The aim of this paper is to study the phenomenon of subculture, its psychological characteristics, which are the markers of allocation of professional subculture. We proved that in the conditions of social challenges, the issue of education of professional subcultures is extremely important. The university teacher’s subculture, acting as the basic subsystem of professional culture, is revealed to allow the subject of professional activity, to realize its role, place in the professional community, as well as to create conditions for orientation in a complex and controversial social world. The university teacher's subculture does not function as an autonomous, independent or "protest" social phenomenon. The results of empirical research of psychological features of formation of professional subculture of the teacher of higher education institution are presented. Empirically, the groups of qualitative characteristics used by respondents in describing the image of a university teacher, which are the basis of their recognition outside professional activity, are identified. The first group of characteristics, represented by a higher quantitative value, is appearance, external image; the second group of characteristics is behavior and character; the third group of characteristics is speech and communication; the fourth group of characteristics is personal qualities and properties. It is proved that in the collective consciousness of society there are quite stable features, implicit representations and images, on the basis of which (without objective facts), people can fairly accurately identify the teacher of the University.
Keywords: University teacher’s subculturesocio-cultural featuressubject of professional activity
Professional subculture as a scientific problem
The dynamic changes of the social society place increasing demands on the professionals and professional communities to which they belong. Professional communities, forming a professional subculture, impose requirements on specialists due to the realities of the modern world: a professional in his field must have not only deep knowledge and practical competencies in the specialty, but he must be able to coordinate his activities with the problems of society and culture (Semenova & Dodueva, 2015). Professional subculture is closely related to the content of the work and the role of its representatives in society. The issue of formation of professional subcultures is extremely important, especially in the context of social challenges (globalization, digitalization, informatization, etc.), which pose urgent challenges to professional communities. Professional subculture is a special space that exists in a particular historical period and has a time characteristic that determines the specifics and features of this phenomenon at a particular stage of social development of society and professional culture of specialists. Professional culture, defining the vector of development and coordinating the professional activities of representatives of one professional group is the most important structural element and an integral part of the professional subculture. The components of the professional subculture are: the subjects of the professional subculture, the carriers of which can act as a community of people and an individual who realizes himself in the system of subject-practical activity; the objects of professional impact (students, patients, pupils, etc.), that is, representatives of the professional subculture, professional culture - a system of knowledge, values, traditions, customs, norms, technologies, models, ideals of professional conduct; interpersonal relations arising in the course of fulfillment of professional; professional institutions established with the aim of organizing, coordinating, monitoring professional activities, broadcasting and transmission of professionally significant information; terms and conditions of implementation of professional activity; professional activity and its results (Marcinkowska, 2016).
The university teacher’s subculture in modern conditions: psychological characteristics and structural components
The university teacher's subculture (like all professional subcultures) is and functions not as an autonomous, independent or "protest" social phenomenon. The university teacher's subculture, acting as the basic subsystem of professional culture, allows not only to realize the subject of professional activity itself, its role, place in the professional community, but also creates conditions for the orientation of specialists in a complex and controversial social world (Ebzeev, 2009). It is important that the basis of relations in the space of subcultural constructs "we and they", "our and others" is not contradictory interaction of group members, but the desire for self-identification with this professional group, "not a conscious calculation, but a sense of complementarity and subconscious feeling of mutual sympathy and community of people" (Gumilev, 1992). In the modern world, with the constant social changes in society, the change of educational paradigms, the rapid obsolescence of knowledge, there are fundamental changes in the labor market. It is a modern university as a complex socio-economic system that implements a multi-faceted target function in the fields of education, science, culture, education and upbringing can respond to changes in the labor market, satisfying the needs of specialists who possess not only General (basic), but also unique professional competencies; requests for educational and research services and works (Semenova & Semenova, 2015). All these urgent tasks are implemented by the university teacher, creating a modern model of the university teacher's subculture (Tkachenko & Sinyavin, 2018). The university teacher's subculture is characterized by a variety of psychological features that determine the essence of this phenomenon. On the one hand, the features are typical for the representatives of the professional group of personal constructs: worldview, attitude to social reality and its assessment, ways of behavior and communication, cognitive properties; on the other – a generalized stable image of the representatives of the professional community, endowed with certain sustainable characteristics, i.e. "image" of the representative of the profession. It is important that social attitudes and expectations regarding the behavior and activities of the representatives of the relevant professional group are formed on the basis of a set of features, which can largely determine the assessment of their representatives of other social communities not only in the process of performing professional activities, but also in the process of life (Perelygina, 2002).
