The urgency of the work is conditioned by the objective need for a psychological and pedagogical analysis of the content, structure and dynamics of the deviant behavior of younger schoolchildren, in determining the ways and means for their timely prevention.The purpose of the article is to identify and substantiate the most effective methods in the educational process and in the study of the possibility of using pedagogical measures of educational influence on juvenile offenders. The starting point, on which the authors relied, is the idea that the combination of several correction methods will give a more stable result, because in essence all methods are aimed at teaching the child to fight with manifesting harmful habits (creative circles on the interests of children). However, when applying these or those methods of correction, a whole range of factors should be taken into account: the age, individual psychological and medical-biological, individual educational conditions, the correlation of socio-psychological factors and the level of social adaptation. In this article, pedagogical conditions of social and pedagogical prevention and correction of deviant behaviour of younger schoolchildren based on the characteristics of social education are highlighted. It is shown that the complex diagnosis of students in the family, the change in the social environment of life activity by including it in the game forms of socially useful activities should be carried out on the basis of the general principles of the educational process, taking into account the specific characteristics of the pedagogically neglected activities.
Keywords: Correction method of deviant behaviorjuvenile delinquentspedagogical neglectteacher's role
In this article, the analysis of pedagogical conditions of social and pedagogical preventive maintenance and correction of deviant behaviour of younger schoolchildren proceeding from features of social education is made. It is emphasized that the complex diagnosis of students in the family, the change in the social environment of life activity by including it in the game forms of socially useful activities should be carried out on the basis of the general principles of the educational process, taking into account the specific features of the pedagogically neglected activities. The studies are of interest for teachers for the purpose of applying methods, means and methods of preventing deviant behaviour in younger schoolchildren during extra-school activities to primary school.
Recently, in Russia, a great concern of state bodies and society as a whole is causing an increase in the number of families and children in a socially dangerous situation, increasing neglect. This negative situation is of particular concern in their penetration into the environment of junior schoolchildren, which negatively affects their adaptation and socialization. In this regard, the role of the preventive activity of a primary school teacher, being a referent, can provide significant assistance to the family and the child himself. The teacher in working with difficult children should be armed with a special method for forming a positive motivation for behaviour in adolescent offenders, which includes a system of measures: pedagogical diagnosis of the motivation of adolescent behaviour, determination of the asocial components of the behavioural activity of the individual with the help of a psychologist, a social teacher. The choice and application of these measures of influence in the teaching and upbringing process must correspond to the peculiarities, the regime of the day and the desires of the adolescent.
The aggravation of the crisis in modern society is manifested not only in the political, economic, but also in the social and cultural spheres of life, which consequently generates the formation of centers of international terrorism, the growth of terrorist acts, where juvenile schoolchildren are rarely found. In this regard, the work of teachers with juvenile delinquents, students whose behavior does not meet the requirements of discipline and morality is very important. Such children are called "schoolchildren with deviations in behaviour", "pedagogically neglected", "maladjusted", "children at risk". In the domestic psychological and pedagogical literature, these children are presented as a group of children of increased social risk.
The above categories and groups of children in the characteristic of deviant behaviour are necessary for the development of methods and prevention of its prevention.
With the appearance in the socio-professional structure of the society of the status-role position of the teacher, which led to the singling out of pedagogy as an independent field of humanitarian knowledge, the definition of education was narrowed: "Educating a person in a broad pedagogical sense is a purposeful process carried out under the guidance of people, teachers, teachers, educators, which includes all types of training sessions and extracurricular, specially conducted educational work" (Velev, 2012).
The Great Russian Pedagogical Encyclopedia edited by Davydov (1998) gives the following definition of correctional and educational work: "correctional and educational work, a system of special techniques and activities aimed at overcoming or alleviating the shortcomings in the development of abnormal children. In domestic pedagogy this notion is aimed not only at the correction of individual violations, it covers all categories of abnormal children and is carried out by the joint activity of teachers and doctors" (p. 54).
To justify the necessity of using compulsory measures of educational influence on minors as a method of correcting deviant behaviour; to identify the need for corrective-educational activity as one of the methods of influence on juvenile offenders; to study the current state of pedagogical and socio-cultural science in the field of diagnosis and correction of deviant behaviour.
Purpose of the Study
The research aim is to identify the most effective methods for correcting deviant behaviour during the educational process and to study the possibility of using pedagogical measures of educational influence on juvenile offenders.
Theoretical (analysis, synthesis, modelling, generalization) and empirical (pedagogical experiment, biographical method, observation) methods of research were applied.
