The article discusses some approaches to the study of the athlete’s personality structure, which is presented as a set of socio-psychological, psychological, professional and biomedical substructures. Theorists formed the sportsman’s personality structure, but it needs constant updating. That is why research on individual personality properties is very intensive. The diagnostic procedures performed allowed making a preliminary analysis of the most pronounced components of the structure of the potential personality of students-athletes - future teachers in physical education and sports. Using the “Athlete’s Identity Card”, it was possible to identify the most important personal qualities that are necessary for the successful development of this profession, and for competitiveness in this occupation. Based on the data obtained, preliminary conclusions are made about the qualities, abilities and skills of a specialist in physical education and sports that need to be adjusted in the process of their professional training. The study allowed students, future teachers, conducting a self-assessment of personal qualities, abilities, which largely determine their potential success in professional activities and, as a result of analyzing the data, possibly change what requires additional correction for the better. The specifics of preparing a future teacher in physical education and sports requires special attention to the formation of professionally significant personal qualities of a modern specialist. This study is preliminary in the system of tasks, including an analysis of the formation and mutual transitions between the personality and the individual and their productive and instrumental areas.
Keywords: Personalityteacherspecialist in physical culture and sportsdevelopmentpsychological qualities of personalitysocial environment
The question of studying the process of forming personal qualities, including in specialists in physical education and sports, has been one of the main issues in psychological and pedagogical science among scientists and practitioners for a long time and has not lost its relevance at the moment. The current situation of the development of scientific knowledge reflects the need of society for the study of possibly effective approaches to training an effective specialist in physical education and sports, capable of the maximum level of achievements in professional activity, including on the basis of psychological, physiological and motivational competence of a predisposition. It should be noted that in the current conditions of instability in the economic and social spheres, only a self-actualizing entity can fulfill oneself that actively accepts the realities of life and is capable of reflecting and transforming them within the framework of the humanistic paradigm, through self-understanding, self-acceptance and maximum realization of their capabilities and abilities, as well as directly in the field of physical education or sport, and in the process of teaching (Rogers, 1986; Rogers, 1980).
The importance of the problem under consideration is also due to serious changes in the education system of Russia, where new pedagogy and new approaches to training and education are associated with new requirements of the federal standard for the personality of the teachers themselves. Unlike the standards of previous years, the standards of the new generation make significant changes in the goals, content and organization of the educational process, which entail the need to restructure all educational activities in the school, and especially the teacher providing them.
A feature of the professional work of a physical education teacher is the connection of their activities with the upbringing of children, their motor activity, and value attitude to their health. They must competently approach students, understand age-related features, and know the ways of educating a future citizen. A physical education teacher spends a lot of time together with the students, sees them in class and extracurricular activities (hiking, rallies, competitions, cultural events, etc.) so they can find in the student what remains hidden from others. The mentor should form and develop students' social activity, help to reveal their abilities to them. In the field of physical culture, general pedagogical tasks of forming a harmoniously developed personality and a healthy lifestyle are being solved. A personal example of a teacher greatly contributes to the education of the child’s personality. For the effectiveness of the work performed, the teacher needs to rely on the pedagogy of cooperation with children, with their parents, and work colleagues. By revealing positive qualities in a child, promoting their development, forming students' faith in themselves, the teacher teaches the child to work in physical education classes, and at home - to develop their physical and moral-volitional qualities. Thus, the physical education teacher maintains close contact with parents, constantly informs them about the educational impact on students. The teacher, their attitude to the learning process, creativity and professionalism, desire to reveal the abilities of each child are the main resource without which the new requirements of the FSES to the organization of the educational process in the school cannot exist.
The personality structure of the athlete is formed by the theorists of sports, but it needs constant updating. That is why research on individual personality properties is very intense. One of the first studies that pointed to the need to develop the structure of a person’s personality, whose activities are related to physical culture and sports, was presented by N. B. Stambulova, and, subsequently specified in the scientific works of S. V. Davydova. L. L. Serova identified the mental properties in the ensemble of mental properties of the athlete that ensure the reception and processing of information, the adoption by the athlete of the necessary decisions; psychomotor properties that determine the quality of motor actions; emotional, affecting energy; volitional, communicative, moral, determining the motivation of activity and the conformity of goals, means, results with moral standards (Serova, 2006). Studying the work of specialists considering the personality structure of a modern specialist in physical education and sports, relevant questions were formulated, within the framework of which a research project was formed.
What are the structural components of an athlete’s personality (based on analysis of scientific literature)?
What is the self-esteem of the psychophysical, emotional and socio-psychological components of the personality of students participating in the experiment?
Which groups of personal qualities of students - future specialists (teachers) in physical education and sports are more formed by modern students - future specialists in physical education and sports, and which require additional study?
Purpose of the Study
To isolate the structural components and levels of formation of potential values of the athlete's personality based on the theoretical developments of leading specialists in the field of personal development. Empirically, based on a study in groups of students - future teachers, physical education and sports specialists, substantiate the stages of the formation of a personality dominant in the personality structure of a modern student - a specialist in physical education and sports.
