Mainstream Mobile Social-networking Applications (MSNAs) are more popular than before. Apps act as important roles in life. The research illustrates the problem status in the industry, which is very complex and intense. Then it discusses the questions about marketing strategies. In addition, it sets up the purpose of the study to explore MSN marketing theories and build the the foundation of the research. And the research objectives include many sections. The first objective is to find a series of successful marketing strategies through comparing their successions of mainstream MSNAs. The secondary objective of the research was to explain the relationships of continuance usage intentions with consumer behaviours. In order to fulfil the objectives, the research uses mixed methods. Therefore, the research finds marketing strategies for WeChat by SWOT analysis and discusses the inovations of MSNAs based on the qualitative comparative analysis. Then the research has findings. First, The first generation of communication softwares focused on functions and the second generation emphasized on functions and service. Secondly, the second generation would go beyond the first generation. Moreover, the development of apps is affected by these factors: the mobile devices developing, the income increasing and the application software service improving. Additionally, WeChat enhanced functional innovation and strengthen brand building step by step. In brief, this research finds marketing strategy to attracte customers and builds up a good case study.
Keywords: Marketing StrategiesMainstream Mobile Social-networking ApplicationsContinuance Usage IntentionConsumer Behavior
Mainstream Mobile Social-networking Applications are more popular than before. Apps act as important roles in life. It is valuable to discuss apps completion strategies to improve their services.
In the light of Internet Live Stats (InternetLiveStats, 2017), internet became more popular in the world than before. The change rate of internet users in the world sharply went up from 2000 to 2016. The penetration rate in 2016 was nearly seven times than that of 2000. Certainly, the internet would have a profound impact on our lives, society and the economy in the future. On the other hand, because the world population was unevenly distributed, the popularity of the internet was different. China ranked first and the number of internet users in China accounted for 42% of the sum of the top five internet users. Simultaneously, China was the world’s largest information industry market. But 38% of the Chinese people were not internet users, the market had a great potential. In addition, it was true that China's GDP ranked second in the world and kept stable high-speed growing, consumption levels continue to improve. Therefore, it was a great significance to study the behavior of Chinese internet users.
Mobile Social Networking Status
In virtual communities, individuals take Mobile Social Networking (MSN) as a platform, who have similar interests in conversing and connecting with each other via these devices, such as mobile phones. Therefore, it creates chances for mobile apps, giving their holders instant and real-time access via the internet. With mobile apps and web base on social networks, the line between Smartphone and the web become more important in the world. As proprietary Smartphone technologies and networks were improved, the phone web had a greater change: mobile access through browsers and apps. Consequently, social networking systems strongly spread content, increased accessibility. And native apps increasingly had the ability to catch users and consumers.
The research firstly discusses problems of MSNAs and analyzes objectives of MSNAs. It illustrates the problem status in the industry. The problem statement sets up the foundation of the research objective.
Problems of MSNAs
MSNAs refers to Mobile Social Network Apps, for instance, WhatsApp, WeChat, Link, QQ and so on. Surely, Smartphones need advance equipment and apps to support those services. Therefore, basic functions of Smartphones are fulfilled. At first, mobile content purchases and deliveries include a range of services: sales of mobile phone ring tones, games for Smartphone, wallpapers and so on. Accordingly, music tracks and videos are increased by a single device, which are made of mobile phones, video players and portable audio players. Usually, customers book goods and service from catalog merchants via the mobile device. Additionally, value-add up selling services are made by consumers making mobile purchases. However, the mobile site is customized for small screens, which limited the device's user interface. On 4G networks, it would be easy that users loaded down a movie online with a smartphone in a few seconds (Ahonen, 2009). Secondly, mobile ticketing means mobile phones use a variety of technologies to send tickets. As the ticket checking, tickets as a digital boarding pass immediately are sent to users by presenting their mobile phones. Therefore, users are more moving towards this technological than before. In addition, the technology can also be used for loyalty cards and mobile voucher distribution. When the customer is nearby, they can get the coupons by location-based services. Third, mobile money transfer is the main function on use of Smartphone through the