The article substantiates the relevance of training a new type of a teacher who is ready to abandon usual patterns and stereotypes of behavior and thinking, needs creative development and self-realization. The authors analyzed psychological, pedagogical and philosophical literature. In order to create optimal conditions for self-realization of the future teacher during university studies, it is necessary to create an educational environment contributing to development of creative and personal abilities. Self-realization performs the reflexive, value, communicative, motivational functions and function of experience formation. It includes three components: self-understanding, self-esteem and self-affirmation. Creation of psychological and pedagogical conditions for self-realization is an urgent problem due to modern requirements for teacher’s professional activities, teacher’s profession, and teacher’s training. The article aims to analyze Russian and foreign works on self-realization of the future teacher. The theoretical and methodological study made it possible to identify the main functions of professional and personal self-realization. The reflexive function is based on the desire to consciously and creatively transform himself and the world around himself. The value function allows the future teacher to evaluate and improve himself. It is the main factor determining the quality of his being. The communicative function is associated with the need to understand others and interact with them. The motivational function encourages to self-development and self-improvement. The experience formation function is organization of life and specific social activities, selection of forms and methods to develop required skills, abilities, and habits. The data obtained can be used in educational activities.
Keywords: Self-realizationstages of formationlearning activitiesself-developmentreflectionmotivation
The relevance of the study is due to the significance of self-realization in professional activities. The professional activity of a modern teacher is subjective and independent which requires an ability to develop an individual and personal potential. This trend is reinforced by the processes taking place in the world. The Russian education system is included into a single European vocational education space which is built on a multilevel basis. The multi-level and block-modular construction of educational programs, student mobility, and allocation of key competencies, and other important components of the European system of higher professional education are aimed at creating conditions for creative self-realization of the future specialist in his professional training. It is important to use this approach in vocational and pedagogical education. Socio-economic transformations, emergence of new values actualized the need to train a teacher of a new type, ready to abandon usual patterns and stereotypes of perception and thinking, experiencing the need for constant creative development and self-realization. A.I. Bondarevskaya, V.P. Delia, G.V. Zvezdunova, N.Yu. Kalashnikova and others proved that the personal meaning of the educational environment involves creation of conditions for development of creative potential of the student and building the basis for successful training and career. According to M.Yu. Kovalenko, S.S. Bill, L.N. Drozdikova, T.N. Rozova, L.V. Sadovaya, L.Yu. Kruglova, V.V. Streletsova, self-realization is a process and a result of the dialectic fusion of unique personality and objective world which results from diverse educational activities. Shelkunova (2005) explains that professional pedagogical education is designed to help gain didactically transformed professional experience, develop individuality and self-realization. This is possible, because the university provides education as well as prepares students for productive living, the experience of creative self-realization sets the trajectory of future professional and personal manifestations of the teacher. Thus, the majority of researchers believe that the goal of modern higher education is education of a person who possesses humanitarian ideological potential, abilities for professional, social and intellectual self-realization and demonstrates competence in carrying out professional activities. (Egorova, 2010). According to T.I. Baryshnikova, T. Yu. Bilgildeeva, N.V. Borisova, N. M. Borytko, S. A. Valomeeva, G.A. Medeyanik, E.E. Chudina, and I.A. Sharshova, self-realization is one of the aspects of human activity. It is important for self-development.
Thus, creation of psychological and pedagogical conditions for self-realization is an urgent problem due to modern requirements for teacher’s professional activities, teacher’s profession, and teacher’s training.
The main functions of professional and personal self-realization are determined by diverse relationships and opportunities for self-development. Given these features, we have identified the following functions of professional and personal self-realization.
The reflective function is based on the desire to consciously and creatively transform himself and the world around him. Self-realization encourages the future teacher to analyze causal relationships, knowledge gained which becomes a means of further professional and personal self-development. Reflection is not just awareness. It is n alteration of the person, his individual consciousness, personality. Psychologists note its great importance for development of both an individual and a social community depending on the tasks of life activity: first, reflection creates a holistic view, knowledge of the content, methods and means of activities; second, it allows human to critically treat himself and his activities in the past, present and future; third, it makes human a subject.
