Nowadays a special role should be given to the dynamics of innovations of pedagogy and psychology in the modern, rapidly changing world. The slow response or lack of it to the changing global conditions does not contribute to the creation of necessary, interesting and useful content for young people. It creates the basis for the formation among the younger generation of quasi-representations of good and evil, heroism and cowardice, etc., and thus begins the substitution of the true for surrogate. This article substantiates the need to develop and modernize the psychological and pedagogical culture of participants of educational process, using technologies that contribute to the minimum of content and time, not only to master the maximum of the required information, but also to form the competence of a person in relevant areas, thereby ensuring the success of an individual. To substantiate the relevance of modernized psychological and pedagogical cultures, empirical work was carried out in several stages on specific samples. In addition to spontaneous free-form conversations, observations, and the analysis of specific situations, a technique was used that is a modification of O.I. Motkov’s “Psychological culture of personality”, a test to determine the level of pedagogical culture of S. Gilmanov and a number of other methods aimed at the clarification of investigated indicators. The analysis and synthesis of research results suggest that development and modernization of psychological and pedagogical culture of participants of educational process ensures its effectiveness and success of an individual at different levels.
In modern changing world, due to the introduction of new digital technologies, when the information flow that forms the world perception and reflection is updated in a matter of hours, all the components of pedagogy and psychology of the subjects of interaction cannot remain unchangeable. The question of corresponding response to changes in relation to the younger generation presents particular interest. The inadequate mode of interaction with young people is not only ineffective, but also eliminates the possibility of creating the necessary, interesting and useful content for them. This state of affairs contributes to the formation among the younger generation of a pseudo-understanding of such categories as good - evil, heroism - cowardice, strength - weakness and others, replacing them with surrogates, increasing the number of negative situations that they can get into without having the right ideas to regulate their behavior aspect. Under the current conditions, the need to search for more effective models, approaches, methods of training, education, corresponding to a particular time, is a priority task.
At different stages of the development of educational system in Russia, such educational models were implemented that solved the actual problems of their time. In the concept of modernization of education, one of the main tasks is to improve the quality of education, which must be ensured in the current competitive environment. The solution of the main task of implementing this concept is connected with the formation of a personal creative abilities, the creation of real conditions for enriching the intellectual, emotional and moral potential of the participants in the educational process.
By participants of educational process in a general education institution, the authors mean students, teachers, parents or legal representatives of students. The framework of this study covers only such participants of educational process as teachers and students. With regard to parents or legal representatives of students, it is possible to assume that their psychological and pedagogical competence can only enhance the effectiveness of interaction with children, affecting their success as a whole.
Psychological and pedagogical culture is objectified in specific knowledge, skills and abilities. These include such aspects as: perceptual, associated with the understanding of another person, managerial, which are the basis of the impact on another person and a number of others. Human abilities are described in psychological literature (Bodalev, 2005; Kovalev, 1976; Orlov, 2002; Rogers, 2013). This is the ability to study and understand another person, empathize with him, accept his point of view; the ability to listen to a person, to adequately respond to his words, feelings and actions; the ability to speak, to build a monologue and conduct a dialogue; to ability to carry out evaluative actions. Managerial abilities are associated with the ability of teacher to help the child in the formation of “building up his soul” (Ushinsky, 2014); the ability to learn to study; to help him properly dispose of his natural abilities. That is, the psychological and pedagogical component of the designated problem is the upbringing of a socially competent person who is able to adequately perceive himself, other people, and social situation. And only the personality of a teacher, a parent, endowed with the relevant competences is able to form them among students.
Psychological and pedagogical culture is considered as the most important factor in the success of professional teacher activity in the works of V.А. Slastenin, I.F.Isaev, E.N. Shiyanov, V.I. Filippova, V.A. Samkova, E.V. Bondarevskaya, 3.F. Esareva, N.V. Kuzmina, N.N. Tarasovich, Martsinkovskaya, N.N. Nikitina, N.V. Kislinsky and others. In these studies, psychological and pedagogical culture is considered as an important part of general culture of a teacher, manifested in the system of professional qualities and the specificity of pedagogical activity (Orlov, 2002; Slastenin, Isaev & Shiyanov, 2002; Skatov, 2010; Ushinsky, 2014; Kuzmina, 2000).
The psycho-pedagogical culture of a teacher is a systematic personal education coupled with cognitive, value-semantic and behavioral components. The main functions of this culture are represented by cognitive, communicative, regulatory, constructive, ecological, and a number of other spheres. A systematic component is the psychological culture of an individual as an “inner vision” (Jung, 2017), mediated by the value-semantic attitudes of a teacher. The way of the attitude towards the personality of a child can be a criterion indicator of the professional-psychological culture of a teacher.