world. It is also called mobile Automated Teller Machine (ATM). In Kenya, the M-PESA company and the Airtel Money company respectively provided mobile money transfer services. In 2013, Danske Bank in Denmark firstly operated Mobile Pay. In mid-2015, 1.6 million users considered it. Certainly, a mobile ATM machine is easily moved from location to any place. And the kind of ATM can support special service for temporary needs. Because it is self-contained units without building or enclosure, it can transmit transaction information wirelessly, no a phone line handy. Moreover, the unit is constructed of weather-resistant material. Additionally, it can do with internal heating and air conditioning. Furthermore, mobile money services now act as an active platform rolling out and managing distribution networks. On other hand, it is better than traditional ATM and engineers to mobile money platforms. But Mobile ATM requires an electrical source, alternative sources of power. As a result, their customers need a mobile phone to deal with banks, other financial institutions, according to account information and transactions. The M-banking service is convenient to purchase stocks and remit the money. Usually, mobile brokerages depend on mobile devices to finish stock market services. Greatly, the subscribers react to market developing in a hot fashion anywhere with the service help. And the new popular smartphone operating system could run the application for payments. In 2016, 41% app stores purchased mobile software through distribution platforms (ZDNet, 2013). Consequently, users can use a variety of forms of payment in a smartphone: contactless payment, premium-rate telephone numbers, mobile operator billing, credit cards, debit cards, stored-value cards, micro-payment services. Forth, Mobile phone location-based services are necessary for the users receiving the mobile commerce used in the information and dealing with mobile business transactions. Such as the location-based services help users to know offers, weather and tracking people. Moreover, mobile phone users have more information services: financial records, stock quotes, traffic reports, sports scores, emergency alert. Likewise, users can get the traffic information about a user's actual travel patterns, as the mobile devices will send it to customers. Certainly, this data are more valuable than before, because of the invention of modern mobile devices. Fifth, Mobile reverse auctions have grown in popularity. In particular, it is unlike traditional that low-bid auction (or the reverse auction) bills the user's phone. Reverse auctions were better than mobile SMS commerce, the former offered a mobile supplier's high return as it required consumers conduct transactions for a long time. In contrast, the latter relied one-time purchase or one-time subscription on. Sixth, mobile marketing meant marketing sent to mobile devices, in the context of mobile commerce. Specially, it get better response than traditional campaigns. The instant nature of customer decision-making is the primary reason that mobile apps and websites are popular. Within a few seconds, a marketing message or discount coupon is sent to consumers. At the same time, they decid to buy, continue to complete the sale. Such as a busy mum is cleaning her house and holding her baby. Marketing information about baby products from local stores is sent to her mobile. Immediately, she places an order for the supplies, even though she does not plan. No more need to go out or take credit cards, she can log into the web she visits last week. Above all, mobile media rapidly developing, new technologies accelerate innovation in mobile commerce. The mobile browser is a worldwide smartphone browser. Surely, interaction design had been producing mobile web pages and apps that created perfectly usable interactions for consumers (Preece, 2011). In recent research, the degree that the app helped increasing convenience within fashion m-commerce apps was demonstrate that was the most prominent function (Mobile, 2012). On research, wire-line markets and consumers of mobile represented different groups (Schejter, 2010). Individuals are related to four context dimensions: the time, place, social background, control decisions. In brief, these factors are necessary to trigger m-commerce from e-commerce. No double, the development of marketing campaigns lead to successful mobile commerce.
Objectives of MSNAs
Mobile social network (MSN) supports these functions: individual with similar interests converse and connect with others by the mobile phone. Due to the virtual communities, MSN influence has become increasing powerful, new mobile social-networking applications are numerous. With their strengthens, some MSN apps win in the highly competitive market in the first generation, for example, MSN messenger, Facebook, Weibo and so on. With creative functions and high quality, some new apps are becoming stronger than the old in the second generation, just as Whatsapp, WeChat, Line. The study plans to give answer by comparison of marketing strategies of mainstream mobile social-networking applications.
Research Questions firstly come from theretical research. Based on related theories, the research find factors to effect on intentions of users and on Consumer Behavior. Then it finds research questions of the project.
