Correlation Of Teenagers Abilities For Self-Revelation With Motivation And Existential Implementation

Abstract

Adolescence represents a critical time in the life of a child as well as any other person. Adolescents gradually determine the future professional sphere for themselves: what kinds of educational or other kinds of activities are the most interesting, significant for them - what their perception that they exist depends on, that they make their personality themselves and find their essence. During this period, parents, teachers and peers influence the teenager's choice. Based on the existential approach and idea of self-disclosure of the individual's abilities, an empirical study is carried out. On a sample of 33 school students of the 9th-11th grades, the existential and motivational factors of abilities for self-revelation are explored. It turns out that the developed abilities for self-disclosure are determined through the connection of self-transcendence with the achievement motivation and general level of motivation for learning. The relationship between responsibility and freedom is defined with the motivation of achievement and general level of motivation for learning. We find correlations between the group of components of existential fulfillment and motivation. The primacy of existential fulfillment in relation to motivation and self-revelation is defined. The influence of positive motivation for learning on the self-revelation components (intellect, self-esteem and professional self-determination) is shown. It is discovered that negative motivation for learning has an inverse connection with self-esteem in terms of will, independence and a sense of reality; negative motivation has a detrimental effect on both existential fulfillment and self-disclosure components.

Keywords: Adolescentself-disclosure of abilitiesexistential factorsmotivationanxietyprofessional personality type

Introduction

In adolescence, the problem of professional self-determination becomes especially urgent. Gradually, adolescents determine the future professional sphere for themselves: what kinds of educational activity and other kinds of activities are the most interesting, significant for them. At the same time, in this period, the parents' opinion on the teenager's educational and professional future remains significant. Comparison of one's own abilities and interests with parents' advice and peers' opinions gives the result ultimately, which is a complex product of doubts, comparisons and subordination of motives. A true inner self-disclosure of abilities is important and determines the subsequent self-determination for the profile of vocational education and activities. The basis of the presented research is the methodology of existential analysis, theories of abilities, and dialogue. We reveal the factors that allow to predict the effectiveness of adolescent education, not only in the framework of evaluation categories, but also as existential self-disclosure of abilities. So, internal, existential factors, personal characteristics and motivation of schoolchildren are considered.

Self-revelation to the outside world is preceded by a certain inner work done by the child, which is hidden from «external viewers». Let us imagine the situation of a teenager talking to a parent or a peer (a «recipient» who receives information from a teenager), that, to a significant extent, affects the teenager's choice. Before giving information about themselves children, one way or another, crystallize it. When sending information to the recipient about themselves, they speak it out, and also get a release and, as it were, separate themselves from the information, and at the same time get an opportunity to look from the outside, to analyze the described events in a detached way. Simultaneously with the ongoing internal processes, the adolescent receives feedback from the recipient in one form or another, which allows to distance themselves and look at the situation from a different point of view. The information obtained in the process of self-disclosure returns to the inner world of the subject and is internalized, combining with the original information, which in turn leads to its modification.

Problem Statement

Thus, we believe that the process of one's self-disclosure to others is preceded by one's self-revelation to themselves with the active participation of reflexive processes.

The process of a teenager's abilities for self-disclosure is especially important for professional self-determination (Malakhova 2015). Identifying and revealing the student's abilities is the teacher's task, but, more importantly, the student's task in itself. The process of self-disclosure and reflection makes the way for self-determination, for finding the path for one's development (Aminov at al., 2016).

In our opinion, there is an interaction of internal and external processes of self-disclosure, the level of inner satisfaction with life, the subject's perception of happiness, in other words, of existential fulfillment (Langle, 2009). Existential fulfillment is expressed in complete agreement between the inner and outer, meaningful life, embodied with freedom and responsibility, without fixations, life, passing in the world created by men (Langle, 2001). Life is the embodiment and unfolding of opportunities and a person capable to actualize these possibilities becomes existentially fulfilled. Existential fulfillment also reflects the subject's view about the way they believe they live. Existential fulfillment is an inner and subjective sensation.