According to Kebina (2003), self-realization is always self-realization of personal meanings. Underdevelopment of the function of reflection leads to the extinction of the desire to comprehend and realize own capabilities, to senseless development that stops professional and personal self-development. The predominance of this function to the detriment of other ones causes fatigue, increased self-criticism, loss of interest which does not contribute to professional and personal self-development.
The value function allows the future teacher to evaluate and improve himself being the main factor determining the quality of his being (Kolesnikova, 1999).
According to the Philosophical Encyclopedic Dictionary (1985), value indicates the human, social and cultural significance of phenomena of reality, objects and social relations whose diversity can be assessed in terms of good and evil, truth and untruth, beauty and ugliness, permissible and forbidden, fair and unjust. Formation of the value attitude is carried out with the orientation of pedagogical training on socially defined values of pedagogical activity creating conditions for their personal acceptance, as well as ensuring the subject position of the student’s development in the process of professional self-development.
The value world of students is unstable. For example, an interesting job, self-realization and personal freedom, prestige and career are among the desires of students. Designing a space for self-realization of life-meaning attitudes, awareness of the significance of spiritual values, and ensuring appropriate conditions for self-development (Volkov, 1990) are of particular relevance.
Underdevelopment of the value function leads to the fact that a person “is lost in life”, becomes unhappy, shows dependence. At the same time, students with the excessively developed function are not able to correlate their values with real opportunities. Their interest in vocational training is lost; they become indifferent to everything that happens in the classroom.
The communicative function is associated with the need to understand others and interact with them. Learning and realizing themselves in communication with other people, students begin to assimilate the norms and standards of relationships. Chuprikova (1995) notes that communication is realized in the ability to convey the meaning, express one’s own attitude towards the person and the listener, show the intent of the message. In the process of self-realization, people interact. The interaction with teachers is a very productive space for self-development. The interaction helps the subject to multiply his own strength, receive an emotional “nourishment” (Borytko, 2001). Interaction with the Other triggers the self-development mechanism. The specificity of the communicative function is aimed at the implementation of the goals of personal development. In the training process, students are taught to use methods of mental activity; thinking and learning processes are formed, interest in the university is maintained, emotional tension is eliminated. This approach provides an opportunity for self-realization which is a condition for self-development.
The underdevelopment of the communicative function causes closeness of the person, indifference to himself and others. These students have poor knowledge and skills. The predominance of this function leads to a lack of understanding and interaction between the teacher and students, and this does not contribute to self-realization.
The motivational function induces a person to self-development and self-improvement.
The internal factors of self-realization of the future teacher are the worldview, mental activities and the motivational sphere. In order for the teacher to realize himself in his professional activity, it is very important that he is aware of the motives, since the degree of awareness depends on his attitude to the activities. Motives encourage activities, give a certain (Yaroshevsky, 1995).
The motive is a stable personality trait that encourages to perform certain actions. The motive leaves its specific imprint on the personal experience of the individual, forming the personal meaning of the circumstances of life. Some motives are predominant. This relationship expresses a coherent system of personal meanings – development of a personality (Leontyev, 1981).
Underdevelopment of the motivational function leads to a lack of an internal motivator, interest in vocational training, and reduces the desire for personal self-improvement and self-development. At the same time, the excessive development of this function can lead to the fact that a person feels confident only in professional activities, and everything else does not exist.
The function of experience formation is organization of life and specific social activities, selection of forms and methods of this being to develop required skills, abilities, and habits.
The person gains his experience from the past, uses it in the present and aims it at the future. A human being can develop to the level of personality only in the social environment, through interaction and appropriation of the spiritual experience accumulated by mankind. The individual being is formed through the inner position, personal meanings that determine individual variants of value orientations assimilated since the childhood (Mukhina, 1997). Experience provides an insight into the “life”. Formal knowledge of science can never exhaust life experience.
Self-realization of the future teacher is individual and unique. Formation of self-realization depends on the level of self-actualization (thought human consciousness), development of individual abilities, emotional the sphere. The criterion feature of self-realization is individual, social, intellectual, emotional, moral and aesthetic maturity (Omboeva, 2002). In the process of self-realization, experience is formed. It is a basis for self-development.
Underdevelopment of this function causes insolvency, insecurity, uncertainty of the future teacher, poor knowledge, inability to work with children. The predominance of this function leads to excessive self-sufficiency, insensitivity to the opinions of others, overestimation.