Special analysis allowed determining the integrative indicators of the “functioning” of the professional and psychological culture of a teacher. They are formulated as follows: the breadth of the “semantic field” of thinking, the degree of cognitive complexity and the level of intellectual activity, emotional self-regulation, professional and psychological competence as the ability to reflexively build and carry out professional activity in its entirety of its psychological structure.
However, the insufficient number and narrow research aimed at considering the psychological and pedagogical culture, not only as an important factor in the success of professional teacher activity, but also as the means ensuring its development and modernization of conditions that lead to the increase in the effectiveness of educational process for all of its participants, as well as personality in general, formed the basis of this research work.
At the same time, believing that one of the important conditions ensuring the effectiveness of training in the psychological culture of subjects of education is the use of effective psychological and pedagogical technologies in the process of training. Such technologies are mainly associated with active, deliberative forms. In addition, a substantial modernization of educational content on psychology is required in order to minimize the content of textbooks and teaching aids, while retaining the maximum of necessary information.
The object of this research is psychological and pedagogical culture of the participants of educational process and technology, providing an increase in its level.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the research is to identify the forms and methods that create, develop and improve the psychological and pedagogical culture of the participants of educational process, as conditions ensuring its effectiveness.
In order to solve the tasks posed in this research work, the following methods were used: literary sources analysis, free-form spontaneous conversation methods, observation (included), case study analysis, comparative analysis, and work in the framework of the developed teaching aids in an interactive format, a technique that is a modification of the Motkov (2006) method of “Psychological culture of personality”, as well as a test to determine the level of pedagogical culture by Gilmanov (2004) and a number of others methods aimed at the clarification of investigated indicators.
The study was conducted in several stages. At the first stage, the work was carried out with a sample of teachers with higher education who studied (from 2012 to 2015) under the program of additional professional retraining of “Pedagogical Psychology” program with a total number of 108 people based on the Institute for Advanced Studies and Professional retraining of Kabardino-Balkaria State University. With the first two groups of students, the classes were conducted using traditional technologies. With the third and fourth groups, the organization of classes was innovative. That is, starting from solving the problems of spatial localization (mostly the classes were conducted in nature in the silence of the city park, located not far from the educational building of the institute) and ending with the modern psychological and pedagogical technologies used in the educational process (group work in an interactive mode, etc.).
The results of the intermediate and final control of the knowledge of students as a result of the implementation of traditional learning technologies made it possible to state that the level of development with the necessary professional competencies is not high. An increased level of anxiety was also noted, due to their awareness of the lack of knowledge gained in new professional sphere and the growth of neuropsychiatric disorders.
The comprehensive analysis of observation data, the system of control measurements, numerous conversations with participants of advanced training courses during which the technologies associated with active methods of work in a group were used , including the training manuals that we developed (online), in which the presentation of the necessary material was carried out in a small volume, but with the coverage of the most important sections of the theory, taking into account the patterns (active material perception occurs within 7–10 minutes of broadcast on one voice tonality, etc.) developed by psychological science showed that:
The perception of the material performed by the roles, spending a minimum of time, gives maximum efficiency. The number of course participants who successfully mastered the necessary competencies of new professional activities increased from 30% (with the implementation of the traditional approach) to 100% (as a result of the active use of new psychological and pedagogical technologies, including those developed by us).
It turned out that the use of technologies related to the optimization of the perception of psychological content, to a large extent, increases the efficiency of the formation of the psychological culture of course participants.
The use of the test of Gilmanov (2004), aimed at identifying the pedagogical culture of the teacher, revealed that:
The data in the table provide the basis for tracking the repetition of the trend indicated while identifying the psychological culture of teachers. A low point number was not obtained by any respondent from the experimental group, whereas very high and high levels of pedagogical culture were found in most of them (88%). Very low and low indicators of pedagogical culture the half of the respondents of the control group showed and only one person had a very high level.
At the second stage, the group of respondents was formed on the basis of a number of educational organizations, where graduates of advanced training courses of PEDAGOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY program from the third and fourth groups worked as psychology teachers, who also conducted classes for high school students on the formation of psychological culture, also using mainly interactive mode in optional or additional format.
The sample consisted of 54 schoolchildren, with whom the work was carried out in order to implement the program aimed at the formation and development of psychological culture. That is, a group of students from 54 respondents became an experimental group, and the control group was made up by high school students (57 people), with whom such work was not carried out.