Consumer Behavior Theories
The research discusses what is the marketing strategy based on theories and the data of MSNAs. Motivation is a theoretical construct which used to explain behavior. And motivation theory explains that perceived value and benefits derived lead to behavior (Lee, 2005). In fact, Theory of Planned Behavior links beliefs and behavior. Augmented Reality (AR) used to appear on technology that commingles virtual and real information (Klopfer, 2008). Acoordingly, continuance intention about Mobile Social Networking Applications (MSNAs) are successfully explored with motivation theory and Augmented Reality (AR) theory (Kim, 2015). Simutaneouly, the theory of reasoned action (TRA) is used to predict individual behaviors (Rogers, 2002). Therefore, these theories discuss factors to effect on consumer behavior.
Factors to Effect on Intentions of Users
The research need to find factors to effect on intentions of users. Motivations motivated people to acts in some way or at least developed a tendency for a particular act (Preece, 2011). Motivation theories can be classified on purchase behaviour: natural vs. rational. Additionally, motivation theory system is very rich in content: incentive theories, psychological theories, behaviorist theories, cognitive theories, content theories, socio-cultural theory, drive-reduction theory, attribution theory, expectancy theory, goal-setting theory, temporal motivation theory, self-determination theory, Herzberg's two-factor theory, cognitive dissonance theory. In fact, this study explored the user's intentions from incentive theories.
A direct or indirect view of the real environment of the element (or supplement) by computer-generated sensory input. Thus technology functions improved reality (Graham, 2013). Certainly, the concept of Augmented Reality (AR) had appeared in the technology commingles virtual and real information (Klopfer, 2008). On the contrary, virtual reality replaced the real world (Steuer, 1993). In particular, the information could be virtual (Azuma, 1997) or real. Such as electromagnetic radio coverage completely in line with their actual space. Tatally, the first feature of the AR system provided users with an impressive hybrid reality experience was invented in the early 1990s (Rosenberg, 1993).
Factors to Effect on Consumer Behavior
The research need to find the factors to effect on the consumer behaviour. Consumer behavior theories are intended to illustrate relationships in human behavior. Likewise, expective results affect the individual's decision to do particular objectives (Rogers, 2002). Actually, the theory of thought found a reasonable action and personal motivation. Likewise, believing that the execution would result in a particular satus, because they were determined by the attitude of the ousted and the subjective criteria (Colman, 2015). In a word, rational action theory shows that strong intentions lead to an effort to enforce behavior, but also to increase the likelihood of behavior. Then it is necessary to introduce these factors on consumer behavior. First, belief is an attitude of positive psychological representation for something that is the right possibility (Schwitzgebel, 2016). In epistemology, the philosopher used the term "faith" as a personal attitude with true or false ideas and concepts. Second, subjective norms are definite as "important people's views, most people thought he should or should not perform behavioral problems" (Towler, 1991). Likewise, subjective, consider a person's view of a person's intimate relationship or a person's relationship that he or she will perform a particular act (Ajzen, 1991). The influence of subjective norms captured the social pressure that policy makers want to buy. Third, the attitude was an evaluation of the impact on the implementation of the target behavior (Fishbein, 1975). Personal form of attitude, behavior set through the expectancy-value model to assess their beliefs. For each attitude towards an act, the individual's faith is multiplied by the evaluation result, then the attitude of the whole group produces the weight. Fourth, Behavioral Intention (BI) standard dictionary definition was "Will": remember as a purpose; plan, use, give, etc. From this point of view, BI with our conscious plans to develop or not perform any designated future behavior. Finally, Brand Loyalty is defined as a tendency and intentional sourcing would be shown as a major choice (Khoshsima, 2013). In other word, the customer first purchases the product with a specific brand to test it. After agreeing and satisfaction, the customer is willing to repeat and continue to buy the brand (Sobhani, 2011).
Research Questions of Apps
Actually, the demand of apps went up sharply, many companies planned to catch the chance. But it takes much money to do innovative technology and successful marketing. These data shows all of three apps are extremely popular and great options. The hot function of WhatsApp is an end-to-end encryption, which is one of the most practical services, preferably for commercial use. On the other hand, WeChat and Line, have more social features that microcircuits offered more games and many celebrities to use online. WeChat offers a bit more with games and Line used by many celebs. Their marketing strategies are different. So it is necessary to discuss the following questions. First, what are the app users interesting in? Second, what are the critical reasons that lead to marketing success of MSN application? Third, which one will be the leader in the MSN market? Finally, what are their successful marketing strategies in the future?
