The question of the specifics of the image of the world of representatives of different types of professions is revealed. The necessity of studying the features of the development of the professional image of the world of students is noted, which is due to a number of factors (the leading activity of the subject, the influence on behaviour and interaction with the outside world, changes and harmonization of world perception). The article reveals the activity and social nature of the image of the world. The psychological conditions of entrepreneurship development in the fashion industry are considered. The factors that determine the success of an entrepreneur in the fashion industry are revealed. The article analyses the peculiarities of the execution of entrepreneurial activity due to gender nature. The paper actualizes the question of the formation of a professional image of the world of a future specialist in the process of personal and professional formation in the conditions of university training. The article presents empirical data on the study of the content characteristics of the image of the world (nuclear, semantic and perceptual layers) in future entrepreneurs in the fashion industry, as well as their features in boys and girls as university graduates. Theoretical methods used in the study are analysis, synthesis, systematization of scientific and pedagogical information on the problem under study; empirical methods: observation, questioning, comparative analysis of the results of the empirical part of the experiment.
Modern society is characterized by significant changes in the socio-cultural and economic spheres, but the fashion industry remains a constant source of growth of the entire world economy, and makes a significant contribution to the development of many national economic systems. At the same time, the role of the designer, as an entrepreneur, is not as much in the timely creation of a new collection, as in the effective management of the business. Therefore, undoubtedly, the combination of two areas of activity (artistic and commercial) is considered a difficult task for newly opening companies.
The analysis of the features of the psychological image of the world of entrepreneurs doing business in the field of creating designer clothes and shoes in the fashion industry market, the specifics of the industry leave an imprint on the formation of their professional image of the world, which is reflected in the prospects of this market. In conditions of high competition in the labour market, including in the fashion industry, the importance of a person's internal resources for his active involvement in independent professional activity increases. Adaptation to new economic and socio-cultural conditions implies significant changes in people's lifestyle, which affects their perception of the world.
The notion “image of the world” is relatively new, it was introduced into the scientific circulation of psychology in 1979, and the topic of the connection of professional lifestyle with the image of the world really began to develop only in 2003. Leontiev, as the founder of the first Faculty of Psychology of Moscow State University in the USSR, pointed out that activity constitutes, i.e., builds the mental constitution of a person. Long-term occupation of any activity leads to the emergence of professional skills and forms a professional worldview. By this term, the scientist understood a complex multi-level education that has a field of meaning and a system of meanings. The image of the world regulates the interaction of a person with the objective world, the world of ideas, with other people, as well as the formation of a person as a person. Personal development, goals and attitudes of a person, his needs and life experience determine the structure and content of the image of the world. It should be noted that since the introduction of Leontiev, many scientists who are engaged in the psychology of professions (Russian: Zeer, Ivanova, Karpov, Klimov, Makushkin) have used the term “image of the world” in scientific usage. and foreign ones: Bebeau, Monson, Rohl, Tegefel, Turner, Forsyth, Holland, Erickson), drew attention to the categories reflecting professional activity through the image of the world (Leontiev, 1983).
The concept of "image of the world" covers a vast area of human mental life and is the subject of research in many sciences. For many centuries, this concept has been discussed by thinkers, philosophers and scientists from different positions. In the works of foreign and Russian researchers, such formulations of this concept as the experience of consciousness (Sechenov); scheme (Woodworths, Kant, Naiser, Piaget, Fress); the image of the world (Leontiev, Smirnov); the inner world of man (Ananyev); the image-goal as a specific phenomenon of anticipatory reflection (Lomov); the structure of subjective experience (Artemyev); subjective model of the world (Bruner); model of the universe (Miller), scheme (Piaget, Neisser); cognitive map (Tolman); scenario (Bern); model of the world (Bruner, Bandler, Gordon); personality constructs (Kelly); a single sensory image (Arnheim). By these researchers, the image or picture of the world, according to Gazizova et al. (2016), is understood as a certain set of images of individual objects or phenomena that act as primary in relation to it. The image of the world is built in the consciousness of the subject by filling the objective characteristics of the external world with personal, subjective meanings and meanings.
