The relevance of studying the specifics and features of the subjective well-being of leaders with professional deformations (burnout) is defined, under which often there are destructive changes in the personal components of professionals, leaders and managers during the long performance of their important duties taking into account the human factor, in implementing an individual approach, role influence, specific relations and functional impact on clients, colleagues, partners and subordinates and modification of structural components of professional, managerial and managerial work that adversely affect efficiency, in particular productivity and satisfaction, as well as vertical and horizontal interactions, which include three specific elements: physical and / or emotional stress (exhaustion), depersonalization as a negatively developing relationship, first of all, in the system “specialist-client” and the simplification (reduction) of personal labor indicators. Great stress, increased pace (intensity), a powerful dominant of the impact, a huge emotional situation of cooperation - all this is not only the characteristics of the activities of professionals, leaders and managers, but also the conditions affecting the subjective well-being. Attention is drawn to the relationship between individual-specific and functional-role influence of leaders, professional deformations (burnout) and subjective well-being. The main features of the subjective well-being of leaders with professional deformations (burnout) are revealed: below the average is the level of personal growth, self-esteem of health, propensity to antisocial behavior, satisfaction with relationships, health, love / sex, the availability of money and the possibility of their use, satisfaction with daily activities, goals in life; the average level of autonomy, the balance of the effect, the perception of man as an open system, confusion, confusion in problems, the importance of the social environment, the thinking type, independence, uncertainty about themselves at a given time, immediacy, meaningfulness of life, positive attitude with others; the level of mood changes, drowsiness, sensitivity is above average.
Keywords: Depletionleaderprofessional deformationsubjective well-being
Management from the position of leadership support as an organizational activity in a group involves the community members full support and attentive listening to the leader with the presence of formal or informal powers (Mironova, Polyakova & Ushkov, 2017) , as well as trust relationships , an intuitive sense of the mood of the members of the team and the state of affairs, the existence of a collective and personal orientation towards the achievement of a common goal, the definition of the priority of the tasks performed, the orientation toward success, the development of effective influence, training of young leaders (the growing shift), strengthening of the energy potential, attracting attention (the presence of charisma), expanding ties with other groups and groups, combining collective and personal interests, matching the decisions made to the temporary and situational characteristics of the situation, preserving the valuable, previously accumulated, the ability to jump upwards to the goal, respect for the leader and members of the community, the ability to provide information, listen and hear, the closest environment and support in any, particularly in stressful situations, a clear definition of the prospects for further collective and personal growth (Zhuravlev, 2010).
The psychological portrait always draws attention to the manager as a leader, actively striving for effectiveness, efficiency and success, having volitional qualities to acmeological indicators, skills of effective persuasion and high rates of self-regulation, responsible for group members and personally for themselves, relying on their individual and psychological the features that organize interaction and mutual understanding within the team managed by him and beyond the framework of direct cooperation, positively interaction guide with all controlled (slave) of a weak, medium and strong links that can captivate promising ideas, challenging work and the need for innovation subordinate people (Mironova, Polyakova, & Ushkov, 2017).
Leadership as an ambiguous process:
1) gives spiritual growth (responsibility for decisions and results of their implementation), recognition (following the leader of like-minded people), joy (the opportunity to observe feedback and recall of one's thoughts in the soul and actions of others), freedom from someone else's will and the need to achieve the goals of other people), respect (a person respected by others, is able to lead), confidence in the ability to achieve the goal, other people and yourself;
2) forces to sacrifice one's time, psychological and physiological resources for the sake of a common goal, increased responsibility for the life and health of subordinates, constant social (effective, moral, emotional) support for community members, the use of an authoritarian management style in situations of limited time and lack of energy, decisions and performance of activities in difficult and tense conditions, systematic work on mistakes in activities and constant self-improvement, accelerated development of the technologies of people management, frequent stay in stressful and crisis situations, largely dependent on external factors (Mironova, Polyakova, & Ushkov, 2017), which negatively affects the physical, physiological, mental and the psychological health of leaders.
Effective is a manager as a leader who wants to receive great satisfaction and appropriate remuneration based on the results of his work, independent and independent even in the absence of an external controlling factor, understanding the need for innovations, especially during crisis management, adhering to a code of ethics, capable of planned performance, diplomatic cooperation, relationship of understanding and trust, confident and modest, able to compete in the presence of a dominant healthy competition (Zhuravlev, 2010).