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to explore MSN marketing theories to build the the foundation of the research. Then it searches for the WeChat Marketing strategies to illustrate the significance. It merged the theoretical analysis and the case study.
Explore MSN Marketing Theories
The rapid spread of mobile social networks is changing the way and the way people communicate (Sergey, 2016). People have been increasingly moving from physical communication to virtual interaction. Actually, MSN apps enhancs the physical interaction in communication among persons with smart-phones. Moreover, the personal mobile devices has already been more useful because the cost-efficient wireless connectivity is ubiquitous availability. According to modern statistics, a mobile phone is utilized over three hours throughout the day, which added up to almost one full day a week (Dailymail, 2017). When smart-phones meet MSN apps, people can share more wonderful programs. And MSN applications can provide the right user with the right social service anytime, anywhere without disclosing personal data (Sayed, 2013). With great innovations of mobile, all of users easily empower their devices’ capabilities. Now, mobile devices take the functions of TV, games and business services. Certainly, they will be more important in life, if they can deal with the privacy and data security problems. Moreover, consumer behavior focuses on more emotional feeling, it is the key to catch their attention. Such as the reality Mining Project demonstrates blue-tooth-enabled mobile phone's ability (Eagle, 2006). In brief, mobile applications have attracted the attention of mobile users, they want to be able to get social services anytime, anywhere, thus eliminating the demand for desktop computers (Sergey, 2016). Certainly, MSN can capture the user context of the optimistic contextual relevance.
Search for WeChat Marketing Strategies
The rapid spread of mobile social networks was changing the way and the way people communicate (Sergey, 2016). People have been increasingly moving from physical communication to virtual interaction. Actually, MSN apps enhance the physical interaction in communication among persons with smart-phones. Moreover, the personal mobile devices have already been more useful because the cost-efficient wireless connectivity was ubiquitous availability. According to modern statistics, a mobile phone is utilized over three hours throughout the day, which adds up to almost one full day a week (Dailymail, 2017). When smart-phones meet MSN apps, people can share more wonderful programs. And MSN applications can provide the right user with the right social service anytime, anywhere without disclosing personal data (Sayed, 2013). With great innovations of mobile, all of users easily empower their devices’ capabilities. Now, mobile devices take the functions of TV, games and business services. Certainly, they will be more important in life, if they can deal with the privacy and data security problems. Moreover, consumer behavior focuses on emotional feeling, it is the key to catch their attention. Such as the reality Mining project demonstrates blue-tooth-enabled mobile phone's ability (Eagle, 2006). In brief, mobile applications have attracted the attention of mobile users, they are able to get social services anytime, anywhere, thus eliminating the demand for desktop computers (Sergey, 2016). Certainly, MSN can capture the user context of the optimistic contextual relevance.
The research discusses the inovations of MSNAs based on the qualitative comparative analysis. Additionally, it finds marketing strategies for WeChat by SWOT analysis. Two methods actively support the creativity and the credibility of the conclusion.
Comparative analysis is the type of analysis which is used in all of science. In different modifications of sociology, it tends to qualitative comparative analysis. Actually, the level comparison method consists of two important aspects. Firstly, it develops plans to continue to find and establish a domestic and international advanced level of the benchmark, through comparison and comprehensive thinking to find their own product gap. On the other hand, it continues to take the design, process and quality management improvement measures. Simultaneously, it continuously improves the product's technical and quality level. Because benchmarking is not simply imitated, but creatively, the companies set the public's long-term, the implementation of technological innovation, to achieve product performance improvement. However, only to master the groundbreaking technology, the relevant database should be established and updated continuously. Meanwhile, horizontal contrast method in United States has been widely used and significant results, just as WhatsApp. Moreover, the number of users is more than WeChat, the popularity of the world was higher than WeChat. The former is obviously the benchmark for the latter. WeChat in the world market, compared with Whatsapp analysis, to strengthen innovation to go beyond.
It can be conducted for companies, on products and locations. SWOT includes advantages, disadvantages, opportunity, threats. The advantages are a business or project characteristics which make one company be better than other companies. Disadvantages refer to the business or project placed at a disadvantage of the characteristics of the business. Opportunity means elements of a project, business or environment take advantage of it. Threatens points out elements of the environment lead to troublesome things to the company or the project.
