This article is devoted to the study of the grounds for forming the motivation of university students through the use of a motivational - personal approach in conducting wellness classes. The support of the theoretical part of the article is built using the personal approach, considering a subject as an active unit of professional development with a formed need for self-actualization and self-improvement. In the process of studying theoretical developments, a number of contradictions were identified that led to the conduct of research on the indicated topics. The projective technique made it possible to identify not only the tendencies of the respondents (older and younger adolescents) towards aggression (auto-aggression), but also the attitude of the respondents to their “I” and the definition of dominant in this structure motivation in their main activities. The survey of future teachers and their reference groups made it possible to draw some conclusions about their attitude to their health, healthy lifestyle and to trace the emerging trends in its formation or their complete absence. The analysis of the data of the theoretical and practical parts of the study allowed structuring of an individual-personal approach to wellness classes, as well as highlighting the problems which solution will increase the motivation of future teachers in educational and professional activities. The necessity of creating training programs developed on the basis of a technological model that includes all the components of an individual-personal approach is emphasized; a relatively free choice of the type of motor activity is suggested.
Keywords: Healthmotivationphysical culturepersonalityself-actualizationstudent- teachers
The presence of reforms in the general and vocational schools, as well as updating the content of education requires fundamental changes in the entire educational system, moving the urgent problems of educational psychology to the plane of the individual and personal potential of students and teachers. The principles of public policy, which are reflected in the Law of the Russian Federation “On Education”, emphasize the humanistic nature of education and the priority of free development of an individual. A person becomes an active subject of professional development and personal growth. Therefore, in order to meet the requirements of the time, the student - the future teacher - should not only acquire fundamental knowledge during the process of education, but also form the need for self-improvement, in getting the knowledge throughout the entire active life.
The motivational-semantic attitudes of an individual begin to form together with the actions and activities of a person and change along with changes in a fate of a person. In Russian psychology, ideas about motivational-semantic relationships are studied in the works by L. S. Vygotsky, A. N. Leontiev, A. R. Luria. Later, these researchers also distinguished the concept of personal meaning - the reflection in the consciousness of an individual of the relation of the activity motive to the aim of an action (Asmolov, 2010). Research in the field of physical culture and sports outlines the problem field of scientific research related to the main aspects of the present-day society. They are the state and society, the educational system and personality, and in particular - the formation of the physical culture of the personality, which includes attitude to one’s body, health, lifestyle, and future.
The timeliness and relevance of the topic under consideration related to the study of motivation to forming healthy approach to physical and personal development is beyond doubt. Before posing the problem in the article, it is necessary to focus on two authors who determined the theoretical approach in the psychological aspect of the problem under consideration: Maslow (1970), who claims that almost any state of the body, whatever it may be, is also a motivational state and A.R. Luria and his followers who considered psychology as a science directly related to the cultural-historical approach, fulfilling the function of a mediator between various aspects of the life of an individual and society as a whole (Wertsch, 1998).
The ongoing deterioration in the health of citizens is one of the urgent problems of a national scale, which are reflected in the research topics in the field of physical culture and sports. It is especially true in regards to the deterioration of the health of youth. Analyzing the situation over the past decade, it can be noted that in practice there is a tendency toward an increase in the proportion of young people with health deviations. The number of students at universities of the Russian Federation placed in special medical groups (SMG) according to annual medical examinations varies from 30-60%.
The number of students who are exempted from physical education classes due to health reasons is growing rapidly. Particular attention to students is explained by the fact that the working capacity of future specialists with higher education to a large extent depends on their physical and mental health, the contribution they are called upon to make to the revival of Russia is important. First of all, it concerns the students of a pedagogical university - future teachers; one of the tasks of their professional activity is the formation of the moral and physical health of the younger generation. Acquiring the profession requires not only the assimilation of a certain amount of knowledge and skills, but also requires the formation of a certain life style, makes high demands on the personal qualities of a person, and not least - on personal physical and mental health (Akishin, 2008).
In addition to a lowering level of students’ health, there is a lack of interest in physical education. In this situation, physical culture and sport can be considered as a modern value potential for preserving and strengthening the health of students, which is currently gaining special relevance (Lubysheva, 1997).
