Diversity, Success, Motivation, Burnout and Professionalism among Young People in Moldova
It is common that careers which offer social services are identifying different professional approaches depending on geographical mentality, either the former Soviet space or capitalist one. The dominants of political representations regarding professional standards and social carelessness influence the fingerprint relating to the contents, conjunctures, standards, statuses and professional acceptance of young into the professional society, where nor Moldova hasn't been excluded from this avid transformation. At the national level, the connection between education, research and needs (community or individual) should be revised as a condition for any changes. Currently, the career orientation process of young people are left to chance, without particular operational work efficiency, they are forced to cope with fluctuations in the systems, legislation gaps, formalism, state pressure, bureaucracy, different approaches in solving social problems, managerial failures etc. The article has the aims to elucidate the issues, in terms of capabilities that underpin international professional standards in creating new professions, taking into consideration motivation, success, professionalism and burnout where diversity is considered a circumstance career moderator in social perception of young professionals. This synthesis is operated logistically on research study carried out in Moldova, where the vocation confers a significant as a gift of self.
Theoretical competition over career development
There are many predictors of career developmental theories. The assessment of traditional career
practices in vocational guidance in mixture with theoretical commands and legislative regulations of
labour law and career management strategies could not be implemented completely, because social
factors always will interfere in drifting the approach and structure of work process standardisation. In
previous articles it was discussed the core concept of vocational anchorage based on influence of
system theory of framework, regarding professional development, careers construction theory, the
chaos theory of careers and the ecological theory of career counselling (Zubenschi, 2015, p. 533). In
supporting theoretical background it will be beneficial to juxtapose four career influent factors:
motivation, burnout, success and professionalism. All they are linked in our research, with gender
diversity among three professions which are providers of education, health and social work services.
These are careers represented by a strong relationship with their clients and trust in educating valuable
persons, treatment and healing, improving, organising, facilitating and intervening in difficult social
cases. These professions are dealing with high performances demand and work competences in high
rate stressful environment, when success is guaranteed by first class involvement or reactions.
1.1.Motivation as core factor in achieving a long lasting career success
Motivation is a strong asset in career success. The motivation as variable refers to the expressed
interest (vocational interest) as state of engaging in career activities, predisposition of reengage as part
of events, ideas over time and environmental impact. Motivation as interest has important
particularities including the affective (positive emotions accompanied by engagement) and cognitive
components in the interacting system (perceptual and representative activities related to engagement),
where both inherited biological roots being expressed as outcomes of an interaction of persons and a
particular content. Our interest in opening this part is focused on describing the mechanisms and
existing Pre-screening, in depth analysis and choice theory (PIV) of choosing a career activities and its
motivation aspects, following the involved steps or processes with their specific products and
The PIC (Pre-screening, In-depth exploitation and Choice) represent a model of the tree stage
process of career making decisions (Gati, 1986, p. 411; Gati, 1990, p. 279), involving the career
readiness and conditions for beginning the process, where career counselling has an important clinical
applicability and impact on young future facilitating the career decision process (Gati, 1996, p. 171).
The PIC model for career decision making describes the alternatives on which should be focused more
than simply capabilities or skills, as motivation should be upgraded for decision making process
concerning career activities and interests (Gati, Fassa & Houminer, 1995, p. 214). As well as
aspirations could fail into disappointment and frustration when the decision making process are not
alternatively revised in advance with new preferences and interests, compatible with competences, as
people tend to like to be good at (Leolong & Barak, 2001, p. 31). The five steps of
constitutes three lists of career alternative analysis:
in following order by four processes: selection of the relevant aspects, ranking aspects by importance,
defining the range of acceptable levels for the most important aspect not yet considered and comparing
the individual range of acceptable interests with the levels of the alternatives and finding incompatible
follow the sensitivity analysis as last step of pre-screening stage) and
In depth exploration stage will alienates alternatives from promising to most suitable, and examines
the possibility to actualize them, “zooms in” the one promising alternative in collecting additional
information. The most suitable alternative represents the choice, based on evaluation and comparison
among them. As matter of fact the career-related aspects can been seen as forming a universe that
includes various vocational interests, needs, work values, work characteristics and roles, abilities and
personal style. The self-exploration should focus on capabilities and motivational factors (Leolong &
Barak, 2001, p. 34).