The expediency and necessity of carrying out correctional and pedagogical work in the educational system in modern conditions are conditioned both by external social and pedagogical circumstances (changes in the social situation, the change of moral values and moral requirements), and by the peculiarities of internal mental processes occurring in the spiritual world of adolescents, in their consciousness, attitude, attitude towards the society. In addition, as noted by the researchers, the appropriateness of corrective action is motivated by a number of indicators of disadvantage in the development of the younger generation. The main ones are the violation of communication in the system of "child-adult" and "child-peer" relationships, loss of mutual understanding, disintegration of previous forms of education; a low level of achievement, significantly diverging from the potential level of the child; behaviour that deviates from social norms and requirements; emotional stress and depression; the presence of extreme crisis life situations; abnormal development crises which, unlike the normative age crises, are not related to the completion of the development cycle, are not time limited and are extremely destructive, without creating conditions and not contributing to the formation of psychological neoplasms that signify the transition to a new age cycle, etc. (Karvasarsky, 1990).
Among the most popular methodical methods of correcting deviant behaviour, it is necessary to identify the most effective methods in the educational process and to explore the possibility of using pedagogical measures of educational influence on juvenile offenders.
The use of compulsory educational measures is associated with the establishment of a certain pedagogical regime for adolescents (delinquents) (establishing supervision of parents or persons replacing them, restricting leisure and establishing special requirements for the behaviour of a minor, warning). The importance of school socialization for today is explained, first of all, by the compulsory and lengthy stay of a child in an educational institution. Correction of deviant behaviour should be carried out on the basis of the general principles of the educational process, taking into account the specific characteristics of pedagogically neglected children. The teacher in work with difficult children should be armed with a special technique for the formation of positive motivation for behaviour in adolescent offenders.
Almost always forced adaptation of children is a problem that is reflected both on the child's body and on his psyche. Here it is understood that this process can lead to a number of problems of the somatic and psychosomatic spectrum arising under the influence of stress factors (Kirillov, 2013).
Stress in the period of adaptation very often, in particular to the school, is manifested in cases when the child did not attend kindergarten, and accordingly, is less adapted to social interactions than his peers. In this situation, the main role is played by the fear of suspense (in an unfamiliar environment) and the fear of disapproval and rejection (teacher and / or new comrades).
Juveniles with deviations in the behaviour of junior school classes, in addition to an individualized approach, also require consideration of their intellectual development, psychological compatibility in the group.
The forms and methods of the teacher's work with parents or legal representatives of the student with deviations in behaviour should be aimed at improving the pedagogical culture, strengthening the interaction of the school and the family as a whole. The most effective preventive work with the deviant behaviour of juvenile offenders is the organization of joint activities of junior schoolchildren, teachers, social educators, educators, psychologists and parents.
The current state of pedagogical and socio-cultural science in the field of diagnosis and correction of deviant behaviour among adolescents is characterized, first of all, by the desire of researchers to penetrate deep processes, to understand their social and natural essence. It should also be considered in unity all the components that affect the development of the immunity of the psychological mechanism, as well as the desire to improve the search for ways to overcome deviance (Zinnurov, Krasilnikov & Gayfutdinova, 2014).
Before considering the concept of "the initial stage of deviant behaviour", it is necessary to clarify the essence and socio-pedagogical causes of the manifestation of simply deviant behaviour. To date, there is no single point of view on the definition of the concept of deviant behaviour, it is not clear how it is pathological. There are different approaches to the definition of deviant behaviour, which come from a different understanding of the norm: sociological, biological and psychological. Some believe that all deviations from the social norms approved by the society are being spoken about, others suggest that only the violation of legal norms is covered by this concept, and thirdly - different types of social topology (alcoholism, drugs, murders) (Veblen, 1984).
One of the methods for correcting deviant behaviour during the educational process is educational and correctional activity, which is a single process of emotional and informative way. This method makes it possible to correct not only the external side of educational and cognitive activity, but also the internal one, expressed in relation to students in the learning process. The peculiarity of corrective-educational activity is expressed in that it not only covers the whole set of pedagogical effects on the personality of a minor offender, but also on children with behavioural abnormalities.
Correction of deviant behaviour must begin with the proper organization of the student's leisure. Therefore, in determining the goals and objectives of correctional-pedagogical activity, it is necessary to proceed from the nearest forecast of the development of the subacute, rather than the momentary situation of its deviant behaviour. Teachers know that the first step is to prevent further degradation of the personality of a minor offender. It is not easy to help her change her convictions, but this is an important step towards the formation of a creative outlook on life.
When applying the measures in question, it is also necessary to recall the measures of a coercive nature, regulated by a court decision, within which an integrated approach to prevention, correction, rehabilitation is characterized.