The image of the world is a level formation that consists of several levels or layers (Artemyeva, Petukhov, Serkin, Smirnov). This allows us to take into account all the subjective elements of human consciousness in one model and build their interaction in the form of a single hierarchical structure. The most significant contribution to the development of modern ideas about the essence of the professional image of the world was made by Serkin and his followers. They proved not only the presence of professional specificity of the semantic and perceptual layers of the image of the world, but also the peculiarities of assessing professionally significant and professionally neutral qualities by representatives of different professional groups. He pointed out that the nuclear layer changes only in extreme situations. Professional activity has little effect on it. Therefore, it can be assumed that a businessman's image of the world will differ from other professions in these layers, while the nuclear layer will not have any specifics (Serkin, 2019). For a systematic description of the image of the world Serkin introduced the concept of “lifestyle,” describing the actual activity of the subject, in the process of which there is a development and change of the image of the world.
The image of the world is a reflection of the way of life, and the way of life is a manifestation of the image of the world. The scientist emphasizes that a sufficiently large number of professions requires, in addition to mastering the relevant professional competencies, also the adoption of a special lifestyle set by the specifics of the profession. Therefore, for successful professional development, according to Belenkova (2021), not only the results of professional training are needed, but also the willingness and ability to master a professionally specific lifestyle. All layers of the image of the world are significantly influenced by the leading activity of the subject, which is a factor contributing to the formation and further change of the image of the world. Since the leading activity of an adult is his professional activity, then, according to Druzhinin (2002), it sets the direction of his personality development. First of all, this is connected with the formation of professional motivation, the structure of professional abilities, knowledge, skills, and skills.
Touching upon the question of the specifics of the image of the world of representatives of different professions, Klimov (1995) believes that their internal models of the real holistic world differ significantly, since a person is a subject of activity. The scientist claims that the specific features of professional activity determine their certain specificity of the image of the world.
The structure of the lifestyle determines the content of the image of the world, and vice versa. The introduction of the concept of “lifestyle” is necessary because it is the missing link in the dyad of external – internal activity. The image of the world and the way of life of the subject form a system in which both of them mutually determine each other and are determined by each other.
The professional image of the world is some kind of knowledge that is acquired by the subject of activity, creating an opportunity to revise previously found solutions. Scientists highlighted the professional attitudes of the value components of the professional image of the world, the formation of which begins at the university and continues in the process of professional activity (Krasnoryadtseva et al., 2014).
The need to study the peculiarities of the development of the professional image of the world of students depends on a number of factors: the image of the world acts as an integrative cognitive structure in which a person's ideas about the world around him are concentrated, which determines his behaviour and interaction with the surrounding world; the features of the image of the world reveal the criteria and ways of understanding the world by students, allow them to penetrate into their inner world; taking into account the main trends in the formation and development of the image of the world allows them to determine the main directions of overcoming possible personal and professional maladaptation, as well as to outline the conditions for constructive change and harmonization of world perception in the process of studying at the university and future professional career. The professional image of the world of the future specialist is formed in the process of personal and professional formation in the conditions of university education. It reflects the values and meaning of actions that make up the content of future professional activity. From this point of view, it is important to understand what the professional image of the world of graduate students is, depending on the specialties they master.
Therefore, today there is a need for research based on a comparative analysis of the personal characteristics of representatives of different sexes, including representatives of student youth as future entrepreneurs in the fashion industry, allowing us to give a fairly complete picture of the personality characteristics of boys and girls, reflecting, among other things, the image of the world of their personality.