The dynamic approach of PIC model encourages young people to move back and forth between the
stages in order to rethink and reinforce their previous career opportunities, evaluate the general level of
career indecision, examine the specific difficulties, assess career choice anxiety, and identify
dysfunctional beliefs, for example the career decision-making difficulties questionnaire (Gati, Krausz
& Osipow, 1996, p. 513) reveals difficulties in career decision making process as lack of motivation,
external conflicts, dysfunctional believes and needs. Gati, Krausz and Osipow classified the career
decision making difficulties based on career process development, as the beginning and during the
process (Gati, Krausz & Osipow, 1996, p. 514). At the beginning of the career decision process the
difficulties are due to
dysfunctional myths. During the process, it was found more than few separated difficulties,
occupations and aspects), occupations and ways of obtaining information; and concerning the
characteristics), internal and external conflicts. The implication of understanding difficulties in career
decision making process essentially will facilitate the process by itself, enhance the career fit and will
contribute to practical implications in vocational guidance.
The cognitive view of vocation as nature interest, dispute over representational of interests
expression aspects. The interests' expression aspects are considered to be more truly reflected by
internal and authentic motivations. Darley and Hagenah (1995, p. 36) suggests that interests directly
reflect the personality structure by the intervening processes of the individual value system, needs and
motivations, lather in an comprehensive review of Scahffer, Berdie, Brender, Fryer, Asch and Roe
suggests that interests are represented by personality needs, motivational and learning mechanisms
(Darley & Hagenah, 1995, p. 63).
It is important to mention that alternatives to search over career guidance platform or counselling
assistance nowadays are more than sufficient, focused on investigating the aspects of career decision-
making difficulties and on coping strategies with career indecision, finding the best way of dealing
with career decision-making difficulties, learning about lifestyle, career profile and about degree of
career preferences crystallization or locating the “promising option” at the pre-screening stage by
CDDQ , SCCI, EPCD, CDMP, PC, PIC, MBCD or Choice inventories (Gati, Krausz & Osipow, 1996,
p. 515; Hall, 2002, p. 15; Gati & Tal, 2008, p. 157).
The cognitive model of interests implicitly discuss over perceived abilities, expected success which
involves motivation for success and anticipated satisfaction. In assessing the interests is commonly
practiced to study the career motivators and client emotional sphere. In literature, the development of
career interest frequently is described as a four phase model (Hidi, Renninger, 2006, p. 121), split on
triggering the situational interest (in variance of environmental or text feature as learning, surprising
information, density, character identification, etc.), maintaining the situational interest (maintained by
personal involvement in solving professional tasks, based on involving activities as project based
learning, cooperative group work, one to one tutoring etc.), emerging individual interest (characterized
by positive feelings, stored knowledge and values, engagement, curiosity, etc.), and developing well
the individual interest (taking risks, magnification of engagement, knowledge and values). These four
phases point on significant drift over motivation, needs and success, also the self-efficacy theory reflect
over individual's believes as key ability to attain individual goals, accomplish successful outcomes,
increase the achievement of motivation and performance (Bandura, 1982, p. 122; Bandura, 1997, p. 19;
Zimmerman, 2000a, p. 21; Zimmerman, 2000b, p. 85). The satisfaction of basic psychological needs
reflect core function in career self-determination theory, an valuable outcomes in career goals and in
fulfilment of needs (Deci & Ryan, 2000, p. 244).
