Properties Of Indices Of The Disproportionality For Integer Divisions

Abstract

The article presents the results of a socio-psychological study, where we defined the significance and direction of the impact of indicators related to students' readiness for changes on their social activity. The purpose of the study is to determine the degree of influence of students' readiness for various changes in their lives on self-evaluation of the degree of one's own social activity. The sample consisted of 162 students receiving education at Russian universities. There were no migrants or foreign students in the sample. The median age is 20.12 years, the standard deviation is 1.22. The sample is formed using the method of simple randomized selection. Questionnaires and scaling (using the unique scales developed by the author) were used as research methods. All scales have undergone reliability check: α Cronbach = 0,5; χ2 Friedman = 712.5, with p <0.001. Students were asked based on a 10-point scale to assess their readiness for changes related to economy, changing their place of residence, moving to another city, changing their way of life, changes in politics, changing their social circle, and the degree of their social activity. It was revealed that students' readiness for changes positively influences the assessment of the degree of their social activity. The most influential predictors of student social activity are readiness for changes in the economic sphere and willingness to change their way of life. Readiness to change place of residence and readiness for changes in politics increase social activity of students to a lesser extent.

Keywords: Social activitystudentsreadiness for change

Introduction

Social activity of students is an important condition for successful mastering of professional knowledge and actions not only at the stage of university education, but also in their further professional activity. Social activity of a student creates conditions for strengthening business and interpersonal relations, accompanies and supports educational and professional activity, makes it possible to quickly and productively orient in their social circle. At the same time, modern university education in the era of globalization and intensive international interaction is associated with the possibility of studying in another country, academic mobility and readiness for changing place of residence and way of life. These changes and readiness for them may have an impact on the degree of social activity of students, which, in turn, transform the quality of education received in another country or another city.

We understand individual social activity as the initiation and realization of its impact on the social environment, as well as the response to the impact of the social environment on the personality or other subjects of social relations.

Problem Statement

Personal social activity is studied by modern social psychology in relation to person's inclusion into social environment (Grigoryeva, Shamionov, & Golubeva, 2017; Martsinkovskaya, 2013), as a form of leadership and social learning (Logvinov, 2015; Lunev & Chernyshev, 1999), as a way of political, social activity and development of civil identity (Gudkova, Matveeva, & Matveev, 2016) the realization of the subject's personal qualities, primarily, initiative and responsibility, in the sphere of social contacts (Vagapova, 2017; Grigoriev, 2012). Researchers propose criteria for levels, classification of forms and types of social activity of an individual (Sitarov & Maralov, 2015; Shamionov & Grigorieva, 2012); outline areas of work with young people in order to develop prosocial activity (Akbarova, 2015; Osipova & Panfilova, 2014). However, in modern psychology there are very few studies that have been aimed at finding influential factors determining students' social activity. One of these factors is the person's readiness for change (Terekhin, 2018), but in modern social psychology there are no studies of the problem of determining the significance and direction of influence on the social activity of students in relation to indicators of their readiness for changes.

Research Questions

Research question is the next question. What is the direction and weight of the impact of students’ readiness indicators on changes in self-assessment of their social activity?

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to determine the degree of influence of students' readiness for various changes in their lives to self-assessment of the degree of their own social activity.

Research Methods

Research group

The sample consisted of 162 students receiving education in Russian universities. There were no migrants or foreign students in the sample. The median age is 20.12 years, the standard deviation is 1.22. The sample is formed using the simple randomized selection method.

Research methods and techniques

Questionnaires and scaling (using the unique scales developed by the author) were used as research methods. All scales have undergone reliability check: α Cronbach = 0,5; χ2 Friedman = 712.5, with p <0.001. Students were asked based on a 10-point scale to assess their readiness for changes related to economy, changing their place of residence, moving to another city, changing their way of life, changes in politics, changing their social circle, and the degree of their social activity.