Adaptation to new economic and socio-cultural conditions implies qualitative changes in the way of life of people, their perception of the world, and, first of all, in the image of the world of student youth, as the most ready for changes in society. The image of the world, manifested in the lifestyle of students, influences the development of consciousness, behavioural manifestations, and the choice of professional activity of the individual. According to Sitnikova (2015), the image of the world of students is more flexible in comparison with the established worldview of an adult, with an established system of views, attitudes and assessments. This is especially evident in the youth environment through the activity of cognition of the world, the development of new technologies, the mastery of new forms of cultural life, which is manifested in the peculiarities of communication and behaviour. The professional image of the world is realized in professional attitudes, motivational readiness to solve professional problems, features of professional thinking (Sitnikova, 2015).
Muharlyamov and Kholuev (2014) believe that students undergoing intensive professional and labor socialization, who are at the initial stages of forming professional identity, are actively influenced by various social institutions that broadcast norms, values and behaviors that do not always agree with each other. Today there is a depletion of spiritual interests and needs of young people, the predominance of material desires over spiritual ones, Bosov (2016) believes. The spread of the phenomenon of "mass man" in the student environment is particularly dangerous, since former students, replacing professional specialists, occupy leading positions in society. Formed by mass culture and residing in its information space, modern youth lives by abstract concepts, not by living reality (Bosov, 2016).
Summarizing the above, it should be noted that the image of the world presented in Russian psychology has an activity and social nature, and appears as: a universal form of human knowledge about the world, which is characterized by a prognostic orientation; as a category that describes reflections of the world at the level of perception; an integrative image of reality, which has the property of exclusivity and specificity; as a structure that consolidates a person's cognitive skills; as a subjective representation of the world, which accumulates the results of human interaction with the world.
Currently, entrepreneurship occupies an important niche in the economy of the state, contributing to the formation of the financial potential of Russia. The individual psychological characteristics of entrepreneurs in the fashion industry remain poorly studied. The study of the professional image of an entrepreneur among students, Muharlyamov and Kholuev (2014) note, will determine the main problems of entrepreneurship development at the present stage of society's development, will identify the most important conditions for the development of entrepreneurship among young people.
Studying the problem of psychological conditions of entrepreneurship development, Murav'eva et al. (2018) point out that scientists have come to the conclusion that from the very first works devoted to entrepreneurship, economists and sociologists claim the presence of the so-called “personal entrepreneurship syndrome”. In fact, they say that entrepreneurship is not so much an economic as a psychological category and is provided by the personal characteristics of the entrepreneur (Murav'eva et al., 2018).
Thus, R. Cantillon and A. Smith called the willingness to take risks an important feature of an entrepreneur (Smith, 2007). Turgot et al. (2008) added organizational and creative abilities to this characteristic. According to one of the first creators of the psychological portrait of an entrepreneur Sombart (1994), an entrepreneur should have the following qualities: spiritual freedom, will and energy, perseverance and constancy, leadership and organizational abilities. Mckelland (2007) believes that a distinctive psychological feature of entrepreneurs is a high level of achievement motivation. Rotter (1966) argues that entrepreneurs are characterized by a higher level of internality than non-entrepreneurs. Scientists (Brockhouse et al., 1982) believes that successful entrepreneurs are characterized by a preference for moderate risk. Druzhinin (2002) pays the main attention to motivation (first of all, the need for self-actualization aimed at realizing one's personal potential), self-esteem, the level of claims, the ability to make decisions and take risks.
Foreign experts in the field of entrepreneurship recognize the existence of a special set of personal characteristics peculiar to successful entrepreneurs (Wells, Frese, Boyett, Boyett). In Russian studies of the personality of entrepreneurs (Deineka, Chirikova, Zavyalova, Posokhova, Vlasov, Bezgodov, Poznyakov, Zhuravlev), blocks significant for entrepreneurial activity were identified: intellectual, motivational, emotional-volitional, communicative.
Belova (2012) points out that many personality studies are collectible: various lists of key personality traits of successful entrepreneurs are distinguished. At the same time, the researchers note that the presence of the traits of a successful entrepreneur does not guarantee him effective activity. The list of personality traits of an entrepreneur is constantly expanding. Considering the entrepreneur's activity as multifaceted, it should be noted that in addition to professional knowledge, personal and business qualities play a significant influence. At the same time, the structure of personal qualities associated with the success of entrepreneurial activity has not been fully revealed.