Subculture (Roszak, 1969) is regarded as a special form of organization of people, holistic education within mainstream culture that defines the lifestyle and thinking of its carriers. The analysis of the specific features of the systems of values, meanings and relations, communication and behavior, which are formed in the process of interaction and mutual influence of professional, scientific, pedagogical and everyday cultures (as a set of all material and spiritual values accumulated by mankind) of representatives of the teaching staff of higher educational institutions allowed to reveal the concept of "the university teacher’s subculture". From this point of view, it is important to identify and study the features of the university teacher’s subculture, its structural components and the role in the functioning of modern institutions of higher education (Semenova, 2008).
The study of the emergence and role of subcultures in the functioning of society in general, and professional communities, in particular, raises the question of what the features of the university teacher’s professional subculture are, which markers allow to determine the university teacher’s subculture.
Purpose of the Study
Research of socio-psychological features the university teacher’s subculture as a holistic education. To determine the structural and substantive components of the university teacher’s subculture. We assume that within the professional community of higher education there is an independent, holistic subcultural education, structurally represented by a set of markers (indicators): appearance and external image, behavior and character, speech and communication, personal qualities and properties; meaningfully presented: the real qualities of the subject of professional activity, characterizing the values, ideals, meanings, representations, emotions, ways of communication and behavior, formed in the process of interaction of professional-pedagogical and everyday cultures.
These assumptions were tested in the course of empirical research.
The study involved respondents in the amount of 124 people with the age range of respondents between 16 to 50 years. There were 84 women and 40 men among them.
The study was conducted in 2017-2018. All participants agreed to participate in the study.
Method "Image of a University teacher»; essay "Teacher of the university: what is he like?”; sociological survey; content analysis.
The analysis of the results obtained in the course of the empirical study revealed social and cultural factors influencing the formation of the university teacher's subculture and the subcultural characteristics of the representatives of this professional group. A survey of respondents: is it possible to know the teacher of the university outside the walls of the university, and what signs are decisive, showed that 69% can accurately recognize the teacher in everyday life; 16 % said that not always (especially in modern conditions); 15 % noted that this is impossible. The analysis of the answers allowed us to formulate a conclusion that in the collective consciousness of the representatives of society there are quite stable signs, implicit representations and images, on the basis of which (without objective facts), people can fairly accurately identify the university teacher. The high degree of identification of the university teacher in everyday life, its recognition indicates that in society, the culture positioned by the university teacher, stands out in the general cultural space and differs from the culture of representatives of other social communities, which allows us to state the fact that within the professional community of the university teacher’s professional subculture. This assumption was confirmed further.
Processing the results of the survey, essay with the help of content analysis allowed to identify a group of factors, including properties, quality (indicators), which were used by respondents in describing the image of the university teacher, which was a stable marker of his recognition outside the professional activity (Table
The selected factors are equally significant and characterize a stable and recognizable image of the university teacher. The specific weight of the importance of groups of factors is slightly different and is easily explained by the psychological characteristics of the perception of the image of the object and the phenomena of the subject. Orientation to external features, which are perceived by the subject, is analyzed and acts as the basis of the formed "image" explains the predominance in the structure of the subculture of the university teacher group of factors "appearance", "behavior and character" and "speech and communication". For evaluation and selection of groups of indicators, characterizing the "personal qualities and attributes" requires more direct communication, interactions with the subject, and the bearer of the investigated parameter. This is a more complex group of factors, which is not formed by a simple visual perception. It is necessary to take into account the fact that the profession of a university teacher has deep historical roots and traditions, as well as quite common and is characterized by a high degree of contact of people with representatives of this profession. "The image of the university teacher" in the collective and individual consciousness is steoretipized, and, accordingly, the respondent is guided by the existing in the process of life and activity in society implicit ideas and attitudes than the real subject or a specific case. An image, a stable type of a university teacher, including not only knowledge about him, but also an emotional and evaluative attitude to him, is formed on the basis of the above-mentioned ideas.
Within the professional community of higher education institutions there is an independent, holistic subcultural education. The subculture of the teacher of higher educational institution is considered as a long and complex process of personal and professional socialization, the integral image of which is formed from several groups-factors including numerous stable indicators: appearance, external image; behavior and character; speech and communication and personal qualities and properties. The analysis of the results of empirical research has shown that structurally this phenomenon is represented by a complex of markers (indicators): appearance and external image, behavior and character, speech and communication, personal qualities and properties; it is represented by: the real qualities of the subject of professional activity, characterizing the values, ideals, meanings, representations, emotions, ways of communication and behavior, formed in the process of interaction of professional-pedagogical and everyday cultures.
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18 December 2019
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Psychology, educational psychology, counseling psychology
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Ebzeev, M., Dodueva, J., Semenova*, F., Tkachenko, I., & Semenova, A. (2019). Psychological Peculiarities Of Formation Of University Teacher’s Professional Subculture. In T. Martsinkovskaya, & V. R. Orestova (Eds.), Psychology of Subculture: Phenomenology and Contemporary Tendencies of Development, vol 64. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 599-604). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.07.78