will be conducted. Initial expression of its effect is reflected in a number of companies-participants and their branch belonging and in the communication’s formats organized. Appreciable final effect is expressed in a number of agreements and in increase of regional export, including the high-technological. From part of the regional institutions of FEA support the high activity is observed in organizing the international business missions, and this initial expression is reflected in concluding the export contracts, including in manufacturing industry (final expression of effect). Similar activity and appreciable both initial and final expression of effect is observed in part of consultant and complex seconding for enterprises’ FEA in various segments, in part of institutional support for international investments’ attracting, for forming the institutions of infrastructure of production creation; etc.
The effect remote in time of some displays of institutional assistance factor (for example, in case of organization of regional export portal, of institution of organization of training the FEA staff potential), difficulty of separating from the effects of non-institutional factors, limited nature of published information, – sometimes make difficult to estimate the effect. By the published data the conclusion can be made, that the fastest, and that’s why most noticeable for observer, effect will be brought by assistance to enterprises’ international business communication.
In part of practical importance, the results received by testing the proposed methodical provision for estimating, can be used by representatives of both FEA support system and business by planning the increasing the fullness of use of FEA support’s effect.
The research was carried out by financial support of the Grant of the President of Russian Federation for state support of young Russian researchers – candidates of sciences MK-3463.2019.6.
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21 October 2020
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Ratner, A. V. (2020). Estimation Of Institutional Factor’s Influence On Regional Foreign Economic Activity. In I. V. Kovalev, A. A. Voroshilova, G. Herwig, U. Umbetov, A. S. Budagov, & Y. Y. Bocharova (Eds.), Economic and Social Trends for Sustainability of Modern Society (ICEST 2020), vol 90. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1456-1466). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.03.168