From the 1890s to the 1960s, small business for the production of fashion clothing and accessories gradually turns into mass production and becomes an industry. An independent sector of the economy, including the production, sale and consumption of goods of some kind, as well as related sectors. The fashion industry is a rapidly developing, technological and innovative segment of the modern world economy, a constant source of its growth, makes a significant contribution to the development of many national economy.
Scientists (Demina et al., 2014; Gofman, 2012) note that for the trendsetter of France, the luxury goods industry is the fourth largest source of income, it is not less significant for Italy, Spain, as well as for the USA. There is a growth of this industry in the developing economies of China and India. The fashion industry is leading in terms of the number of people employed in France and Italy. In the USA, the production of clothing and fashion goods is the fastest growing sector, in a number of Asian countries, the fashion industry is experiencing a real boom. Chenchik (2017) notes that the fashion industry in Russia is developing thanks to the available young and creative designers and the growing demand for fashion products, especially in the mass democratic segment.
The fashion industry is a set of creative, economic and managerial activities, which is a process aimed at the design, production, marketing and sale of fashion objects, with the constant movement of conditional boundaries between the stages of this process. To build an effective entrepreneur's work in the fashion industry, it is important to find a balance between creative and commercial – two completely different areas of activity. According to Jones (2005), if the business does not develop, it means that a balance has not been found between them.
According to Kurz (2010), the success of an entrepreneur in the fashion industry is determined by such components as knowledge in the field of design, personal qualities, entrepreneurial skills, level of education, the ability to build communication (including in social networks), the presence of a brand.
Research in this area shows that most designers do not have basic business knowledge. Only when necessary, they delve into the concepts of the business structure. The business owner, not having the necessary knowledge, cannot timely identify promising areas or threats from the environment of its functioning. Therefore, designers, according to Elkanova and Marakhovskaya (2018), it is necessary to acquire knowledge and learn the basics of such disciplines as: fundamentals of doing business, management theory, marketing, finance, etc., which accompany any commercial activity in market conditions.
Exploring current trends and changes in the training of specialists for the fashion design industry in Europe and the USA, Faerm (2012) notes a number of trends. Students should develop and enrich themselves by getting acquainted with sciences, business, education, environmental issues, etc. For specialists of the fashion world, this includes not only verbal communication, but also visual, including with the use of modern technologies (Faerm, 2012). Active changes in the fashion world and the globalization of this sphere prove that design and education require new approaches in the field of pedagogy, mentoring and personal development of students, Ha-Brookshire (2015) notes.
In universities that train future fashion industry workers, there are many specialties that are not directly related to clothing modelling. However, according to Elkanova and Marakhovskaya (2018), every year the attitude to fashion as an independent sphere of the economy becomes more stable. Designers gradually occupy an intermediate position between creativity and business, ceasing to be art workers.
In addition to the above knowledge, an employee of the fashion industry needs communication skills. Managing an organization requires the manager to constantly communicate with suppliers, employees, customers and other members of the structure. Talent provides only ten percent of the brand's success, the remaining ninety percent - the creation of an effective team.
An important role in the fashion industry is played by the personal qualities of an entrepreneur and his charisma, being one of the most important resources for business development. It is also necessary to take into account the fact that in the fashion world the brand is always identified with the personality of the designer. Therefore, building an image that should attract attention requires not only dedication and work, but also charisma, as well as the ability to be flexible, more resistant to any changes depending on the situation.
Recently, there have been many constant innovations in the fashion World, which, according to Gukasyan (2018), directly affects the image of a person, his personality, and becomes the source of his thoughts and behaviour.
An entrepreneur is a kind of a certain style of thinking and logic, constantly changing and searching. According to Gavrilovskaya (2007), scientists continue to study the peculiarities of the professional activities of men and women in the business community. Traditionally, when discussing male and female entrepreneurship, scientists of different scientific fields agree that female representatives have fewer opportunities than men to express themselves in entrepreneurship. The "lesser opportunities" of women are explained by differences in the cognitive sphere of men and women, a lower level of women's claims in their striving for success (Gavrilovskaya, 2007).