Usually, it can be used to identify obstacles to target. The SWOT analysis framework for social work practices is useful, because it helps the organization decide whether a goal is acquired, thus allowing the organization to develop achievable goals. Then it enables the organizer to achieve the vision and produce tangible and effective results. Over all, resulting in lasting changes, organizations collected meaningful information to maximize their potential (Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, 2016). In brief, WeChat development has its own internal advantages. But it also has deficiencies; external full of opportunities, there are fiercely competing. SWOT analysis can be used in-depth analysis of the status of WeChat, the development of scientific marketing strategy.
Findings of the project includes MSNAs’ marketing strategies, WeChat marketing strategies and key apps innovation. Mixed methods completely and in-depth analyze marketing strategies in the industry. Findings about key apps’ innovation are valuable for the industry.
MSNAs Marketing Strategies
App technology is originated in United States. In the first generation of MSN, United States Apps were advantageous. They were successful in marketing (Table
In the second generation of MSN, the Chinese market has a strong development potential. China Internet Network Information Center: in June 2016, China had 710 million internet users. Mobile phone users reached 656 million, internet users more visited internet with mobile. Moreover, the proportion of people by the end of 2015 increased to 92.5% from 90.1%, only through mobile internet users accounted for 24.5%. Simultaneously, the mobile communication network environment is optimized, 4G technology is widely used, 5G technology is ready to come out. It was shown as table
WeChat SWOT Analysis
WeChat is no longer simply the social communicating tool, it becomes the individuals and business marketing platform. Wechat marketing caught the opportunities, but it needs corresponding laws and regulations to support (Table
The advantage of WeChat is to provide more convenient and intuitive information. WeChat platform can help the customers to enough understand products for the first time, obtain more attention of customers. Compared with the traditional marketing ways, it takes lower cost to keep speed faster, greatly improve the user experience and easily earn clients’ trust and supportment. Likewise, the spread of WeChat extremely is so fast, the family and friends of users can have good feelings and experience shared. Moreover, it conforms to the characteristic of mouth marketing. Finally, the credible degree is high.
The disadvantage of WeChat is to make your groups of friends be less and less. Making friends had become a "business" on WeChat platform. It means you sell your products by WeChat. In the long run, it will only lead your friends to leave, because the sale of goods did not need formal on WeChat or complicated procedures, some illegal businessmen cheat consumers.
The opportunity of WeChat is the development of the internet provide with a bigger stage. Users could transfer directly from WeChat platform. The use of mobile phone shopps can be anywhere and anytime. This gives WeChat marketing a good platform.
The threaten of WeChat marketing. The user acceptance of WeChat marketing is negative. According to the China electronic commerce research center, WeChat market space gradually reduces.
WeChat Marketing Strategies
WeChat marketing is imperfect, some more active strategies should be taken.
First, it combines with the traditional marketing advantages, complement each other.
WeChat should study the traditional marketing model, the use of an existing one some offline resources, development of network market. So that it make full use of WeChat platform built up a good customer relationship. Therefore, customers can understand dynamic enterprises, enterprise culture.
Second, it strengthens supervision to establish integrity.
WeChat as a public platform, has no constraint mechanism, no corresponding laws or regulations. So it is necessary to strengthen propaganda and improve the user's vigilance. Likewise, WeChat market improves the business activities, the ministry of commerce and industry as a regulate advertising, the consumer rights protection administrative department of the main. Therefore, WeChat marketing must carry out effective supervision to safeguard the consumers' legal rights and interests, to investigate and punish the illegal behavior in a timely manner. If some users break out the rules, the WeChat account will not facilitate public share. As a result, it is important to strengthen the education of the consumer guide, encourage consumers to actively participate in WeChat advertising and supervise the product quality.
Third, it attaches great importance to the user experience and establish a brand.
Any means at the expense of the user experience and capabilities would be eliminated, user experience is eternal requirements. At first, WeChat marketing is "acquaintances" economy, a lot of customers trust to purchase because of familiarity with each other. On the other hand, many enterprises and individuals establishe this public account, promote their own brands to avoid the refresh, also develop the "acquaintance economy" mode on the track. WeChat shows one picture every day to the user, the user went on WeChat after the reply is likely to win some credit points.