Thus, the health-improving focus of physical education as the most important principle of the physical education system should become a motive for the formation of physical culture of the person and the tendency to preserve the health of citizens. An analysis of the state of the problem under study revealed a number of contradictions between:
the increasing in the current socio-economic situation need for specialists who have not only high qualifications and a certain amount of skills, but also a high level of physical fitness and focus on a healthy lifestyle and the lack of widespread use of wellness technologies that contribute to a decrease in the number of students having health deviations;
a large volume of methodological working-outs and theoretical research in the field of health-saving technologies, which, with rare exceptions, are not used in the process of physical education of students of higher educational institutions;
the need for a compensatory approach in working with students who have health problems and the lack of technically elaborated methodological approaches to the application of health-saving technologies which could solve the problem;
a comprehensive understanding by the pedagogical community and a science-based approach to the effectiveness of the motivational-personal component when working with students on forming a value-based attitude to their health and the lack of structurally-developed algorithms in its use and development.
What place does motivation take in the scheme of the level structure of human activity? Structural components of students’ motivation for health-improving activities.
What indicators of students’ attitude to health demonstrate the need to use the motive of personal inclusion?
What forms of activity should be introduced into the practice of the university in the framework of an individual-personal approach to motivation using the example of working with future teachers of physical education and sports?
Purpose of the Study
In this article we will analyze the situation with the training of a future teacher of physical education and sports as a specialist who is able not only to realize the importance of a value-based attitude to health, who is not only motivated by health-improving and sports activities, but who also deeply understands the basics of activity motivations of both children and adults, as well as knows the methods and approaches in their development. Analysis of the research results will allow us to understand the dynamics and structure of the motives of the subjects, depending on age periods and the basic activity.
To achieve the research purpose, the analysis of literary sources that meet the objectives and contributes to the disclosure of the basic concepts of the study was used.
The method of comparative analysis made it possible to evaluate the effect of complex relaxation measures and evaluate the dynamics of emotional states.
Testing of students and schoolchildren using the projective methodology “Non-existent animal” revealed a tendency in the respondents’ attitude towards their “I”.
The frequency-semantic method applied when processing the results of the questionnaire survey not only of students-future teachers, but also of their diverse age environment made it possible to draw some conclusions about the attitude of students and their reference groups to their health and healthy lifestyles.
Physical wellness culture is a derivative of the generalized concept of “physical culture”. Physical wellness culture uses all forms, means and methods of physical education, which ensure the strengthening and preservation of health, form the optimal background for human life. The goal of a physical wellness culture is general improvement, increasing the body’s resistance to the harmful effects of the external environment, preventing diseases and switching to a level of health when the functional reserves of the body are turned on, allowing the activation of various physiological systems necessary in the implementation of certain functionally significant activities (Shilko, 2004).
One of the main factors of a healthy lifestyle of a modern person is rational motor activity manifested in the form of natural locomotion (walking, running, swimming, cycling), games, strength and gymnastic complexes, fitness systems, as well as various non-traditional exercises having as a rule innovative character. Maintaining and strengthening youth health is an elaborate complex socio-pedagogical problem requiring reorientation of the goals of education and upbringing, including the improvement of the body quality through the prophylaxis of movements, i.e., exercise modification is not aimed at correcting muscles, but at correcting movements –the articular kinematics. It means that one of the basic elements of modern health-saving technologies should be such a style of motor activity, the use of which will maximize the technical potential contained in any particular exercise.
The personal approach in modern psychological and pedagogical science involves the focus on the person as the goal, subject and main indicator of the effectiveness of the constructed paradigm in the design and implementation of the educational process. It involves reliance on the natural process of development of the inclinations and capabilities, self-actualization and self-realization of the subject on the basis of recognition of the uniqueness of the personality itself and its right to freedom of choice (Kolpakova, 2019). To provide a personality with a choice during the development process, the teacher needs to find the motivational basis of each personality. Maslow (2016) emphasized that “for the act and conscious desire the presence of motivation only is the exception and not the rule” (p.56), therefore, when applying the personality-motivational approach to work, it is necessary to implement an integrated approach.
