Academic Procrastination In Students At Different Age
The present paper is devoted to the study of academic procrastination in university students. This work aims to indicate and analyze the academic procrastination in students of different years of education, including the correlation between the procrastination manifestation and state and trait anxiety, laziness and control over actions. The study involves students of different years of education in the Faculty of Psychology of Lomonosov Moscow State University. They fulfill a standardized test booklet: the General Procrastination Scale test (
Keywords: Procrastinationacademic procrastinationstate and trait of anxietylaziness
Procrastination and anxiety
Procrastination, planning control and laziness
No studies have determined the link between a set of individual qualities and the risk of academic procrastination in students of psychology faculty at different age.
Do personal characteristics, i.e. action control when planning, performance, failure, state anxiety, laziness and trait anxiety correlate with procrastination?;
Do personal characteristics predict the level of manifestation of procrastination?
Purpose of the Study
descriptive statistics through all the diagnostic scales;
comparing medium values via non-parametric criteria (Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney) to detect significant differences upon indexes researched in students of different years (first to fifth years of education) and students who returned the survey at different times;
correlation analysis (Spearman correlation criteria) for detection of links between procrastination and other personal characteristics of an individual;
linear regression analysis directed towards the search for academic procrastination predictors in students among personal characteristics of an individual.
Analysis of data of students of different years of education. Analyzing the data obtained concerning different years of education it was detected that students of all years display a procrastination level and subjective laziness assessment not exceeding the medium range. Second, third and fourth year students displayed a higher state anxiety level. However, the level of trait anxiety was moderate among all students. No students’ results on the scales - “AOF” and “AOD” - exceeded the range of medium values, which indicates that it is characteristic for students to have a medium position between the state of mind orientation and action orientation (see Table
Comparative data analysis.
Data analysis of students of different years of education: Comparative analysis with the use of non-parametric criteria of Kruskal-Wallis revealed no significant differences among students of different years of education on any of the research scales. Therefore, procrastination level and personal characteristics in students of different years of education did not differ (see Table
Data analysis of students who returned the surveys forms at different time. Comparing all student groups in pairs did not show any significant variations, except for those students who returned forms on the first day after the deadline. Significant variations were detected upon indications of “AOD” (U=790,5; p=0,027). This is most likely related to the fact that students who returned forms on the very first day are better at organising their time.
Data analysis of students of different years of education. Correlation analysis demonstrated that procrastination in students of all different years of education was connected to laziness and inversely connected to “AOD”. But in fourth and fifth-year students procrastination also correlated with state and trait anxieties, whilst fourth-year students showed procrastination correlating negatively with “AOF” (see Table
Students who returned forms at different times. Regardless of the day when forms were returned, procrastination in students was correlated with state and trait anxiety as well as laziness, and negatively correlated with “AOD”. However, in students who returned forms on the first day, procrastination was inversely correlated with “AOF”, and in students who returned forms after the deadline was inversely connected with “AOP” (see Table
Linear regression analysis.
The level of academic procrastination in the students of different years of all the courses remains within medium value range.
Data analysis revealed that state and trait anxiety levels marginally increase from the first to the fourth year of education. However, procrastination is considered as a negative strategy to overcome anxiety and general tension of the educational process only in the later years of education (fourth to fifth).
Linear regression analysis indicate that students with high levels of laziness, state anxiety and poor organizational skills are prone to the development of academic procrastination. It prospectively allows for the creation of programs for the negative coping strategy prevention.
The research was supported by grant #16-06-00312/16 from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.
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