The positive dynamics of equality between men and women in business is explained by the greater social orientation of women, a high level of consolidation, a relatively low potential for conflict of interest, and a focus on business strategies. At the same time, Semenova (2010) notes, women's entrepreneurship meets a lot of difficulties and problems on the way of its development. A serious problem is the low self-esteem of women, the prevailing stereotypes in assessing the business qualities of women. The predominance of men over women in the field of entrepreneurship still prevails, which indicates that gender inequality still persists today (Semenova, 2010).
So, there are differences between male and female entrepreneurship. The specifics of the execution of entrepreneurial activity are determined by gender nature. They are expressed in values, attitudes, motivational structure, leadership capabilities, etc. This aspect influences the choice of business strategies, ways and methods of team management, the nature of relationships with partners and competitors.
Purpose of the Study
An empirical study was conducted in order to determine the content characteristics of the image of the world (basic, semantic and perceptual layers) and identify their features among university graduates (boys and girls) as future entrepreneurs in the fashion industry. The experimental base of the research was the Kosygin Russian State University (Technologies. Design. Art). The study involved 60 graduate students mastering the training program in the following profiles: Industrial Design, Graphic Design, Art in the fashion industry: 30 boys and 30 girls.
The following diagnostic material was used in the study: a) the basic layer of the image of the world: a) the questionnaire “Anchors of a career” (Shane, translated and adapted by Vinokurova, Chiker, modified by Bogomaz); the questionnaire “Scale of basic beliefs” (Yanov-Bulman, translated and adapted by Kravtsova); b) semantic layer of the image of the world: “Lifestyle” (Serkin) and “Image of profession” (Serkin); c) perceptual layer: psychodiagnostic methodology “Assessment of the socio-perceptual attitude of personality” (Dubovitskaya, Tulitbaeva, Shashkov); a questionnaire aimed at identifying the students' work experience, their future plans and the degree of their career preferences; d) data processing methods: methods included in the SPSS Statistica 23.0 software package were used, in particular: 1) methods of descriptive statistics; 2) Student's t-test for independent samples; 3) Mann-Whitney; 4) factor analysis. The analysis of the research results was carried out using the methods included in the SPSS Statistica 23.0 software package, in particular: descriptive statistics methods; Student's t-test for independent samples; Mann-Whitney; factor analysis. The result of comparing the average values was evaluated by the level of significance. The study assumes that the differences are statistically significant if a value of no more than 0.05 is obtained. At the same time, a two-way level of significance is taken into consideration.
The results of the study are shown in Figures 01–04 and Tables 01–03. Figure 01 shows the indicators of career orientations of graduate students (boys and girls) as future entrepreneurs in the fashion industry according to the method of “Career Anchors” by Shane (adapted by Chiker).
According to the data reflected in Figure 01, it is established that the leading career orientations in the group of young entrepreneurs in the fashion industry are: "professional competence", "integration of lifestyles", "entrepreneurship" and "management", "autonomy"; this indicates a developed desire for self-realization in work and personal readiness to act in a market economy, creating and developing new economic structures. While the girls' leading career orientation has become "Service", which characterizes their willingness to benefit people, society.
Let's consider the results of calculating the significance of the Levin criterion and the Student's T-criterion of indicators of career orientations of the personality of students (boys and girls) as future entrepreneurs in the fashion industry according to the method of “Career Anchors” by Shane, which are presented in Table 01.
According to the results presented in Table 1, the conditions for the significance of the t-criterion of no more than 0.05 and the Levin criterion of more than 0.05 are met for the following indicators: “management”, “entrepreneurship.” Therefore, the differences in these parameters in the two groups are statistically significant, the results obtained can be accepted for further interpretation. Such parameters as “professional competence,” “autonomy,” “stability of work and place of residence,” “challenge,” “integration of lifestyles” are characterized by a T-criterion value of more than 0.05. Thus, no statistical differences in these parameters were found in the two groups.