The peculiarity of pedagogical support of compulsory measures of educational influence on juvenile offenders is primarily determined by the peculiarities of the conditions in which they are realized. The question arises: how does this manifest itself? It should be noted that the application of the above-mentioned measures of educational influence on minors is not connected with restriction of freedom and their isolation from society. However, for not complying with certain legal measures under certain conditions, more severe penalties may be applied to them-deprivation of liberty. Undoubtedly, with methodically correctly organized work, this factor can have a positive corrective effect on the adolescent. This situation is explained by the fact that the child is not divorced from the environment that is familiar to him, his socially useful ties with the family are preserved, he has the opportunity to continue his studies in the former educational institution and, if necessary, to live at home. The wide involvement of the role of the family as a microenvironment of a juvenile offender during its socialization is very great.
It should be noted that psychological and pedagogical, social and medical assistance is also the basis of compulsory educational measures. These measures are aimed at helping the teenager in developing skills to manage their own behaviour. At the same time, the basic values of society are open and accessible to a teenager.
The use of compulsory measures of educational influence is associated with the establishment of a certain pedagogical regime with regard to adolescent delinquents (supervision of parents or persons substituting for them, restraining leisure and establishing special requirements for the behaviour of a minor, warning), which contributes to the formation of pro-social, law-abiding behaviour in juvenile experience. The pedagogically expedient situation of supervision, control, educational influence, with proper organization, prompts the adolescent to subordinate to circumstances, allows him to make an informed choice, lacking moral and strong-willed qualities, responsibility for his behaviour, strengthening and expanding socially useful ties, attaching to work, promotes the prevention of negative misconduct and the acquisition of positive experience of life activity (Kazakova, 2015).
In dealing with difficult children, the educator should be tolerant and understanding differences in opinions and beliefs. At the same time, the teacher must also develop these qualities from the students, since the ability to understand other people, to recognize similar traits and differences is the main condition necessary for interaction with other people.
Thus, teachers, performing their functions, should pay more attention to the implementation of the curriculum, but not forgetting about such important function as socialization of the person, adaptation, ensuring the child's entry into life. And as it was already said above, it is necessary to start all these works from the junior (primary) classes, when the children still do not fully understand the role of the school and the teacher in their life. The main thing is that the main activity of a psychologist and a teacher should be aimed at correcting not only the deviant behaviour itself, but also embedding the child's value system, strengthening its self-esteem, and finding external and internal resources that increase the child's interest in positive changes in educational and social activities.
The most effective form of preventive work with the deviant behaviour of junior schoolchildren is the organization of joint activities of students, teachers, social educators, educators, psychologists and parents.
The study led to the conclusion that it is necessary to understand the role of the psychologist in the social adaptation of students, and this prevention is aimed at changing external and internal factors and conditions of social upbringing.
It should be noted that prevention of deviant behaviour of younger schoolchildren cannot be considered in isolation from preventive activities carried out at the state level. However, prevention carried out at the state level refers to social prevention, which is a combination of state, social, social, medical and organizational and educational activities. All these measures are aimed at preventing, eliminating or neutralizing the main causes that cause various kinds of social deviations of a negative nature.
Forms and methods of work of the teacher with parents or legal representatives of the student with deviations in behaviour, should be aimed at improving the pedagogical culture, strengthening the interaction of the school and the family as a whole. The most effective preventive work with the deviant behaviour of juvenile offenders is the organization of joint activities of junior schoolchildren, teachers, social educators, educators, psychologists and parents.
The obtained researches are of interest for teachers when using methods, means and methods of preventing deviant behaviour in younger schoolchildren during after-school activities of primary school.
- Davydov, V. V. (1998). The Great Russian Pedagogical Encyclopedia. Moscow, Russia: Pedagogy.
- Karvasarsky, B. D. (1990). Neuroses. Moscow: Medicine.
- Kirillov, I. O. (2013). Stress-surfing: Stress for benefit and pleasure. Moscow: Alpina Publisher.
- Kazakova, T. A. (2015). The concept and specificity of pedagogical support of compulsory measures of educational influence on juvenile offenders. Bulletin of the St. Petersburg University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 4(68), 37-42.
- Veblen, T. (1984). Theory of an idle class. Moscow, Russia: Progress.
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- Zinnurov, F. K., Krasilnikov, V. I., & Gayfutdinova, A. M. (2014). Pedagogical correction of the initial stage of deviant behavior. Bulletin of the Kazan Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 2(16), 48-50.
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05 September 2018
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Teacher training, teacher, teaching skills, teaching techniques
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Bashirova, S. G. (2018). Practical Model Of The Deviant Behavior Prevention Of The Studying Young Classes. In & R. Valeeva (Ed.), Teacher Education - IFTE 2018, vol 45. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 582-587). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.09.67