The spread of forged hadiths is a phenomenon that continues to occur among Muslims today without boundaries, especially with the explosion of sophisticated applications in information technology such as Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram, and others. The emergence of social media which has become the latest trend for circulating information also makes it easier to spread forged hadiths among Muslims quickly and widely, including hadiths concerning women. This scenario may affect the institution of the Prophet’s hadiths as unauthorised hadiths are attributed to the Prophet (p.b.u.h). Thus, this study aims to identify selected forged hadiths concerning women and these hadiths are then analysed based on the thoughts of prominent scholars of hadith. To achieve these objectives, this qualitative study employs literature review to gather the necessary data. The data is then analysed based on inductive and deductive approaches. The study found that among the circulated forged hadiths concerning women, there are hadiths that are categorised as
Keywords: Analysisselected forged hadithswomen
The process of spreading hadiths from one generation to another has a crucial role in ensuring the survival of the Prophet’s hadiths. The hadiths are not only spread orally, instead, the work to keep the Prophet’s hadiths alive is further strengthened through the efforts of collecting the hadiths and keeping them in book forms. It is through these efforts that the collections of hadiths attributed to the Prophet (p.b.u.h) have become available in various formats of writing and arrangement. However, the spread of hadiths must be closely monitored because the current situation has seen hadiths being spread to the public without proper vetting. In other words, hadiths are spread without care for their quality (Shamsudin, 2010).
In addition, not all hadiths that reach the Muslims today are graded as
Many forged hadiths have been circulated and subsequently are believed by the Muslims today, including forged hadiths concerning women. Debates focusing on women become a common issue, and many hadiths are forged both to describe the good or the bad of women which had never been mentioned by the Prophet (p.b.u.h). Thus, this paper will analyse several forged hadiths on women, particularly concerning their role as a wife. The paper will also pose several criticisms and thoughts by the scholars of hadith in relation to the selected hadiths.
The spread of hadiths after the demise of the Prophet (p.b.u.h) had undergone certain phase throughout its historical recording, which development impacts it as an established science. Nevertheless, the challenges and threats are not alien to Hadiths sciences that they are sometimes strong enough to compromise the authenticity and purity of the hadiths; among which is the dissemination of hadiths that has no basis concerning the Prophet (p.b.u.h) known as forged hadith. The spread of the forged hadiths is seen in various matters such as worships, morals, commerce and jurisprudence has negative implications that can lead to deviation from the true teachings of the Prophet (p.b.u.h), thereby affecting the sanctity of Islam and misrepresenting it to the people at large. The widespread of forged hadith has been immense that it permeates into the lives of unsuspecting Muslims, governing their actions and forming their belief components including matters relating to women. The forged hadith concerning women which misrepresented their positions in community are like adding insult to injury when it has already been the popular albeit distorted notion that Islam discriminates women by categorizing them into second class citizens after the men, particularly in light of the rights of women as wives in marriage;
To what extent is the danger of the spread of forged hadiths?
What are the forms of forged hadiths about women in marriage?
Purpose of the Study
To analyze selected forged hadith in relation to women in marriage.
This research was conducted wholly in the qualitative form by way of data collection based on library research. Data collected from various primary sources in the field of hadith whether pertaining to the sciences of hadith such as
Forged hadiths concerning wives.
Ibn Hajar (2008) said it is prohibited for us to hold onto forged hadiths. However, some practitioners of Tasawwuf claim that it is permissible for narrations related to
Prohibition to look at wife’s private part during intercourse
إذا جَامَعَ أحَدُكُم زوجَتَهُ أو جارِيَتَهُ , فلا ينظُرْ إلى فَرْجِها , فإنَّ ذلكَ يورِثُ العَمَى (Al-Albani, 1992)
Translation : When any one of you has intercourse with his wife or slave, let him not look at her private parts, because this causes blindness.