Next, we will consider the results of a study of the characteristics of the basic beliefs of the personality of graduate students (boys and girls) as future entrepreneurs in the fashion industry according to the method of R. Yanov-Bulman, which are shown in Figure 02–03.
The order of these scales determines the overall picture of the basic beliefs of the individual.
According to the data reflected in Figure 02, it is established that all indicators of basic beliefs and the safety index of boys and girls as future entrepreneurs in the fashion industry according to the "Scale of basic beliefs" method are within the normative values. In general, in both groups there is a norm of indicators on all scales above 3.5 points. These results indicate an optimistic attitude of students of both groups to the world, the people around them and themselves, which ensures psychological stability and success in everyday life and educational and professional activities. The combination of a high level of self-esteem (21 points and 19 points, respectively) with a high level of self-control (21 points and 16 points, respectively) observed in boys and girls should be considered, from our point of view, as a positive psychological phenomenon.
As a result, the psychological safety index, calculated as the arithmetic mean of all scales of the methodology, in boys and girls turned out to be comparable with the lower limit of the normative value, which is reflected in Figure 03. These indicators indicate the development of meaning-forming motives of personality, the ability to adequately assess the world and their capabilities, a high level of self-esteem and self-control in young men. So, there is a tendency among graduates to form a positive picture of the world and Self. It is characterized by the fact that boys and girls tend to feel safe, and it is this feeling that is a condition for personal development. Thus, a more optimistic attitude towards the world, people around you and yourself contributes to mental stability and success in everyday life.
Let's consider the results of calculating the significance of the Mann-Whitney U-test of indicators of the basic beliefs of the personality of students (boys and girls) as future entrepreneurs in the fashion industry according to the method of Yanov-Bulman, which are presented in Table 02.
A comparative analysis of the data from the study of differences in the basic beliefs of boys and girls presented in Table 02 showed that girls consider themselves less worthy and less fortunate people compared to boys. The greatest differences were found in the indicators of the scales "favor of the world" (the significance of differences p<0.001), which indicates the unwillingness of these subjects to trust others, the fear of betrayal or betrayal by others. Girls, unlike boys, according to the indicator "the value of their own self" (the significance of differences p < 0.001), are characterized by lower indicators, which indicates their low opinion of themselves, about the rejection of their own shortcomings. While young men note that they can be quite interesting and attractive to others. Young men have higher values in terms of "controllability of the world" and "degree of self-control" (significance of differences p<0.001). Girls believe that most of the important events in their lives cannot be controlled by their own actions, they cannot control them, and, therefore, do not feel their own responsibility for these events and for how their life as a whole develops. Young men demonstrate confidence that they are in control of the events taking place in their lives, believe that they are able to do everything possible to prevent possible failures. In addition, girls are less likely to believe that there is more good than evil in the world, which allows us to conclude that there is a low adaptive potential of these respondents, which is confirmed by the values of the indicator "kindness of people" (significance of differences p<0.001). Young men have higher values for the indicator "degree of luck and luck" (significance of differences p<0.01). Unlike boys, girls are convinced that they are not lucky and lucky. The lack of faith in one's own luck may be due to faith in one's own strength and abilities. According to the indicators "justice of the world and "randomness of everything", no significant differences were found in the groups of boys and girls, they believe in the honesty and justice of others, they believe that dishonest people very rarely get what they deserve. Thus, it can be concluded that boys and girls are characterized by different basic beliefs. Young men are characterized by a conviction in the benevolence of the surrounding world, believe in the honesty and justice of others, have high self-esteem, as well as a belief in the ability to control events that occur in their lives. At the same time, they tend to trust others, believe in justice, and that they control the events taking place in their lives, have a positive image of "I". While girls are characterized by such deep beliefs as: the ill-will of the surrounding world, insufficient justice of the world, their own bad luck and bad luck. The value of general indicators, such as the favorability of the world, the meaningfulness of the world, the conviction of self-worth among graduate students (boys and girls) how future entrepreneurs in the fashion industry differs slightly: they tend to comprehend surrounding events, rely on themselves and think that they will be able to achieve everything and change their environment. The established positive system of basic beliefs should become an important factor in achieving a high level of life satisfaction by graduate students.
