Nowadays, the problem of shaping out of communicative competence is of particular importance in the education at medical institutions. Despite the fact that students acquire sufficient volume of knowledge and skills, they are not always able and ready to use them in practice. In this regard, we have studied modern means of teaching foreign languages for special purposes and have identified a significant advantage of audio-visual means and a prospectful use of technology for working with video materials to motivate students' foreign language communicative activities. The data of the diagnostics, performed by us at the input, intermediate and final stages of teaching a foreign language at Medical University, indicate the positive dynamics in the development of students' motivation for communicative activities by the means of video materials. The study of motivation for foreign language communication allowed us to state that the prevailing external motivation at all investigated stages of learning is typical for students, with the number of dominant motives, which are professionally significant, determining the professional orientation of students. At all stages of work with video materials, we saw the successful removal of psychological and language barriers and stimulation of motivation for foreign language communicative activities. Increasing motivation to develop communication skills in a foreign language also happens as the result of peculiarities of each type of training (auditory, visual, communicative and kinesthetic) with simultaneous use of video materials at different stages of work.
Keywords: Motivationcommunicative competencevideo materials
The dynamics of educational events in recent years caused drastic changes in the Russian system of Higher education. The education of specialists in higher education institutions is aimed at key competencies. The problem of formation of communicative competence as a component of general professional competence is especially important at training medical specialities.
The future specialist will deal with the problems of intercultural and interpersonal interaction in the native country and abroad. The language barrier, different cultural reference of both: medical professionals and patients, religion and folk medicine, which are an organic part of spirituality and lifestyle, cause certain difficulties for students ( Bales et al., 2020; Ferguson & Candib, 2002). Nowadays researchers emphasize the urgent need for development of high-level communicative skills, when the process of expanding interaction and interdependence in various fields has also embraced the healthcare sector. Russian doctors take part in rescue operations and in international charity missions under supervision of the World Health Organization, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, in various projects intended to prevent the spread of particularly dangerous infections, etc. Besides, many medical specialists have internships abroad, speak at various seminars, and release articles for leading foreign journals ( Martynova, 2019). Recent events related to the coronavirus pandemic expose the interest, intended to join efforts to withstand this threat.
Developing of communicative skills at a foreign language learning at a medical institution raises the problems of both: scientific and practical content. In particular:
insufficient data on motivation for communication via video material;
removing barriers hurdling the development of communicative skills;
lack of depth in studying motivation increase for independent work by the means of video.
Insufficient data on motivation for communication in a foreign language via video materials
Practice reveals that there are many factors causing the low level of knowledge of students studying foreign language. At the same time, lack or insufficient motivation effects the success in foreign language learning in general, and badly influences communicative activities in particular ( Bashmakov, 2019).
In the domestic methodology, the problem of motivation for foreign language communication through video material has not found proper attention. Methodologists studied the problems of language teaching by the means of videos ( Pisarenko, 2017), authentic video ( Rachkovskaya & Uarova, 2019; Revina, 2015), and feature movies ( Arias, 2016).
Removing barriers hurdling communicative skills
Practice exposes that in medical schools, teachers face a great deal of problems that slow down the communicative activity in a foreign language. Students acquire sufficient amount of skills, but they are not always ready to use them in practice, namely, they are often unable to express their opinions on the problems discussed and perform communication in a foreign language. Certain psychological problems related to students' willingness to perceive, their ability to comply with conventional standards and the idea of their own potential can complicate the academic process. It is worth mentioning that psychological barriers are the subject of research by scientists and methodologists: A. Leont'ev, E. Atwater, I. Zimnyaya and others. In their research the authors have studied the above-mentioned barriers and come up to conclusion that they cause a significant obstacle in a foreign language learning.
Lack of depth in studying motivation increase for independent work by the means of video
In the "education throughout life" paradigm, independent work plays a key role ( Rojas, 2020). At the Federal level, the main objective is a competitive individual who is capable of self-perfecting and ready for continuous personal and professional development throughout life. Meanwhile the interests of the student should be taken into consideration. Implementation into practice of these tasks is possible, in our opinion, with the competent independent work.