5.3.Statistical analysis

Using the step-by-step regression analysis method, we defined the most significant predictors of social activity and the direction of their influence in terms of the indicators of readiness for changes (see Table 01 ). For the interpretation we have chosen a model that explains 92.6% of the dispersion (see Table 02 ).

Findings

Table 1 -
See Full Size >

Table 2 -
See Full Size >

Table 3 -
See Full Size >

Students assess the degree of their social activity relatively high, at that the variability of the values allows us to conclude that the estimates are relatively homogeneous (see Table 03 ). Indicators of readiness for changes are different: readiness for economic changes and readiness to changes in place of residence are evaluated highly; readiness to move to another country and change the social circle are evaluated low; readiness to move to another city, to change the way of life and readiness for changes in politics are medium (see Table 03 ).

Table 01 shows that social activity of students has a broad prediction regarding the indicators of readiness for change. Four positive predictors were revealed, the most significant of which is readiness for economic changes (β = 0.404). The dynamics of the economy in Russia, associated with general changes in social relations, creates the conditions for the development of student activity and the expansion of the scope of its application. The variability of forms and methods of economic relations leads to an increase in the number of potential and real business relationships, which is associated with the need to implement intensive social activity of a person. Students realize this connection and are ready to develop their social activity for successful professional activity in the future.

The second most important positive predictor of student social activity is readiness to change the way of life (β = 0.34). Willingness to change the regime, nutrition, intensity of life, living conditions, direction of physical activity, and the content of activities leads to activity in the social sphere, makes us pay attention to social contacts and view them as the basis for rapid and adequate orientation and adaptation in the new conditions of life. Willingness to change students' way of life leads to an orientation toward collecting new information, its understanding and awareness of its possible application and usefulness in organizing physical and living conditions. Obviously, according to students, social activity plays an important role in this process. In addition, their willingness to change the way of life is associated with difficulties, and intense social activity makes it possible to use help of the social environment in overcoming difficulties.

A significant positive predictor of students' social activity is also their willingness to change their place of residence (β = 0.151). Change of the place of residence is directly related to the search for a new place of residence, organization of relocation, adaptation to a new place, etc., which is impossible without intensive social activity of a person. Students try to plan their future, taking into account the possibility of changing their place of residence, more often it is connected with moving from rural areas to the city, from small cities to big or metropolitan ones. This aspiration influences the increase in students' social activity. It surfaces at the stage of university studies, as they are trying to expand the scope of their social activity, and many students are actively searching for a new place of residence, which is determined in the evaluation and potential opportunities to meet their significant needs. Psychological readiness to change place of residence in students is associated with professional mobility (Piletska & Wawak, 2017). In addition, change of the place of residence is directly related to change in the social environment, and students' effective integration into it in the future is not possible without social activity. However, it is worth mentioning that willingness to change the social circle, especially in the professional sphere, is not a predictor of students' social activity. This can be explained by the fact that most students may not clearly understand the role of social activity in the process of integration into a new social environment, the future access to a new social environment for them is not yet relevant and is not clearly defined. These results are correlated with the results obtained in the studies conducted by Aimaganbetovaa et al. (2015), which conclude that students’ readiness to work in the future is heterogeneous.

Another positive predictor of student social activity is readiness for changes in politics (β = 0.108). It should be noted that this predictor is not very pronounced in the range of other indicators of readiness for changes. At the same time, their readiness for the dynamics of state policy increases the social activity of students, which is obviously connected with the high adaptive potential of students, because in situations of political change they are ready for productive activity and social activity that allows them to continue organizing their lives, ensuring their quality and interacting with other people on various issues of social relations. According to the researchers, high level of psychological readiness for changes in politics and participation in public life of the society is associated with the notion of social capital and, to a lesser extent, with the values of emancipation (Gvozdanović, 2016).

Conclusion

Thus, students’ readiness to change positively influences the degree of their social activity. Students give high evaluation of economic changes and readiness to change their place of residence; they give low evaluation of readiness to move to another country and change their social circle; the medium evaluation is given to readiness to move to another city and change their way of life. Readiness to change place of residence and readiness for changes in politics increase students’ social activity to a smaller degree.