Subjective well-being, as an important component of the psychological health of professionals, leaders and leaders, is in a virtuous life, while the subject himself has social desirable qualities, corresponding value orientations, satisfaction with the position in the social hierarchy and conditions of life with the dominance of positive emotions (Shamionov, 2008).
The main factors influencing the subjective well-being of leaders are: biological factors (activity, health, nervous system, sleep-wakefulness, seasonal mood variations), marriage, income (level of material well-being), employment, individual psychological characteristics, lifestyle, education, behavior, religion, family, subjective satisfaction with certain aspects of life (Boyarkin, Dolgopolova, Zinovieva, Krutova, Romanenko, Subochev & Yunda 2007).
The specificity of the description of the subjective well-being of professionals, leaders and managers is based on:
the psychological sign of globalization, within which the assessment of the scale of the vital activity of the subjects is carried out;
the psychological sign of positivity, where, speaking of mental and psychological health, subjective well-being is considered as a litmus test when highlighting positive points;
the psychological sign of subjectivity, disclosed as an internal experience of individuals (Gonchar, 2012).
The lack of social and psychological components of the subjective well-being of professionals, leaders and managers is an alarming reason for the ineffectiveness of management and the occurrence of symptoms of professional deformities (burnout) (Mironova, Polyakova & Ushkov, 2017).
Negative distortions of the psychological components of the personality of professionals, leaders and managers in terms of the systematic rendering of individual-specific and functional role-playing influence on subordinates and changes in the structure of management, that is, professional deformation (burnout), have a catastrophic effect on interpersonal and intergroup relations in all coordinates and are determined by a combination of such components as depletion at the level of physical com and emotional-volitional (with a decrease in the background of these levels, the emergence of indifference and awareness of emotional overload), depersonalization (with an increase in social dependence or negative attitudes and cynicism) and the simplification (reduction) of personal performance (with negativity towards oneself, performance indicators, opportunities, or minimizing your own merits, folding responsibilities and shifting responsibility) (Maslach & Schaufeli 1993; Mironova, Polyakova & Ushkov, 2017).
Do adverse conditions of professional activity of leaders act as an external dominant, leading to the appearance of symptoms of professional deformities (burnout)?
Are professional deformations (burnout) of leaders a factor that affects their subjective well-being?
What are the features of the subjective well-being of leaders with professional deformations (burnout)?
Purpose of the Study
It was important and interesting to study the features of the subjective well-being of leaders with professional deformations (burnout).
To achieve objectivity, two groups of subjects were compiled - leaders of organizations:
interest was a group of 200 leaders with symptoms of professional deformities (burnout);
control the results helped a group of 200 leaders, in which the indicators of components of professional deformations (burnout) were approaching a low level.
The absence of contacts between groups and the opportunity to exchange views and impressions of participation in the diagnosis was obligatory.
Specificity of blocks of diagnostic procedures
The determination of the presence or absence of professional deformations (burnout) and their components among the leaders of organizations was carried out using the following questionnaires:
the Maslach burnout inventory (MBI) questionnaire developed by K. Maslach and S. Jackson (Maslach & Jackson, 1993) in the adaptation of N.E. Vodopianova (Ilyin, 2001) and modifications of O.B. Polyakova;
the same questionnaire (MBI mod) in the modification of teachers of the Department of Psychology of Professional Activity of St. Petersburg State University (Ilyin, 2001) and modification of the interpretation of the results of O.B. Polyakova;
developed by B.A. Farber questionnaire "Definition of mental burnout" (DMB) (Farber, 2000) in adaptation A.A. Rukavishnikova (Rukavishnikov, 2000) and modification of the interpretation of the results of O.B. Polyakova.