In both groups with the help of a technique that is a modification of the “Psychological culture of personality” technique by Motkov (2006) the evidence and quality of six particular types of practice-oriented cultural and psychological behavioral manifestations of students were revealed:
1 - Self-understanding and self-knowledge. Self-analysis of their personal and behavioral peculiarities, as a result of which their plans, attitudes and psychological peculiarities become better understood, self-esteem is formed that really helps to live, to set realistic goals and objectives, to direct specific efforts to be in line with personal inclinations and preferences, to be yourself;
2 - Constructive communication with peers, near and far people, helping to productively solve personal, business and social issues;
3 - Good self-regulation of emotions, actions and thoughts - developed skills to maintain a positive emotional tone, to remain calm in stressful situations, to show flexibility in solving complex cognitive and communicative tasks;
4 - The presence of creativity. The will to develop new affairs and games, inventing new ways to perform familiar activities and new games;
5 Self-organization - quite realistic planning, bringing the started business to the end, fulfillment of business promises, ability to allocate time for study and other matters;
6 - Harmonizing self-development - the presence of self-tasks and activities to self-educate their qualities and improve lifestyle, maintain active through exercise, the ability to force yourself to comply with the daily routine etc.
The processing of data obtained as a result of the implementation of the modernized version of the Motkov (2006) technique in experimental and control groups showed the following digital picture (table
The final results of the components of general psychological culture in the experimental group are almost twice as high as compared with the indicators of the control group, and, accordingly, the level of the general culture. The analysis of the obtained results provides a convincing picture in confirmation of high indicators of the components of psychological culture of the participants in the experimental group, and accordingly their psychological culture as a whole, which is also a significant part of the general culture of an individual. However, despite the rather significant difference in the indicators of psychological culture in the experimental and control groups, several more diagnostic examinations were carried out using other methods, including the identification of self-assessment levels, mutual understanding and the presence of friends. The obtained results are comparable to the indicators obtained by the method of O.I. Motkov.
The analysis of performance in different academic disciplines in the experimental and control groups showed that students who have a high level of results on the proposed methods (high levels of psychological culture) confirm both the lack of psychological distress and a high level of achievement in academic disciplines. Hence the conclusion that the psychological culture of students motivates them towards learning effectiveness, determining the effectiveness in other areas, as well as the success of an individual as a whole. The confirmation of this we find in the fact that students who showed a high level of psychological culture found high self-esteem, the ability to communicate with adults and peers, the presence of a sufficient number of friends.
A generalization of the final results of respondents obtained by the means of a comparative analysis in the experimental and control groups, as well as the data of the included observation, give grounds for a conclusion on the determining role of the formation, development and modernization of the psychological and pedagogical culture. Psychological culture allows students to build a holistic picture of the world, contributing to the knowledge of their inner world, harmonizing their relationships with other people, developing a creative personality, taking initiative, responsibility for themselves and their actions, and orientation in the world of professions. This culture is determined by the possibility of awareness of their abilities, interests, inclinations, the realization of their individual characteristics in their chosen profession, reduction of conformity and anxiety, vision of alternative ways to achieve their goals, their success in further improving their educational level etc.
An even greater enhancement of the aforementioned aspects is the facts that in modern conditions of super mobility and swiftness of our time, providing the becoming personality with obtaining useful knowledge in the required format, helping to understand oneself, comprehend such broad categories as the MEANING OF LIFE and ITS place in it. It is not only desirable, but also a priority task.
Projecting the above mentioned on the economic plane, it should be noted that the solution of such an urgent task today, in the near future, will also have an effect on raising the living standard of a person. After all, it is not so difficult to trace logic and relevance in the decisive role of psychological and pedagogical culture in solving such issues as: personnel, personality-developing, group-forming and others, which, in turn, determine the socio-economic sphere.
Thus, in modern conditions associated with limited time resources that adversely affect the dynamics and content of interpersonal contacts, being not conducive to their increase and deepening, causing difficulties in communicating with people, leading to more complex impairment of personality development, there is an urgent need for revision of educational contents of textbooks and manuals on psychology and pedagogy, which form the psychological and pedagogical culture. This is the minimum amount of information maximum, as well as the use of such psychological and pedagogical technologies, including an interactive format, when it is taken into account that active perception of educational material occurs within 7–10 minutes of broadcast on one voice tonality and on the other one developed by psychological science. Accounting for such conditions, at all the levels of education and moreover also in other academic disciplines, can ensure not only a high level of relevant competencies, but also the success of an individual, motivating to even higher performance of achievements, contributing to the improvement of all the indicators of life level of a person.
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29 March 2019
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, science, technology, society
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Tivikova, S., Raitskaya, G., Musukaeva, F., Kerzhentseva, A., & Mokaeva*, M. (2019). Modernizing Psychological And Pedagogical Culture Of Participants Of Educational Process. In & D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 58. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 2344-2350). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.02.270