The structure of the above functions is manifested in their subordination. The manifestation of self-realization depends on the content of the activity that determines the dominance of a particular function. In the process of pedagogical goal-setting, the motivational function becomes leading (it creates conditions for self-realization); goal orientation determination is mediated by communicative and value functions. The other two functions are a qualitative indicator of the future teacher's self-realization. In general, interdependence of functions reflects the role of the components of self-realization.
These functions make it possible to detect the structural components of self-realization.
The reflexive function provides self-understanding, as one of the components of self-realization of the future teacher, since reflection forms a holistic view, knowledge of oneself, content, methods and means of activities.
In the hermeneutic tradition, understanding is characterized as an ontologically accelerated mode of human existence. Today, self-understanding is not a result of natural development of human in culture. It is a creative potential developing personal meanings. The goal of self-understanding is the “work” of personal meaning in the language of tradition, prejudice as a form of cultural experience, application of alien experience to oneself in the inner dialogue of the soul with oneself (Puzko, 1998).
Let us consider for instance a phrase “A person tries to understand himself and the world”. Meaning is what a person lives for. According to Puzko (1998), to find a meaning of life means “to be at home: in language, in thoughts, feelings, actions”. Luzina (1998) believes, the “life” of the student as a way of his being, as a cultural-historical reality, and as a stream of cultural-historical experiences is given to an educator by “experience”. Experience is not understood emotionally; it contains "awareness". This awareness is not devoid of emotionality, interest, passion, which play a huge role in achieving understanding. “Experiencing” gives a material for reflection. Based on this experience, the teacher is able to understand the Other, because he is "familiar" with similar experiences. Thus, self-understanding provides a reflexive function, i.e. search for meanings.
The meaning is rooted in life due to the fact that people understand and accept it as living knowledge. This knowledge cannot be learned. It can be built by man himself. Therefore, following ontological hermeneutics, person’s self-understanding is a creative activity aimed at discovering and constructing meanings.
The value function helps detect self-esteem in the structure of self-realization. In the process of self-evaluation, there is an awareness of their own and other students' cognitive and professional properties, comparing educational and professional achievements with the results of others. Self-esteem means a value attitude to personal qualities which implies satisfaction with positive qualities and the need for their consolidation, dissatisfaction with negative or insufficiently developed personal qualities and the desire to change them (Elkanov, 1989). Self-esteem is a personal judgment about one's own value, when a person acts as a subject and as an object of self-analysis. Self-esteem reflects the degree of development of self-esteem, self-worth and a positive attitude towards everything that is included in Self. Self-esteem is directly related to the way a person evaluates his properties and actions. The level of self-esteem reflects the degree of self-esteem and the nature of human actions. A specialist with adequate self-esteem strives for creativity.
When evaluating themselves, the students become aware of personal significance and meaning of their activities. Kagan (1997) defines the meaning as a way to discover the value of an object, in other words, the subject gives a value to everything that enters into the space of culture from the world of nature, everything that is created by the culture itself in natural, immaterial, illusory forms. In other words, in evaluating, meanings are formalized in values which ensures implementation of the value function.
The same component (self-assessment) in combination with self-understanding contributes to the implementation of the motivational function, since self-understanding determines formation and development of the interest in the inner world which ensures the full value of mature moral and value attitudes. Thus, this need becomes a motive. The same component (self-understanding) combined with self-assertion contributes to the implementation of the function of experience formation.
Self-assertion is the human need for self-esteem combined with self-doubt, desire to establish himself in the eyes of others and acquire traits that are valuable for personal development. Self-assertion is self-awareness and attitude to oneself by presenting one’s “Self” to other people. It relies on the communicative function of self-realization. Theoretically and empirically, there are three strategies of self-asserition - self-suppression, constructive self-assertion and domination (Borytko & Matskaylova, 2002).
Self-assertion activates a system of internal meanings that determine individual subjective quality standards. The internal self-assertion mechanism is a motive inducing to overcome difficulties arising in the process of self-realization. Inadequate activities and creative autonomy are the most important factors of self-assertion.
Self-assertion helps analyze goals, ways and opportunities, evaluate results of activities (Borytko & Matskaylova, 2002). Self-assertion is an activity component of self-realization which is implemented in activities of the future teacher associated with self-understanding, i.e. in meaningful activities. It forms experience; experience is a result of activities. Therefore, the relationship with self-understanding helps accumulate experience, i.e. implement the function of experience formation. Self-assertion contributes to the communicative function, since the teacher is in interaction with someone.