Teaching at medical school shows that recently the curriculum has allocated rather a limited number of hours for learning a foreign language. Alongside with that, the volume of educational information flow raises, and it becomes increasingly difficult to cover all aspects of teaching and equip future specialists with all knowledge they need to freely navigate the current volume of information. For this reason, it is necessary for higher education to develop such teaching methods that, even under such conditions, would allow students to achieve sufficiently high level of knowledge, as well as ensure the effectiveness of their independent work. Educational complexes that have been devised until recent times do not comply with these requirements for many objective reasons. In particular, this refers to manuals for independent work of students aimed at the development of communicative activities. The use of video performs an important role in resolving these problems.
The study raised the following questions.
What is the successful worldwide experience in the development of the learning motivation?
Which are the requirements for video to increase the motivation of medical students to communicate in a foreign language?
How do the phases of work with video material relate to the motivation?
Purpose of the Study
It is assumed that the answers to the stated research questions will help to achieve the goal and will contribute to the development of recommendations to use video to increase motivation among students of medical higher institutions to learn foreign languages.
To achieve the goal of the work, the methods of scientific and theoretical level of research have been used: 1) analytical: analysis of theoretical literature on methodology, psychology, linguistics; analysis of the provisions of legal documents that determine the guidelines for teaching foreign languages in medical schools, the provisions of technology for working with video materials; 2) generalizing: synthesis and formalization of research results; 3) interpretation: interpretation of researched data.
Analysis of the worldwide experience in the development of the learning motivation
The problem of motivation for learning has been diversely studied by foreign and domestic teachers and psychologists: М. Alekseyeva, J. Atkinson, L. Bozhovich, E. Ilyin, H. Kelley, I. Kon, M. Reece, V. Merlin, C. Rogers, S. Rubinstein and others.
Motivation is one of the key factors, influencing the success in learning foreign languages. In modern pedagogy and psychology, the study of motivation is intended to answer questions about the reasons of human activity, the motivating forces of such activities and behavior ( Rakhmanova, 2019).
In our study, we understand motivation as an entity of various motivators, psychological aspects that determine human behavior ( Zimnyaya, 1991).
The problems of motivation of human activity are comprehensively explained in the psychological and pedagogical literature. But the term "motive" does not have a clear interpretation.
Based on theoretical statements, we start from the idea that a motive is an impetus of human activity, the determinants of which are both: internal and external reasons. The motive performs: a) a motivating function, that is, it encourages action, and b) an explanatory function, that is, explains, substantiates, justifies actions.
As the motive of communicative activity, we understand all the factors that stipulate the activation of learning: needs, aims, interests.
Study of the use of video materials to increase motivation
Researchers of modern methods of teaching foreign languages for special purposes emphasize the significant advantage of audiovisual means and highlight the following arguments:
familiarity with cultural and specific realities ( Ivanova & Malygina, 2017);
modern students are inclined to visual perception of information ( Puzatykh, 2016).
Successful motivation gain for communication purposes in a foreign language can be achieved only if the appropriate methodically correct management of the use of this educational tool is assured.
In work with video material researchers distinguish 3 main stages: Pre-Viewing, Viewing and Post-Viewing.
The problem of motivation via the use of video materials
According to the FSES 3+ (Federal State Educational Standard), the discipline "Foreign language" refers to the basic part of the block 1 "Discipline" of the Main Professional Educational Program (MPEP) and is the compulsory discipline for study. Specialist Degree program in fundamental medical specialities is "the ability to perform business communication in oral and written forms in the state and foreign languages" ( Federal State Educational Standards of Higher Education, 2016).
The form of control is the credit and the exam for the course English for Medical students, including the above-mentioned competence. Thus, in this relation, external motives embrace obligation and assessment.