Key Apps Innovation
WeChat creates a new life of mobile internet users. The media goes out of the simple communication for the barren imagination, based on the human needs of the product extension. In addition, WeChat and QQ have belonged to the Tencent Company. They are natural combined and allowed users to create a micro-circle of friends to minimize the cost. Simultaneously, WeChat actively explores overseas expansion of the road. In the future, the competition is not limited in the Chinese market. Certainly, globalization is not easy. If Tencent plans to develop overseas markets, it must take into account the possibility of success for overseas market development. On April 2012, the English version of weixin (微信) officially changed its name to WeChat, built an overseas official website and supported the user directly into the Facebook friends. Except English, WeChat is available in Thailand Language, Indonesian, Vietnamese, Portuguese and other languages in 19 languages. In conclusion, it supports overseas more than 150 countries and regions to use WeChat account. To WeChat, the applicable mobile phone equipment is useful for all over the operating systems (Table
The table showed app users focused on the communication convenience, rich entertainment, online learning. By contrast, WhatsApp only focuses on the typical service communication. QQ has been in the innovation, created good publicity platform for enterprise customers and a lot of entertainment for individual users. Functions of WeChat has been continuously improved. Therefore, Chinese users have a special love to WeChat. The user's loyalty is getting higher and higher. In the basic micro-message chat feature, WeChat has also been a number of star individuals, businesses and institutions of all ages.
It is true that the innovation is the basement of WeChat. In particular, the library is in the development of WeChat application strategies. The library of WeChat mobile services reflect the individual with the progress of technology and service precision. The proposed service has to accurately target their consumer psychology for users. Then WeChat software is analyzing the user's use of psychological and information received demand. Certainly, a large number of apps would fight for a mobile social network apps market share, information browses and digest the library. WeChat information service is library for mobile users, which take the primary conditions for the role.
WeChat library in the content need to provide personalized information services, accurate docking user information need and the use of psychology, and the library of the advantages of resources, take the initiative to carry out a full range of mobile service. The library is a place for learning, rich collection and frequency library activities to attract users of the two magic weapons, library links WeChat for mobile services. They provide timely information on books and activities to meet people learning to charge demand. People need a wealth of knowledge, but also effectively are guided to master the way of knowledge acquisition.
For the user, access to information resources more smooth channels, greatly enhancing the user experience. WeChat to the library's mobile services are mainly concentrated in resources, access services, promotion and influence to expand these aspects. The library should be highlighted, convenient and personalized at the same time, but also highlight the human, so that users felt their contact with the WeChat is the contact between people. People in cyberspace activities are subject to thinking, want to control. When the user is concerned with the library WeChat account, the library staff can through the WeChat to carry out academic information push service, so that users from time and space and personnel restrictions and access to various types of customized information services subject.
It strengthens user feedback and enhances information transfer. The emergence of social media subverts the traditional environment of information dissemination mode, the exchange of information between people closer, interactive more frequent, so the feedback of information has become more important. It supports plenty of space for users to send table their views, exchange of views, from which to understand the user's psychology, demand and characteristics, and then use WeChat one-on-one private interaction, communication text, voice, video, pictures of different combinations, mix and match back and forth problem, to meet the various needs of users, a user-centric reference forum or Douban group mode. On the WeChat platform, a number of different themes creat social circles. Each micro-account could add their own want to into the circle and published in the circle of information, comments or praise his letter information, forwarding others information. For example: combined with the recommended book system.
Mainstream Mobile Social-networking Applications are more popular than before. Moreover, they successfully develop in the international market and become a necessity for modern life. In addition, scholars find many theories supporting this business development. Above all, this study indicates the second-generation mainstream mobile social-networking applications are more powerful than the first-generation by comparative analysis. In the light of the comparison of mainstream mobile social-networking applications on marketing strategies, WhatsApp is the leader in mobile social-networking business; WeChat plans to defeat WhatsApp; Line actively develops the international market. So that the critical competition lead to these companies improving their services through a series of strategies. On the other hand, WeChat SWOT analysis in deeply explains its experience of success on exploiting the instant communication business. Additionally, WeChat enhances functional innovation and strengthen brand building step by step. In conclusion, this paper find the great results attracting a large number of customers and built up a good example for other software.