1.2.Burnout and job performance
A diversity of social psychological theories, from James (1911) on strenuousness, Fromm (1947) on
the productive orientation, and Allport (1955) on their own striving, through White (1959) about the
competence, to Bandura (1978) concerning self-Efficacy and Brehm (1966) on persons, that created
reactance assume as well as react to events in their lives the stressful life and thrive on as well as
stressful situations tolerated (Penacoba & Moreno, 1998, p. 62). Professional burnout or as it is called
burnout, is a syndrome that develops on the background of chronic stress, which leads to chronic
emotional exhaustion and person energy resource depletion, a reaction of it, caused by excessive
communication with others, especially if they are over stressed. The burnout syndrome occurs as a
result of negative emotional inflation, without the capacity of releasing, leading to the emotional
exhaustion, fatigue and depletion of human resources (Santoro, 2010, p. 12).
It seems that the burnout term is very authentic for nowadays, but its roots goes to 1974 when
Freundenberg introduced it as connotation in describing the state of mental and physical exhaustion
caused by one's professional life, in terms of fatigue, tiredness and demoralization, studying the
“person to person related careers”. Another founder of the burnout concept Maslach (1981) believes
that burnout represents the syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduction of
personal achievements that can occur in careers related to activities which involves close
communication with others (Maslach & Jackson, 1982, p. 99; Goodman & Boss, 2002, p. 33).
V. Boico understands the professional burnout as mechanism of psychological defence, developed
by the body as total emotional exclusion or as partial response to certain psycho traumatized actions.
Generally the burnout syndrome is afflicted by excessive work responsibility, working hours overload,
high emotional involvement in over demand activities, unfavourable social and working environment
(Savicki & Cooley, 1994, p. 658), neglecting the creative attitude in developing a professional activity,
evasion of IT use, inability of emotional self-adjustment and the lack of communication skills and the
ability to find proper solutions in difficult communicational situations with peers, subordinates etc.
There are many researches which suggests on relationship between burnout and turnover in the
context of voluntary or involuntary termination (Golembiewski, Hilles, Daly, 1987, p. 296; Goodman,
Boss, 2002, p. 39), their research indicates that the higher phase is associated with greater role conflict,
reduced job performance and greater emotional and physical distress. Goodman and Boss (1998)
indicates that employees who stay with the organization has lower scores of burnout as employees who
turnover (Goodman, Boss, 1998, p. 18). Maslach and Jackson (1982) developed the phase model of
burnout, based on Maslach Burnout Inventory or MBI, and do not measure the presence or absence of
burnout, taking into consideration the voluntary resignation which includes things like other
employment, family obligations, moving, school, health and personal reasons. In contrary, MBI
circumspect the involuntary termination over the phenomena of misconduct, unacceptable work
performance, excessive absenteeism and tardiness as insubordination (Goodman & Boss, 2002, p. 43).
Maslach and Jackson (1982, p. 53) define burnout more as the result of an inability to successfully cope
with job stress, manifesting by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and diminished
The burnout syndrome is represented by a contextual professional experience or subjective
experience in relation of individuals to their careers. Among career theories as traits and factor
approach the burnout syndrome is not mentioned, as well as it is not addressed to the emotional aspects
of experiencing careers (Lent & Brown, 2013, p. 7). The related studies mention also about the
negative relation between job performance and burnout (Bernard & Bass, 1999, p. 11), where clear job
demands will have a positive effect on burnout syndrome reduction, as well as the intellectual
simulation might have positive effect especially in professions already exposed to much sources of
stress in the work environment (e.g. doctors, teachers) (Seltzer, Numerof & Bass, 1989, p. 177).
Experimental structure and research design
Today the vocational guidance today are not adapted to the existing environmental contexts, as
period of transition, the labour offer, the individual development and professional empowerment. They
are leaded by professional misfit between career guiding practices and professional success. In
previous data analysis (Zubenschi, 2015, p. 535), based on sample of 220 professionals from Moldova
(between 25-50 years) old, it was selected 112 individual inquired with professional instruments
in achieving professional success, Edgar Shein inventory - professional anchors and Boico professional
The data of professional between 25-35 years old, it was mandated to analyse, to process and to
assess in focusing more on the inventory factors correlation and primary statistical analysis. The professional field of expertise gather more graduated field as social work, pedagogy, foreign language,
gynaecology, psychiatry and surgery. The gender distribution it was likely equal in medicine, and
women segregated among social workers and teachers “Tab.