To reveal the dynamics of motivation for students' communicative activity, we conducted diagnostics at 3 stages: the input – the initial stage of training, the intermediate – in the middle of the training period, and the final – at the final stage of training (standardized methods) ( Rean, 2008). 150 the 1st-year students of The S.I. Georgievskiy Medical Academy, CFU named after V. I. Vernadsky (Simferopol), took part in the survey.
According to Avdeev ( 2008), we divided the motives of students shaping out a foreign language communicative competence into two groups: professionally significant, which determines the professional orientation of students, and personal-communicative. The respondents' answers allow us to claim that the respondents' external motivation prevails at all 3 stages of diagnostics at Medical University, as we can see in Table
This analysis allowed us to identify the number of the most effective reasons in motivation of teaching communicative activities in a foreign language, that coincides with the data of other researchers. At the final stage of diagnosis, among the professionally oriented motives of students, the desire to get a prestigious job and provide a high material standard of living for their family dominates (95 %), then they emphasize that foreign language communication skills allow them to participate in foreign – language professional communication (70%), be a literate educated person (70%), learn to read medical literature on the speciality (65%).
Among the personal and communicative motives, students identified the desire to understand video (60%), music (40%), communicate with representatives of different cultures (40%), and read fiction literature in a foreign language (35%).
Successful increase of motivation of medical students to communication in a foreign language via the use of video materials can be achieved only if the methodically correct management of the use of this academic tool is provided.
The results of the study allow us to state that increasing students' motivation with video materials' usage is effective if the following conditions are met:
the video material corresponds to the content of the English for Medical Students course;
work with video material is clearly planned at every stage of the activities;
the video material corresponds to the language training of students and the possibilities of organizing independent work of students at the Post-Viewing stage;
on selecting materials, the requirements of high contextual and technical quality of video content are taken into consideration (good audibility and visibility, availability of subtitles in English);
creating a favorable atmosphere of work in the student team.
At each of the above-mentioned stages of working with video materials, we witnessed successful removal of psychological and language barriers and stimulation of motivation to foreign language communicative activity in the 1st-year students of Medical University, which is shown in table
Motivation increase for communication skills’ development in a foreign language also occurs as the result of peculiarities of each type of teaching by the means of video materials’ usage at different stages of work, namely: auditory and visual types – at the stage of viewing the video, communicative and kinesthetic types – at the stage of discussing and working through the video material.
As the result of the research, we came to the conclusion that motivation via communicative activities students can effectively shape out the communicative competence by the use of video, as provided by the Federal State Educational Standard, in the case, if video activities are carefully arranged by the teacher considering professional needs and interests of students, their level of proficiency. Systematic use of video materials in teaching the subject "Foreign language" facilitates the increase of students' motivation to learn a foreign language.
The use of video materials in foreign language classes is in total compliance with the modern principles of the effectiveness of the educational process, namely:
facilitates the increase of interest in learning a foreign language, contributes to the communicative orientation of the lesson, helps to eliminate language and psychological "barriers";
considers the individuality of each of the training types;
creates the necessary psychological, pedagogical and organizational conditions for the formation of communicative activity;
commonly accompanied by positive emotions and values of successful performance in school, which are prerequisites for motivation and effective communication in the classroom.
What is important is not only the perfect functioning of purely technical aspects, but, which is more important, the methodological and didactic appropriateness of using video materials.
We consider it prospectful to further study the use of video materials taking into account the individual psychological characteristics of students, including their belonging to certain educational types (auditory, visual, communicative, motor-kinetic) in the process of learning a foreign language.
We would like to thank the anonymous reviewer for the constructive comments to improve the manuscript.
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21 October 2020
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Kushnareva, T. I., Yagenich, L. V., & Kirillova, I. I. (2020). Motivation Of Communicative Activity By Video Materials In Foreign Language Classes. In I. V. Kovalev, A. A. Voroshilova, G. Herwig, U. Umbetov, A. S. Budagov, & Y. Y. Bocharova (Eds.), Economic and Social Trends for Sustainability of Modern Society, vol 90. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 959-966). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.03.112