Next, we will consider the results of studying the semantic differentials of boys and girls as future entrepreneurs in the fashion industry using the methodology of the specialized semantic differential "Lifestyle" and "Profession Image" by V.P. Serkin.
Analyzing the differences in the semantic universals of boys and girls as future entrepreneurs in the fashion industry, it should be noted that they reflect the peculiarities of lifestyle at a specific age stage (youth), and the peculiarities of the stage of professional formation (student, beginning of professional activity). Describing their lifestyle, a group of students rated it as rich, interesting, attractive, which, in our opinion, is due to the specifics of life during the period of study at the university. The characteristics of their lifestyle indicated by the students have the character of emotional and evaluative. Unlike boys, girls use the descriptors "responsible", "decent", "connected with people", "brave" to characterize their lifestyle, which, in our opinion, is associated with the beginning of professional activity for some of them, the development of professional skills at a new place of work, changes in their lifestyle in general in connection with the beginning of work. Unlike girls, boys use the descriptors "changing", "independent", "selfish", "authoritarian" to characterize their lifestyle, which, as we see it, is associated with some of them with finding themselves in life and in their future profession, finding their purpose, realizing their professional plans and gaining recognition. The universal evaluation of the stimulus "your way of life" by a group of young men contains everything, with the exception of ten signs included in the universal of girls who are not represented in the first. Descriptors that are characteristic of the universality of students, both boys and girls, presumably reflect the peculiarities of their lifestyle at the stage of personal and professional training, and also have a positive emotional and evaluative character (for example, "saturated", "confident", "attractive", "dynamic", "mobile, "cheerful", "happy").
When comparing the semantic universals of boys and girls as future entrepreneurs in the fashion industry using the semantic differential "Profession image", 31 descriptors coincided. These descriptors have both an emotional and evaluative character (for example, "good", "interesting", "developing", "satisfying", "promising", "comfortable"), and also reflects the social relevance of the profession (for example, "people-related", "sociable", "promising", "significant", "active"). Analyzing the semantic universals of students' assessment of their profession, it should be noted that there are 5 more qualitatively different descriptors in the universals of young men: unlike girls, young men use the descriptors "tense", "diverse", "unemotional", "unhealthy", "connected with people" to characterize their image of the profession, which may be associated with some of them with finding themselves in a future profession, the opportunity to realize their ambitious plans. Girls use the descriptors "pure", "transformative", "creative", "practical", "approved", "prestigious" to characterize their image of the profession, which, in our opinion, reflects their partial involvement in professional activities. The difference in the number and semantic quality of the features that have entered the universal "image of the profession", in our opinion, is due to the fact that young men have "ideal" ideas about their future profession, which naturally undergo changes in the course of their future work, while girls are already partially employed in the profession.
If we assume that students working in their specialty at the stage of personal and professional development have certain ideas about their future profession, which were formed as a result of the influence of various factors (the process of studying at a university, internship, combining work and full-time education, etc.), then the next stage will transform the image of the profession as a whole. Students' ideas about the profession, in this case, can be characterized as an ideal image, the concretization of which will occur as a result of full-fledged entry into work as a professional, in our case, an entrepreneur in the fashion industry. Entering into a real professional activity will obviously lead to the transformation of the ideal image of the profession, which will manifest itself in the changed structure of preferences of universal descriptors. Thus, based on the data obtained, when comparing the universals of lifestyle and the image of the profession of boys and girls as future entrepreneurs in the fashion industry, it can be argued about the specificity of this component of the semantic layer of the image of the world of both, about the presence of similarities and some differences of semantic universals that reflect the specifics of the stage of their personal and professional formation.