This hadith is graded as forged. Ibn al- Jawzī noted in
Ibn Abī Hātim as quoted by al-Albani (1992) believed Baqiyyah had wrongly reported the hadith from Hisyam and according to him, Baqiyyah had been categorised as a
This has been discussed through hadith from ‘Aisyah as narrated by al-Bukhari and Muslim, and the narration in
كنت أغتسل أنا ورسول الله ﷺ من إناء بيني وبينه واحد, فيبادرني , حتى أقول : دع لي , دع لي
Translation : The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and I used to bathe from one vessel, he was faster so I said: Leave some for me! Leave some for me!
It can be discerned from this hadith that it is permissible for one to look at his wife’s private part. This hadith was also supported by Ibn Hibban from Sulaimān bin Musā when he was asked by a man about looking at his wife’s private part, and he then asked ‘Aṭa’ about it. The question was then brought to ‘Aisyah, so ‘Aisyah had mentioned this hadith (Ibn Hibban, n.d.; Al-Albani, 1992).
Encouragement to marry virgins.
تزوجوا الأبكار فإنهن أعذب أفواها , وأفتح أرحاما , وأثبت مودة(Al-Albani, 1992)
Translation : Marry virgins because they are pleasant with words, and they have healthy wombs to birth children, and a very deep love.
This hadith was reported by al-Wāhidī from Ishāq bin Basyar al-Kāhilī from ‘Abdullah b. Idris al-Madanī from his father from his grandfather as
عليكم بالأبكارِ , فإنَّهُنَّ أعذبُ أفواها , وأنتَقُ أرحاما , وأرضى باليسير (Ibn Majah, n.d.)
Translation : Chose to marry virgins, for their words are pleasant, their wombs fertile and they are contented with less.
This hadith was reported by Ibrāhīm bin al-Mundhir al-Hizamī from Muhammad bin Ṭalhah al-Taimī from ‘Abd al-Rahman Ibn Sālim bin ‘Utbah bin ‘Uwaim bin Sā‘idah al-Anṣārī from his father from his grandfather. However, this hadith had been criticized by several scholars of hadith such as Ibn Hibban who said Muhammad bin Talhah was a
Prohibition for a wife to leave home without her husband’s permission.
أيما امرأة خرجتْ مِن غيرِ أمرِ زوجِها كانت في سَخِطَ الله حتى ترجع إلى بيتها أو يرضى عنها
Translation : Any wife who goes out except with permission from her husband will receive wrath from Allah until she returns to her home or until her husband has forgiven her.
This hadith was reported by Abī Nu‘aim with the sanad from Ibrahim bin Hudabah from Anas as a
Ibn Hibban had graded Ibrahim as
To surmise, the writer (al-Munawi) stated that al-Khaṭib had made
Apart from this hadith, there is also another forged hadith that is expressed differently but still carries the same meaning, which is as follows:
أيما امرأة خرجت من بيت زوجها بغير إذنه، لعنها كل شيء طلعت عليه الشمس والقمر، إلا أن يرضى عنها زوجها (Al-Albani, 1992)
Translation : A wife who leaves her husband’s house without his permission is condemned by the whole universe from morning until night, unless she earns his forgiveness.
This hadith is also a forged hadith that had been reported by the same narrator for the above hadith. Abū Hudabah, whose full name was Ibrahim bin Hudabah, was
The Prophet’s (p.b.u.h) encouragement to reduce mahr
أعظمُ نساءِ أمَّتي بركةً أصبحُهُنَّ وجهًا وأقلُّهُنَّ مهرًا (Al-Albani, 1992)
Translation : The best of women of my ummah who are blessed are those whose face shine and whose
This hadith is false (
There is another hadith that mentioned
خير نساءِ أمَّتي أصبحُهنَّ وجها وأقلُّهنَّ مهورا (Al-Albani, 1992)
Translation : The best woman of my ummah are those who are beautiful and whose mahr is less.
This hadith was reported by Ibn ‘Adī from al-Husain bin al-Mubārak al-Ṭabarānī from Ismā‘il ‘Iyāsh from Hisyam bin ‘Urwah from his father from ‘Aisyah as a
A wife’s complaint towards her husband.