2.1.Data analysis and valuable disclosures
Ordinarily the data was clustered by career nature, as studying the important findings in correlation
tests between motivation in acquiring success (MS), professional need (PN), career anchors (CA) and
professional burnout (PB) it was estimate a negative Pearson correlation “--0,429” between
professional need and professional anchors and positive one “0,349” between motivation in acquiring
success and professional burnout among doctors. Based on Kendall’s tau_b coefficient it was found a
strong negative correlations between professional burnout and motivation in success acquiring “-
0,405”. In Education and social work careers wasn't established any correlation, barring the
nonparametric test - Kendall’s tau_b coefficient which among educational field expressed a strong
negative correlations “-0,272” between professional anchors and motivation in success acquiring.
Positively correlates the intratest items based on Pearson correlation in medicine: EC/NSA “0,481”; AI
and RPT by”0,434”; SD and NSA “0,560”; SD and NSA “0,560”; OVC and NSA “0,539”; OHC and
NSA “0,448”; GC and NSA “0,530”; SSW and NSA “0,409”; SSW and MN “0,384”; SSC and RPT
“0,417”; and negatively in the same professional field mostly among burnout factors, career
orientations and needs in success acquiring: CVC and ED “0,376”; OVC and RPT “0,539”; OVC and EC “– 0,367”; LS and NSA “- 0,417”; OVC and EC “– 0,367”; OVC and ED “- 0,376”; GC and EC “ –
0,368”; GC and ED “– 0,390”; SSW and ED “– 0,427”; SSW and DE “– 0,462”; SSC and ED “- 0,
371”; LS and NSA “- 0,417”; SD and EC “– 0,380”; SD and ED “– 0,369”; SD and DE “-0,414”,
which conclude that career anchors in medicine are strongly linked among talents, values, orientations
and talent needs.
Among teachers the majority of Kendal's tau nonparametric coefficients was positively suspected
with repudiation of correlation between emotional caging and motivation in need EC and MN “–
0,381”, as well as SD and MN “0,414”; FC and ED “0,429”; SSW and RPT “0,402”; OI and ED
“0,366”; NSA and EC “0,545”; NSA and DE “0,531”.
In Social work professions among young's it should be considered the positive correlation between
burnout scales, and those two negative one expressed by general managerial competence, motivation in
need and needs in success acquiring: EC and RPT by “0,409”; ED and EC “0,512”; EC and DE
“0,538”; RPT and ED “0,338”; SSW and DE “0,353”; GMC and DE “-0,378”; NNSA and MN “-
Conclusions and Recommendations
In conclusion, the established data could lead us to the supposition that career design of vocational
path among doctors in Moldova are mostly developed, leading young professional to the success in
their professional achievement, appointed by talent based predictors.
The new educational code approved in 2014 involves tensions among teachers in translating the
legal responsibility into practice. Taking into consideration the personal approach and transliterated
understanding into experience of facts by need in success acquiring, emotional detachment or
exhaustion as a note of high expression in Eight-phase model of burnout, is the illustrative prove that
should be more invested in it, by researching this phenomena. The success of the new generation lead
directly to the new and adapted curriculum, answer in addition to the children needs.
The burnout as predictors in social work field should be studied more especially in the Republic of
Moldova, in comparison with others professions, their professional standards, people expectation,
professional prestige and vocational guidance. Herein, the qualitative focus of the most powerful social
process are mirrored negatively by brain drain, where the career standards are not focused on
facilitating the process of interacting with others, commonly referred on normal GDP, awards and
premises, safe work environment, real career opportunities. These processes are strongly standardised
by a suitable employment system, curriculum design, organisational image and member identification
in the organisation. However a study on workers who search, attend or experience a job should be
considered mostly in present social implications as much demanded prerogative.
The characteristics of employment system, especially when young specialist are searching for a
qualified job, should give more freedom of choice, taking into consideration the HR practices pointed
on internal career opportunities, trainings, profit sharing, job clarity description, employment security,
sharing of profit and oriented appraisals and performance results.
- Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American psychologist, 37, 122–147.
- Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
- Bernard, M., Bass, B.(1999). Two Decades of Research and Development in Transformational Leadership, European. Journal of Work And Organizational Psychology,8(1), 9–32.
- Darley, J., Hagenah, T. (1955). Vocational interest measurement.Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Deci, E.L., Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry,11, 227–268.
- Gati, I. (1986). Making career decisions: a sequential elimination approach. Journal of counseling psychology, 33, 408-417.
- Gati, I. (1990). Why, when, and how to take into account the uncertainty involved in career decisions. Journal of counseling psychology, 37, 277-280.
- Gati, I. (1996). Computer-assisted career counseling: challenges and prospects. In Handbook of career counseling theory and practice. Savickas and Walsh: Davies-Black publishing. pp. 169-190.
- Gati, I., Fassa, N., & Houminer, D. (1995). Applying decision theory to career counseling practice: the sequential elimination approach. Career development quarterly, 43, 211-220.
- Gati, I., Krausz, M., Osipow, S.H. (1996). A taxonomy of difficulties in career decision making. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(4), 510-526.
- Gati, I., Tal, S. (2008). Decision-making models and career guidance. In J. Athanasou & R. Van Esbroeck (Eds.), International handbook of career guidance. Berlin: Springer. pp. 157–185.
- Golembiewski, R.T., Hilles, R., Daly, R. (1987). Some effects of multiple interventions on burnout and worksite features. Journal of Applied BehaviouralScience, 23, 295-314.
- Goodman, E.A., Boss, R.W. (1998). An exploration of the differential relationship between the dimensions of burnout and their correlates among emergency medical physicians. Academy of Management Proceedings. Goodman, E.A., Boss, R.W. (2002). The Phase Model of Burnout and Employee Turnover. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 25(1), 33-47.
- Hall, L.G. (2002). Career Choices Inventory. Illinois. Bensenville: Scholastic Testing Systems.
- Hidi, S., Renninger, K.A. (2006). The four-phase model of interest development. Educational psychologist, 41(2), 111–127. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Lent, R.W., Brown, S.D. (2013). Understanding and facilitating career development in the 21st century. Career development and counseling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
- Leolong, F., Barak, A. (2001). Contemporary models in vocational psychology: a volume in honour of Samuel H. Osipow. Lawrence Erlbraum Associates INC.
- Maslach, C., Jackson, S.E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2, pp. 99-113.
- Maslach, Ch., Jakson, S.F. (1982). Burnout in Health Professions: A Social Psychologycal Analysis. Social Psychology of Health and Illness. Sanders and J.Suls Hillsdale, NJ.: Erlbaum pp. 344.
- Penacoba, C., Moreno, B. (1998). El concepto de personalidad resitente. Consideraciones Teoricas y Repercusiones Practicas. Boletin de Psicologia, 58, pp. 61-97.
- Santoro, D. A. (2010). Good teaching in difficult times: demoralization in the pursuit of good. American Journal of Education, 118(1), 1-23.
- Savicki,V.,Cooley, E.J. (1994). Burnout in Child Protective Service Workers: A Longitudinal Study.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15(7), 655-666.
- Seltzer, J., Numerof, R.E., & Bass, B.M. (1989). Transformational leadership: Is it a source of more burnout and stress? Journal of Health and Human Resources Administration, 12, 174–185.
- Zimmerman, B. (2000a). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In Boekaerts M.; Pintrich, P.R.; Zeidner M., Handbook of self-regulation, New York: Academic, pp. 13–39.
- Zimmerman, B. (2000b). Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 82–91.
- Zubenschi, M. (2015). The relationships between vocation and professional success in medicine, education and social work. Bolognia: Medimond. Central and Eastern European LUMEN Conference: New Approaches in Social and Human Sciences, pp. 531-540.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
About this article
Cite this paper as:
Click here to view the available options for cite this article.
VolumeEpSBS / Volume 15 - WLC 2016