An analysis of scientific sources that meet the stated topic was carried out, on the basis of which the research scheme was formed to resolve the issues raised.
Testing of students using the “Athlete's Identity Card” methodology (Marishhuk, Bludov, Plakhtenko, & Serova, 1984) made it possible to determine the set of personality traits that are found most often and least often in test subjects. Each substructure includes several groups of qualities. The group of qualities, in turn, consists of individual qualities, abilities and skills.
Analysis of the data obtained by students participating in the experiment (2nd year students, profile "Physical Culture" of Yaroslav-the-Wise Novgorod State University allowed answering the research questions.
An analysis of the scientific and methodological literature (Gogunov & Martyanov, 2004), conducted as part of the study, made it possible to determine that the athlete’s personality structure, consisting of four substructures (socio-psychological, psychological, professional (sportsmanship) and biomedical (sports opportunities), constitutes a multi-level hierarchical system. The highest level of structure is the social one, which determines the worldview maturity, moral and ethical qualities, and motives of activity (Il'in & Gordon 2011). This level has a decisive influence on all the underlying substructure. Thus, the emphasis in the study was made exactly on these two substructure: socio- psychosocial and psychological.
Students conducted a self-assessment of each of the qualities included in this structure on a ten-point scale. The target group consisted of students of the direction “Pedagogical education”, profile “Physical education”. The average age is 20 years. The research results are presented in percentage terms (Table
Based on the data obtained, it is possible to draw preliminary conclusions about students' self-esteem of those personal qualities that, in their opinion, are the most formed and those that require their active participation in development.
The following qualities, abilities and skills ranked the highest among the respondents in the sub-structure of qualities related to the socio-psychological group:
interest in their sport (91%). It is the interest in the sport that helps the athlete maintain a high level of motivation for training and competitions and contributes to the constant and continuous development in this sport.
motor (83%). Thanks to highly developed motor qualities, the athlete can fully feel their body and use as much as possible all its resources to obtain the best result in the future.
willingness to help (81%). As a result of the athlete’s constant interaction with the coach and team members, this quality is actively formed, since without mutual assistance, the ability to work in a team, the ability to provide and receive support, it is difficult to achieve any sports results.
Let us consider the results of self-assessment of psychophysiological qualities and the emotional sphere of students.
Analyzing the results, the following can be noted. The following groups of qualities received ranked less among the studied:
frustration (49%). A similar condition arises in sport when real or imaginary obstacles arise on the way to the goal, which they assess as complex or insurmountable. Probably, the students participating in the study did not have such negative experience in sports activities, therefore this quality received a low score;
lack of increased nervousness (51%). In the process of preparing for competitions, athletes often experience a state of increased excitability of the motivational-emotional system, and this indicator indicates the need for knowledge and experience to overcome the nervousness that impedes obtaining the maximum sports result;
anxiety (54%). Anxiety in athletes can be overcome not only using psycho regulation, relaxation exercises, stress relief at the body level, meeting the need for movement, etc., but also in the formation of self-confidence, the development of willpower, motivation and goal setting.
The following qualities are the most pronounced in the psychological substructure, according to respondents:
sensitivity of the vestibular analyzer (82%). Due to prolonged contact with sports activities, with the constant development of the physical abilities, the sensitivity of the athlete’s vestibular analyzer is actively developing;
interaction of motor and visual analyzers (81%). This quality begins to form from the first sports and continues to improve throughout all sports activities. It is this quality that develops with the help of a visual display of an element, reaction and orientation in space.
It should be noted that perseverance is less pronounced (65%). The sports activities of an athlete are very controlled by the coach in preparation for the competitions and the judges at the competitions. In these cases, the athlete is forced to overcome perseverance due to the undeniable authority of the coach and the unofficial rule “the judge is always right”.
Summarizing the results, it can be assumed that the scientific-historical approach in psychology, which allows revealing the foundations and limits of the human psyche, also constructs science, extending to pedagogy as a direction related to culture (Cole, 1997). The teacher preparation process seems to be generally a complex process, forming the future teacher with not only the necessary professional competencies, but also personal qualities that would allow being effective in the environment, an active participant in the formation of the culture of modern society (Kolpakova, 2019).
The mastery of a physical education teacher is largely determined by their qualities, which give originality to communication with students, determine the speed and degree of mastery of various skills. And if a specialist in physical education and sports owns these qualities, then they will be able to broadcast them in the process of professional activity. The scientific literature gives an idea of a physical education teacher as a teacher, distinguished by observation, tolerance, endurance, sense of humor, kindness, organization, optimism, independence, responsibility, sociability, readiness for sympathy and sympathy, the ability to self-actualization and motivated behavior (Maslow, 1970, 2016), the ability to understand the moods of students, to study and take into account their individual and age abilities.
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26 August 2020
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Educational strategies, educational policy, teacher training, moral purpose of education, social purpose of education
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Fedotova, G. A., Kolpakova, A. N., & Pakhomov, A. G. (2020). The Personality Structure Of Future Teachers In Physical Education. In & S. Alexander Glebovich (Ed.), Pedagogical Education - History, Present Time, Perspectives, vol 87. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 556-561). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.08.02.73