Teaching and learning are the main activities during adolescence. In teaching activity, a teenager can find ways to actualize their possibilities, reveal their abilities, be convinced of self-worth, develop and use the possibilities for self-disclosure. The process of learning activity creates abilities from inclinations (Teplov, 1961).

One of the factors of professional self-determination is the abilities that are created and disclosed during the process of learning activity. The actively developing teenager's personality needs processes that can reveal their personality. The teenager's abilities for self-disclosure in the process of educational activity are more effective with a positive attitude towards learning and positive motivation for learning activity (Lokalova, 2009).

Research Questions

Thus, we made the assumption that existential fulfillment and motivation affected the student's self-disclosure in high school. In this case we interpreted self-disclosure as self- revelation to themselves in the first place. Existential fulfillment was the link that had a positive impact on both self-disclosure and motivation in the learning process. Thus, the prerequisites for self-disclosure were motivation and existential fulfillment.

A number of techniques were used for the study. The sample was represented by the students of senior classes (N = 33).

Purpose of the Study

On the basis of the theoretical study of the prerequisites of the student's abilities for self-disclosure in high school, the aim of the study was to establish the relation and influential features of existential fulfillment and motivation of abilities for self-disclosure.

The hypothesis consisted in the assumption that existential fulfillment and motivation were associated with the student's abilities for self-disclosure in high school. Existential fulfillment and motivation (emotional attitude toward learning) were factors of self-disclosure.

The study was conducted on the basis of Vladivostok secondary schools, the sample consisted of 33 students of the 9-11th grades.

Research Methods

Measurement of the dominant motivational tendency among schoolchildren was carried out with the help of the method «Achievement motivation» by M.Sh. Mohammed-Eminov. The methodology studied the students' motivation within the framework of the dichotomy of motivation for success and the motivation to avoid failures.

The method «Personal self-esteem» by O.I. Mottkov (modification of B.A. Sosnovsky's method) was used to study the general self-esteem of the positivity of personal development, as well as the indices of self-esteem of individual personality factors (morality, will, independence and sense of reality, creativity, harmony and extraversion).

The existence scale by A. Langle and K. Orgler was a psychometric instrument reflecting a subjective assessment of one's life by a person. The level of existential fulfillment showed the degree of meaningfulness in life, the inner consent of a person's essence with their decisions and actions.

The questionnaire by J. Holland determined the professional personality type; it allowed assessing the propensities and interests of adolescents in certain professions on the basis of their ideas about their own abilities.

A questionnaire about the types of intelligence by G. Gardner (multiple intelligences) maked it possible to get an idea of the leading type of intelligence for adolescents.

We used a technique for diagnosing the motivation for learning and the emotional attitude to learning - a modification of the questionnaire to study the emotional attitude to learning (by A.D. Andreeva).

The questionnaire by Ch.D. Spielberger allowed to study anxiety and anger levels as actual states and as personality properties (State-Trait Personality Inventory).

Findings

Statistical data processing was carried out through correlation analysis with the help of the Spearman criterion. Correlation ties were allocated and grouped by force. Among the factors we identified the following groups: the scale of existential fulfillment, a group of motivation factors and a group of the self-disclosure phenomenon (Table 1 ).

Table 1 -
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As a result of the analysis, we revealed the correlations between the psychological phenomena of existential fulfillment and motivation (Table 2 ). It turned out that self-transcendence correlates with the achievement motivation and the level of general learning motivation. The relationship between responsibility as an aspect of existential fulfillment and motivation for success was defined (Magomed-Eminova). Average and direct correlation relationships between the elements were found. The interrelation between the general level of educational motivation and the element of existential fulfillment was revealed - it was freedom, which was characterized by a high and direct connection.

Table 2 -
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The motivation factor was represented by the following elements: cognitive activity, achievement motivation and general level of learning motivation, and also included the motivation to achieve / fail (Table 3 ). As a result of the research, we revealed the direct links of average strength between cognitive activity and intellectual type, achievement motivation and the elements of self-disclosure: creativity, general self-esteem of the individual's positive aspects, self-transcendence and a tendency to success motivation. We also revealed the ratio of achievement motivation and self-esteem, as well as motivation and awareness of self-worth and self-disclosure. The overall indicator of positive motivation for education correlated with will, self-transcendence, freedom and motivation for success. Learning motivation - anxiety was inversely proportional to the average strength of the correlation with the will, independence and a sense of reality, freedom.