إذا قالتِ المرأةُ لزوجِها : ما رأيتُ منكَ خيرا قَطُّ فقد حَبِطَ عملُها (Al-Albani, 1992)
Translation : When a wife says to her husband: I have not once seen the good in you, then all her good deeds will become void.
This hadith was reported by Ibn ‘Asākir from Salām bin Razin (originally Raziq) from ‘Umar bin Salim from Yūsūf bin Ibrāhim from Anas from ‘Aisyah as a
Placing hand on wife’s head during intercourse while praying.
إذا تزوّج أحدُكم , ودخل على أهله , فليضع يدَه على رأسها , وليقل : اللَّهمّ بارك لي في أهلي , وبارك لأهلي فيَّ , وارزقني منها, وارزُقها منَّي, واجمع بيننا ما جمعتَ في خيرٍ , فإذا فرَّقت بيننا , ففرِّق على خيرٍ (Al-Albani, 1992)
Translation: When one marries, and he has intercourse with wife, then he should put his hand on his wife’s head and say: O Allah, bestow your blessings upon me and my wife, bestow my people for me, bestow me for her, and bestow her for me, unite us in good, and if we separate, separate us in good.
This hadith was reported by al-Ra’īs al-Thaqafī from Muslim bin ‘Īsā bin Muslim al-Ṣaffār al-Muadhin from ‘Abdullah bin Dāwūd al-Kharībī from al-A‘masy from Shaqīq from al-Aswād from ‘Abdullah bin Mas‘ūd as a
A woman who marries without a guardian is considered as an adulterer
أيما امرأة زوَّجتْ نَفسَهَا مِن غيرِ وليَّ فهي زانية (Al-Albani, 1992)
Translation : If a woman gets herself married without a guardian, she is considered as an adulterer.
Al-Khaṭib had included this hadith in his book
According to al-Albani (1992), the flaw with this hadith was caused by Abū ‘Aṣamah whose full name was Nūh bin Abī Maryam. Ibn al-Mubārak said “he had forged hadith like al-Mu‘alli bin Hilāl”. Abū ‘Ali al-Naisabūrī also said, “he was a
Islamic scholars have discussed this issue. According to the Maliki, Shāfi‘ī dan Hanbali
The wide spread of forged hadiths among Muslim societies today is a result of many contributing factors. The factors include the attitude of the preachers themselves who do not look closely into the status of the hadiths they use in their preachings, religious books which contain hadiths that are not legitimately checked for their status, as well as the thoughts and attitudes of the Muslims themselves. In terms of practice, it is clearly prohibited to practice from forged hadiths because these hadiths are not proven to have originated from the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h). In fact, reporting them without explanation is a sin and is considered as deceive upon the Prophet (p.b.u.h).
In addition, it can be surmised from the earlier discussion that hadiths concerning women as wives include ones that are forged. Hadiths about prohibition to look at wife’s private part during intercourse, prohibition for a wife to to leave home without her husband’s permission, the Prophet’s (p.b.u.h) encouragement of lowering mahr and other selected hadiths as discussed earlier have been graded as forged by the scholars of hadith because the narrators in their
This work is part of USM Short Term Research Grant: 304/PHUMANITI/6313200 which has been allocated for the researcher for research between 2015-2017 under the title The Study of Women’s Rights and Roles according to the Perspective of Hadith: Focus on Women’s Development in Malaysia.
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23 September 2019
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, literary theory, political science, political theory
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Shamsudin*, R. (2019). Analysis Of Selected Forged Hadiths On Women. In N. S. Mat Akhir, J. Sulong, M. A. Wan Harun, S. Muhammad, A. L. Wei Lin, N. F. Low Abdullah, & M. Pourya Asl (Eds.), Role(s) and Relevance of Humanities for Sustainable Development, vol 68. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 143-151). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.09.14