Thus, all three components contribute to the corresponding functions: self-assessment — to the value function, self-understanding — to the reflexive function, self-affirmation — to the communicative function. The first group consisting of three functions directly reveals the existence of components, the other two functions — motivational and experience formation ones — reveal the interrelation of these components. The motivational function is a harmonious combination of self-assessment and self-understanding. The function of experience formation is a combination of self-assertion and self-understanding. The harmonious combination of all three components of self-realization ensures its role in the professional and personal self-development of the future teacher.
Purpose of the Study
The article aims to analyze Russian and foreign works on self-realization of the future teacher.
The study used the following methods: content analysis; analysis of literary sources.
Thus, the goal of professional education is self-realization of the future teacher as a conscious, purposeful process of uncovering and updating forces of the individual in educational and professional activities that ensures self-development of the teacher and his students and manifests as readiness for professional activities and dialogical interaction with the cultural and educational environment of the university. Self-realization performs the reflexive, value, communicative, motivational functions and function of experience formation. It includes three components: self-understanding, self-esteem and self-affirmation.
According to Ilyin (1984), development of self-realization is transformation of functional states, transition from one functional state to another one.
The reproductive stage is characterized by underdevelopment (or uneven development) of self-realization components, spontaneity, unstable connection with external conditions. These students do not use favourable conditions for self-realization. They are guided by momentary benefits (e.g., passing an exam).
Professional intentions of these students are unconscious, they do not design their professional self-development. Self-assessment is usually inadequate: it can be overestimated, unstable and subject to frequent unpredictable fluctuations, because the student does not believe in his own strength, and associates his success exclusively with good luck. Targets are unconscious and associated with future achievements.
The performance stage is manifested in typical (and predictable) situations when students know in advance the course of lessons, types of activities, and forms of control. The greatest manifestation of this stage is self-understanding. At the same time, students show aspiration and ability to analyze themselves, their life goals and plans, and design ways of self-realization in the upcoming professional and pedagogical activities.
Their self-esteem depends on the situation: if they see it an opportunity to realize their professional intentions, the self-esteem is close to adequate, otherwise it may change unpredictably. Although professional intentions are rather vague, they are more interested in the subject rather than in the process. These students lack pedagogical empathy, openness in communicating with students whom they consider only as an object for learning. Their organizational activity is aimed at regulating activities of students, using coercive methods.
The creative stage is characterized by relatively stable motivated self-realization in most situations of educational and pedagogical activities. At the same time, professional and pedagogical self-realization is understood as an ability to help future and real students.
Professional intentions are largely related to the pedagogical nature of the teaching activity. The subject content is considered as a material for interaction with students. This is largely due to the development of their self-esteem: it is more adequate, more dependent on prospects for success in teaching, communicating with students. In their attitude to the profession, there is a shade of missionary work. Therefore, regular failures in communication with students can shake their self-esteem. At the same time, such failures are a serious impetus to self-analyze their professional behavior, search for more advanced techniques.
The subject stage is characterized by the fact that self-realization is observed in most situations of educational and professional activities as a trend. It is associated with partner interaction with students. Self-assertion is a component of self-realization. At the same time, students are active in their search for opportunities for self-realization in any situation. Their subjectivity “consists in the ability to set a goal, organize the process of solving the task and manage this process in accordance with this task” (Pavlova, 2000, p 9).
Self-esteem is usually overestimated or underestimated; it stimulates reflection, active search of various ways of self-realization. The students have well-developed communication skills (or they are improving them), they are open to partnership interaction, able to empathize. They have or are developing organizational skills; in any case, these students enthrall others with their sincerity and desire to help people.
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28 December 2019
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Bazaeva*, F., Muskhanova, I., Yusupkhadzhieva, T., & Dzhamalkhanova, L. (2019). Formation Of Self-Realization Of Future Teacher In Studying At University. In D. Karim-Sultanovich Bataev, S. Aidievich Gapurov, A. Dogievich Osmaev, V. Khumaidovich Akaev, L. Musaevna Idigova, M. Rukmanovich Ovhadov, A. Ruslanovich Salgiriev, & M. Muslamovna Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 76. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 284-291). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.04.40