Table 3 -
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In the group of self-disclosure elements, we revealed direct correlation relationships of average strength between the conventional professional type and creativity, extraversion and general self-esteem. Such relationship was also revealed between the intellectual professional type and independence, cognitive activity and intelligence (linguistic and mathematical and logical). A high direct link was found in the relationship between the conventional professional type, independence and sense of reality.

Table 4 -
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Conclusion

Analyzing the data presented above, we can draw the following conclusions:

7.1. The relationship of self-transcendence with the achievement motivation and general level of motivation for learning testifies to the developed abilities for self-disclosure. Self-transcendence is characterized by the transformation of internal activity into changes in the external world (Langle, 2001). Before the inner activity is realized, it is necessary first to crystallize and realize it. Developed self-transcendence influences the power of achievement motivation towards learning and, in the same way, increases the subject's existential fulfillment, in other words, their inner sense of satisfaction with life.

7.2 . Responsibility and freedom are interrelated with the achievement motivation and general level of motivation for learning. Responsibility and freedom are the opposites of one continuum. The more responsibility, the more freedom (Fromm, 2009). The more success and satisfaction the subject gets from learning, the more life satisfaction and inner happiness they feel, and vice versa. This is the continuum of the two elements, which, developing, mutually reinforce each other.

7.3. In general, the analysis reveals a correlation between a group of components of existential fulfillment and motivation. But there are no significant interrelations of existential fulfillment with the self-disclosure group. At the same time, the group of motivation components correlates both with a group of self-disclosure components, and a group of existential fulfillment components. On the basis of this result, one may assume that existential fulfillment is primary in relation to motivation and self-disclosure. A developed positive motivation for learning in its turn develops and has a beneficial effect on self-revelation components (intellect, self-esteem and professional self-determination).

7.4. Motivation of achievement directly affects self-esteem, creativity and intellect with regard to mathematical and logical component. And cognitive activity as a kind of motivation for learning correlates with the intellectual professional type. Thus, motivation has a positive impact on self-disclosure of one's own essence and abilities, and also on the realization of one's own self-worth.

7.5. Negative motivation for learning has an inversely proportional dependence on self-esteem in terms of will and independence, a sense of reality, and also with freedom (a component of existential fulfillment). Negative motivation has a detrimental effect on both existential fulfillment and self-disclosure components.

Thus, we have studied the relationship between self-disclosure and motivation and existential fulfillment. The interaction of student's self-disclosure with educational motivation is shown. The research proves that negative motivation, a negative emotional attitude towards learning adversely affects both existential fulfillment and the process of self-disclosure. The dichotomy of motivation and existential fulfillment is revealed. ]

References

  1. Aminov, N.A., Chernyavskaya, V.S. (2016). Self-disclosure of the abilities of a senior pupil. // World of Science, Culture, Education; 4 (59). [in Russian].
  2. Fromm, E. (2009). Escape from freedom. 3rd ed. Moscow. [in Russian].
  3. Langle, A. (2001). Existential analysis - to find agreement with life / / Moscow Psychological Journal, 1. [in Russian].
  4. Langle, A. (2009). Existential-analytic theory of personality: Collected papers. [in Russian].
  5. Lokalova, N.P. (2009). School failure: causes, psychocorrection, psycho prophylaxis. St. Petersburg: Peter. [in Russian].
  6. Malakhova, V.R. (2015). Program of development of professional self-determination of schoolchildren on the basis of reflective processes; 5(54). [in Russian].
  7. Teplov, B.М. (1961). Problems of individual differences. Moscow: Publishing house of the APN of the RSFSR. [in Russian].

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Publisher

Future Academy

First Online

18.12.2019

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2018.07.39

Online ISSN

2357-1330