Studying the personality characteristics of children and adolescents of different ages in the framework of the given research, it was found that in the process of growth and development, the pupils of sports sections develop greater self-confidence and self-reliance, whereas depression, indecision, disinterest in their social status and recognition are leveled. At the same time egocentrism increases. The tendency to reflection and thinking becomes minimal. The same trend is in the importance of the opinions of others about the subject and interest in the information. In these groups children have thoroughness, rationality of decision-making, reliance on essential information and on essential provisions. All these conclusions are confirmed by the data given in Table
Based on the data obtained, it is possible to form an individual-personal approach to each participant of the educational process. The diagnostic technique used has a propaedeutic orientation, since it allows identifying a tendency to aggressive behavior, which, in its turn, can be auto-aggression and have devastating psychosomatic consequences for the subject. The results of the study unit are presented in Table
As can be seen from Table
As can be seen from Table
The motivational-content level of activity aimed at participating in wellness classes is no less important than the other levels of the structure of an individual’s activity. As can be seen in the data from Table
As it can be seen from Table
Thus, based on the analysis of the data obtained, it can be summarized that an individual-personal approach to wellness classes in a different age group should take into account:
the need and personal motives of the subject,
goal-setting and its formation (the presence of the skill to set goals and achieve them),
current conditions of the main activity and their auspiciousness,
the ability to act and the formation of the skill of active action in the current environmental conditions,
possession of operational skills,
psychophysiological abilities to implement these operations,
the unity of knowledge and action.
The issues of organizing physical education in higher educational institutions based on the use of wellness technologies for students are sufficiently fully covered in scientific and methodological literature, as well as the issues of the interaction of science and education (Zubova & Arzhanykh, 2009). A variety of methods and technologies are offered to maintain and strengthen health, to create a health culture and a healthy lifestyle for university students. At the same time, despite existing scientific research in the field of physical education of students and their practical implementation, in the university practice of physical education, the question of the methodology for physical education classes on the basis of various innovative exercises, taking into account the individual characteristics of the students and having the resource potential in the development of the motivational component, remains insufficiently developed.
Wellness technology is a way of implementing activities aimed at achieving and maintaining physical well-being and at reducing the risk of developing diseases by means of physical culture and recovery. These are the basic rules for the use of special knowledge and skills, ways of organizing and implementing specific actions necessary to carry out physical fitness activities. Today, wellness technologies are not the property of the personal experience of rare specialists; they are developed in accordance with the achievements of medical science. Any wellness technology includes setting goals and objectives for recovery and the actual implementation of wellness activities in one form or another. The technology includes not only the implementation of the wellness program, but also the determination of the level of health and testing of physical fitness, as well as management and administration issues. Wellness and fitness technologies can be implemented in various forms: shaping, aerobics, fitness, bodybuilding, callanetics, isotone, stretching and yoga, as well as running, hiking, swimming, both recreational sports and other activities that are used in leisure activities. Taking into account current trends, a new curriculum is being developed at the Department of Physical Culture of Novgorod State University. It considers the experience of other universities using technological innovations of a three-component technological model of physical improvement (sports-specific, general developmental and wellness technologies) and the principles of personality-oriented content of sports and athletic activities. The personality-oriented content of physical education means the goals, objectives, forms and methods of physical culture and sports activities that are maximally focused on the interests and needs of the student’s personality. Such training programs developed on the basis of the technological model imply a relatively free choice of the type of physical activity and ensure the implementation of a differentiated and individualized approach to students taking into account their physical culture and sports interests, health status, levels of general and special physical fitness, motivational aspirations for physical activity and recreational activities.
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26 August 2020
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Educational strategies, educational policy, teacher training, moral purpose of education, social purpose of education
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Kolpakova, A. N., Kulebina, A. G., & Vodolazhchenko, N. V. (2020). Motivation Of Students To Wellness Classes: An Individual-Personal Approach. In & S. Alexander Glebovich (Ed.), Pedagogical Education - History, Present Time, Perspectives, vol 87. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 576-584). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.08.02.76