Identification of the features of subjective well-being and its components among the leaders of organizations was carried out using the following questionnaires:
developed by the azps.ru laboratory (license - Text content is available in accordance with the GNU Free Documentation License) "Anti-social behavior questionnaire for adults" (ASBQA) (Laboratory azps.ru, 2009) in a modification of the interpretation of results O.B. Polyakova;
compiled by psi-technology.net test "Your psychological state" (YPS) (Psi-technology.net, 2014);
created by S.V. Kovalev's "Star of well-being" (SWB) test (Kovalev, 2014);
developed by K. Riff "Questionnaire of psychological well-being of the person" (QPWBP) (Riff, 2005) in adaptation and modification ETC. Shevelenkova and PP Fesenko;
compiled by the azps.ru laboratory (license - Text content is available under the GNU Free Documentation License) "The test for the ability to welfare" (TAW) (Laboratory azps.ru, 2010);
created by psi-technology.net test "Personality type" (PT) (Psi-technology.net, 2014);
developed by Perrudet-Badoux, Mendelsohn and Chiche "Scale of subjective well-being" (SSWB) (Perrudet-Badoux, Mendelsohn & Chiche, 1988) in the adaptation of A.А. Rukavishnikova (Rukavishnikov, 2000).
The main features of professional deformations (burnout) of the leaders are shown in Table 01 and indicate that:
leaders with professional deformations (burnout) were diagnosed with high values of the studied phenomenon and three components (emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (D) and reduction of personal achievements (RPA)) (according to the "Maslach burnout inventory" (MBI) questionnaire);
the same results were established using the modification "Maslach burnout inventory" (MBI mod);
and the questionnaire "Definition of mental burnout" (DMB) made it possible to identify a high level of psycho-emotional exhaustion (PEE), personal distance (PD) and deformations of professional motivation (DPM).
The results of diagnostics of the features of subjective well-being and its components among leaders with professional deformations (burnout) are in Table 02 and say that:
with the help of the "Anti-Social Behavior Questionnaire for Adults" (ASBQA) among leaders with professional deformations (burnout), the level of propensity for antisocial behavior was found below the average;
according to the test "Your psychological state" (YPS) (Figure
01), leaders with professional deformations (burnout) have an average level of independence, spontaneity, alienation of conventions;
for the Star of Well-being (SWB) test, leaders with professional deformations (burnout) are defined: below average health, love / sex, availability of money and the possibility of their use, satisfaction with relationships; average level of job satisfaction;
on the "Questionnaire of the psychological well-being of the individual" (QPWBP), leaders with professional deformations (burnout) revealed: below the average level of personal growth, goals in life; the average level of autonomy, the balance of the effect, the perception of man as an open system, the meaningfulness of life, a positive relationship with others, self-acceptance, management of the environment;
in the "Test for the ability to prosperity" (TAW), leaders with professional deformations (burnout) have an average level of propensity to well-being;
In the "Personality Type" (PT) (Figure
02) test, leaders with professional deformations (burnout) have an average level of thinking type (they often like to think everything over, find the deep and hidden meaning of things, they sometimes plunge into their thoughts, they try not to show others, as far as they are not sure about everything, life is a puzzle that has to be solved);
on the "Scale of subjective well-being" (SSWB), leaders with professional deformations (burnout) revealed: below average the level of self-esteem of health, satisfaction with daily life; the average level of confusion, entanglement in problems, the importance of the social environment, uncertainty; above average the level of mood changes, tension, absent-mindedness, drowsiness, sensitivity.
Thus, professional deformation (burnout) is a factor that negatively affects the subjective well-being of leaders.
The main features of the subjective well-being of leaders with professional deformations (burnout) are: above average the level of changes in mood, tension, absent-mindedness, drowsiness, sensitivity; lower than average health, personal growth, love / sex, the availability of money and the possibility of their use, self-esteem of health, propensity to antisocial behavior, satisfaction with relationships, satisfaction with everyday life, goals in life; the average level of autonomy, the balance of the effect, the perception of man as an open system, confusion, confusion in the problems, the importance of the social environment, the thinking type, independence, uncertainty, immediacy, meaningfulness of life, positive attitude with others, self-acceptance, propensity to well-being, job satisfaction, management environment, alienation of conventions.
The results of the study of the features of subjective well-being of leaders with professional deformities (burnout) can be used during psycho-prophylactic and psycho-correctional activities.
It is necessary to teach leaders to transfer functions to deputies, to find time for family and rest, and also to give oneself physical exercises.
We would like to express our sincere thanks to all the leaders of the organizations involved in the study.
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17 December 2018
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Polyakova, O., Petrova, E., & Mironova, O. (2018). Features Of Subjective Well-Being Of Leaders With Professional Deformations (Burnout). In I. B. Ardashkin, B. Vladimir Iosifovich, & N. V. Martyushev (Eds.), Research Paradigms Transformation in Social Sciences, vol 50. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 958-965). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.12.117