Acknowledgments

The study was funded by the grant of the Russian Scientific Fund (project № 18-18-00298).

References

  1. Aimaganbetovaa O., Sagnayevab T., Zholdassovac M., Ahmetovad M., Nurbekovae Zh., Naurzalina D. (2015). Empirical Research of Psychological Readiness for Student Psychologists’ Professional Activity. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 171, 190-197.
  2. Akbarova, A. A. (2015). Social Activity as an Element of the Youth Social Self-Identification. Izv. Saratov Univ. (N. S.), Ser. Educational Aсmeology. Developmental Psychology, 4(1), (13), 41–45.
  3. Grigoriev, A. V. (2012). Subjective characteristics of personality depending on the degree of manifestation of social activity. Modern problems of science and education. No 5. Retrieved from: http://www.science-education.ru/en/article/view?id=7166 (the date of circulation: 05.02.2018).
  4. Grigoryeva, M. V., Shamionov, R. M., Golubeva, N. M. (2017). The Role of Reflexion in the Adaptation Process of Students to the Conditions of Education in the University. Psychological Science and Education, 22(5), 23-30. https://dx.doi.org/10.17759/pse.2017220503.
  5. Gudkova, T. V., Matveeva, N. S., Matveev, K. A. (2016). Social activity as a factor in the formation of civic identity in student youth. Siberian Pedagogical Journal, 4, 52-57.
  6. Gvozdanović, A. (2016). Determinants of young people's readiness for elite-challenging activities in Croatia. East European Politics. 32, 28-45. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21599165.2015.1128415.
  7. Logvinov, I. N. (2015). Psychology of effective leadership: modern research of Kursk psychologists. Uchenye zapiski: e-journal of the Kursk State University. No 2 (34). Retrieved from: http://scientific-notes.ru/en/undefined (the date of circulation: 04.25.2018).
  8. Lunev, Yu. A., & Chernyshev, A. S. (1999). Social education of youth: optimal conditions, principles, technologies. Kursk: Publishing house of Kursk State Pedagogical University.
  9. Martsinkovskaya, T. D. (2013). Social environment: theoretical and empirical analysis. Psychological research. 6(30), р. 12. Retrieved from: http://psystudy.ru (date of circulation: 30.04.2018).
  10. Osipova L. B., & Panfilova E. A. (2014). Youth Policy as a Factor of Social Development of Youth. Vestnik of Vyatka State University, 15, 28-33.
  11. Piletska, L., & Wawak, T. (2017). Professional mobility of student’s youth. Journal of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University. 4(1), 34-41. Retrieved from http://jpnu.pu.if.ua (the date of circulation: 04.25.2018).
  12. Shamionov, R. M., & Grigorieva, M. V. (2012). Psychology of social activity of the youth: problems and risks. Saratov: Saratov Stat University Publishing House.
  13. Sitarov, V. A., & Maralov, V. G. (2015). Social activity of the individual (levels, criteria, types and ways of its development). Knowledge. Understanding. Skill. No 4, 164-176. https://dx.doi.org/10.17805/zpu.2015.4.15.
  14. Terekhin, R. A. (2018) Psychological readiness of servicemen to change the service situation in the process of military professional socialization: diss. ... cand. psychol. sciences. Saratov.
  15. Vagapova, A. R. (2017). Students’ preferred leisure activities. Izv. Saratov Univ. (N. S.), Ser. Educational Aсmeology. Developmental Psychology, vol. 6, 2 (22), 164–167. https://dx.doi.org/10.18500/2304-9790-2017-6-2-164-167.

Copyright information

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

About this article

Cite this paper as:

Click here to view the available options for cite this article.

Publisher

Future Academy

First Online

18.12.2019

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2019.02.02.5

Online ISSN

2357-1330