- Ahonen, T. (2009). Update on the mobile phone check-in: Finnair finds half of passengers using it. Communities Dominate Brands.
- Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50 (2), 179-211.
- Azuma, R. (1997). A Survey of Augmented Reality Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments.
- Colman, A. (Ed.) (2015). A Dictionary of Psychology.
- Dailymail (Producer). (2017). How often do YOU look at your phone? Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2783677
- Eagle, N. a. P., A. (2006). Reality mining: sensing complex social systems. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 10, 255-268.
- Fishbein, M. a. A., I. (1975). Belief, Attitude and Behavior: an introduction to theory and research (Publication no. 10.2307/2065853). www.researchgate.net/
- Graham, M., Zook M. and Boulton, A. (2013). Augmented reality in urban places: contested content and the duplicity of code. Social Science Electronic Publishing, 38 (3), 464-479.
- InternetLiveStats (Producer). (2017). Internet Users. Retrieved from http://www.InternetLiveStats.com
- Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, M. (2016). SWOT analysis for Planned Maintenance strategy-a case study. IFAC-PapersOnLine, 49, 674-679.
- K Kim, J. H., H Zo, H Lee. (2015). Understanding users’ continuance intention toward smartphone augmented reality applications. Information Development, 32 (2).
- Khoshsima, S., Kiani, A., Safari, A., Amari, S., Shifte, M., & Vaseei, M. (2013). The impact of brand credibility on customer loyalty. International Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences, 3 (5), 24-34.
- Klopfer, E. (2008). Augmented learning: Research and design of mobile educational games. In. The MIT Press.
- Lee, M., Cheung, CM and Chen, Z. (2005). Acceptance of Internet-based learning medium: the role of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Information & Management, 42, 1095-1104.
- Mobile, N. (2012). Vodafone, EE and O2 still confident on m-commerce JV. http://www.mobilenewscwp.co.uk/2012/04/16/vodafone-everything-everywhere-and-o2-still-confident-on-m-commerce-jv/
- Preece, J., Rogers, Y. and Sharpe, H. (2011). Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction.
- Rogers, G., Mary; Archibald, Matthew; Morrison, Diane; Wilsdon, Anthony; Wells, Elizabeth; Hoppe, Marilyn; Nahom, Deborah; Murowchick, Elise. (2002). Teen Sexual Behavior: Applicability of the Theory of Reasoned Action. Journal of Marriage and Family. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 885-897.
- Rosenberg, L. B. (1993). Virtual Fixtures: Perceptual Overlays for Telerobotic Manipulation, A Literature Review of Selected Theories Dealing with Job Satisfaction and Motivation. Job Satisfaction, 24.
- Sayed, N. J. S. Z. B. (2013). Mobile social networking applications. Communications of the Acm, 56 (3), 71-79.
- Schejter, A., Serenko, A., Turel, O. and Zahaf, M. (2010). Policy implications of market segmentation as a determinant of fixed-mobile service substitution: What it means for carriers and policy makers. Telematics and Informatics, 27, 90-120.
- Schwitzgebel, E. (2016). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Stanford.
- Sergey, A. a. J., Hosek. (2016). A Unifying Perspective on Proximity-Based Cellular-Assisted Mobile Social Networking. Communications Magazine, 4, 210-222.
- Sobhani, M., Sadeq. (2011). Brand Loyalty. Tadbir Educational Scientific Journal, 173.
- Steuer, J. (1993). Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence. Department of Communication. comunication. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1992. tb00812. x
- Towler, G. a. S., R. (1991). Modification of Fishbein and Ajzen’s theory of reasoned action to predict chip consumption. Food Quality and Preference, 3, 37-45.
- ZDNet (Producer). (2013). In-app payments more profitable than paid apps. Retrieved from http://www.zdnet.com/article/in-app-payments-more-profitable-than-paid-apps/
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
About this article
01 May 2018
Print ISBN (optional)
Business, innovation, sustainability, environment, green business, environmental issues
Cite this article as:
Jian, C., & Kamarudin, S. (2018). Comparison Of Marketing Strategies Of Mainstream Mobile Social-Networking Applications. In M. Imran Qureshi (Ed.), Technology & Society: A Multidisciplinary Pathway for Sustainable Development, vol 40. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 412-425). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.05.33