Let's consider the results of diagnostics of the socio-perceptual personality of boys and girls as future entrepreneurs in the fashion industry, obtained using the methodology of Dubovitskaya, Tulitbaeva, Shashkov, which are presented in the figures in Table 04.
According to Figure 04, three groups of young men and women were identified as future entrepreneurs in the fashion industry: of these, only 13% of young men have low indicators of a socio-perceptual attitude (negative socio-perceptual attitude), which indicates that they are characterized in relation to other people by manifestations of suspicion, willingness to see negative manifestations in their behavior, ignoring their successes and achievements; emotional rejection of other negative actions, including aggression towards them; average indicators of the manifestation of a socio-perceptual attitude (neutral socio-perceptual attitude) have 70% of boys and 23% of girls, which characterizes their propensity for trusting relationships, cooperation, the desire to understand another person and constructively resolve problematic situations; high indicators of a socio-perceptual attitude (positive socio-perceptual attitude) are characteristic of 16% of boys and 76% of girls. This characterizes the subjects as ready to trust and help others; show empathy towards others; believe in the ability of people to achieve success; they strive to maintain constructive relationships with others, are ready to provide the necessary support. Thus, the diagnostic data showed that the majority of young men (70%) have a neutral socio-perceptual attitude, which manifests itself in the desire for cooperation and constructive resolution of problematic situations, at the same time, most girls (76%) have a positive socio-perceptual attitude, i.e., they are ready to harmonize interpersonal relationships in the fashion industry.
Let's consider the results of calculating the significance of the Mann-Whitney U-criterion of indicators of the socio-perceptual attitude of boys and girls as future entrepreneurs in the fashion industry according to the methodology of Dubovitskaya, Tulitbaeva, Shashkov, which are presented in Table 03.
A comparative analysis of the data on the study of indicators of the socio-perceptual attitude of boys and girls presented in Table 3 showed that girls have higher values (the significance of differences p<0.001), which is manifested in a high degree of trust and mutual understanding with other people, in the ability to see positive potential in others, in an effort to maintain constructive relationships with others, in readiness to provide the necessary support and assistance to others.
The analysis of the literature on the research problem has shown that in Russian psychology the image of the world has an activity and social nature and appears as: a universal form of human knowledge about the world, which is characterized by a prognostic orientation; as a category that describes the reflections of the world at the level of perception; an integrative image of reality, which has the property of exclusivity and specificity; as a structure that strengthens a person's cognitive skills; as a subjective representation of the world, which accumulates the results of human interaction with the world. Entrepreneurship is of great importance for the development of the country's economy, contributes to the formation of its financial potential. The success of entrepreneurial activity is significantly influenced not only by professional knowledge, but also by personal and business qualities. Successful entrepreneurs are characterized by: flexibility of thinking, a high level of leadership abilities, a high propensity for risk, efficiency, confidence in communication, expressed organizational and communicative inclinations. Gender differences determine the presence of certain features of the fulfillment of social roles, certain specifics of female and male entrepreneurship, concerning the motivation of doing business, relationships in the business environment and the perception of attitudes towards oneself and one's business. Due to the peculiarities of gender roles, women are more careful in entrepreneurship, in relationships with competitors and partners. Men are more aggressive and ready for tough competition in business, more willing to take risks, unlike women who try to adapt and look for compromises. There is also some specificity in the business strategies of men and women: women have to combine roles, realizing themselves both professionally and in women's terms. They are considered serious and reliable partners who conduct business responsibly and carefully.
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23 December 2022
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Belenkova, L. Y., Bosov, D. V., & Sazonova, S. A. (2022). Gender Aspect Of Professional Image Of Future Entrepreneurs In The Fashion Industry. In D. K. Bataev, S. A. Gapurov, A. D. Osmaev, V. K. Akaev, L. M. Idigova, M. R. Ovhadov, A. R. Salgiriev, & M. M. Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Knowledge, Man and Civilization- ISCKMC 2022, vol 129. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 165-181). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2022.12.22