One of the main pressing issues in vocational education is training of bachelors at pedagogical universities in designing new professional activities. In accordance with the modern requirements, projects are used to improve the quality of training. In all human activities, projects are a universal tool to ensure efficiency, flexibility and variability of activities. Pedagogical activities aimed at professional training of workers are not an exception; their quality depends on the ability of a teacher to design and implement the pedagogical process. A literature analysis has revealed that at the present stage of development of psychological and pedagogical science there are objective preconditions that contribute to the successful theoretical and practical solution of the problem of effective training of bachelors for the development of creative imagination in preschoolers with speech disorders. Theoretical provisions and conclusions on the research problem can improve the professional training process aimed at developing creative imagination in preschoolers. Research materials and the special course can be used by educational institutions and make a contribution to the theory and methodology of vocational education.
The relevance of this research problem lies in ensuring effective professional training of bachelors for the development of the creative imagination of preschoolers with speech impairments and is determined by socio-economic changes in modern society, changes in state policy in the field of education.
In Russia, the quality of education depends on the development of science and society. Professional standards, Federal state educational standards and other educational documents implement the professional and pedagogical activities aimed at developing independence and creativity in students (Ibragimova & Skobeleva, 2018).
The main defining goal in the "Federal Program for the Development of Education" is that it is necessary to form a creative personality, since the personality in this case is the main factor of economic progress in society. The study of work experience in preschool educational organizations shows that teachers experience significant difficulties in solving the problem of developing the creative imagination of preschoolers with speech impairments, caused by their insufficient training, lack of the necessary knowledge and skills to solve it in the context of the variability of the content of modern education, which led to a variety of educational programs.
Vocational training consists of a complex multifunctional system, including a holistic process of pedagogical training. One of the main priority scientific areas in improving professional and pedagogical activities is the training of teachers in educational institutions implementing through higher professional education programs, which primarily depends on the quality of pedagogical activities of teachers based on pedagogical projects.
The conducted theoretical analysis of the literature indicates that at the present stage of development of psychological and pedagogical science, objective prerequisites have formed that contribute to the successful theoretical and practical solution of the problem of effective preparation of bachelors for the development of the creative imagination of preschoolers with speech impairments.
In the textbook by Lebedeva "Pedagogical projects", special attention is paid to the study of pedagogical projects in pedagogical systems in the works by Bodalev, Karakovsky, Novikiva, Penkina, Suvorina, Tkachenko et al. (Lebedeva, 2004).
A.V. Kachalov believes that pedagogical assistance determines the design of training sessions. The design of training sessions occurs through the setting of a goal-task and a goal-result in the implementation of tasks; organizing pedagogical cooperation, creating situations of success, posing problematic questions that require analysis, comparison, juxtaposition, explanation of heterogeneous information, which leads to a deeper development of students' cognitive needs (Kachalov, 2019).
According to A.A. Styugina, one can speak of the presence of cognitive motivation only when knowledge, skills and abilities are the subject of needs – this is the focus on the process and methods of obtaining professional knowledge (Styugina, 2011).
Yu.G. Khlopovskikh examines the professional qualities of a person, which, along with professional knowledge and skills, form the basis for the success of professional activity. Teachers acquire certain qualities in the course of professional training. Some personality traits, as well as the general level of personal development, largely affect the success and effectiveness of professional activity (Khlopovskikh, 2011).
However, Ibragimova and Kandaurova argue that the professional activity of a teacher is incomplete if it is built only as a reproduction of the once mastered working methods. Such activity is defective not only because it does not use objectively existing opportunities to achieve higher educational results, but also because it does not contribute to the development of the personality of the teacher himself. A teacher who is in constant search reaches the highest levels of pedagogical skill and professionalism much faster. To stay in the profession and be successful, the teacher must constantly update his professional knowledge and skills, improve his professional qualifications (Ibragimova & Kandaurova, 2019).
The issue of training of teachers for the development of creative imagination in preschoolers acquires special attention in modern social conditions. The pedagogical process becomes more effective when various art studios and clubs are created using innovative technologies, which meets individual interests and needs of children and creates positive changes in the development of preschoolers.
In determining the quality of education, the main focus is on professional training and specific practical activities, namely on the professional readiness to develop the creative imagination in preschoolers (Khutorovsky, 2011). There are different approaches to the professional training of bachelors to work on the development of creative imagination in preschoolers. One of the main approaches is a special course "Development of creative imagination in preschoolers." Personality-oriented, culturological and contextual approaches were used in its development.
The personality-oriented approach assumes the orientation of this course on the creative self-development and self-expression of the personality of bachelors, and focusing on the development of creative imagination of preschoolers (Bondarenko, 1999).
Bondarenko made a significant contribution to the development of a culturological approach to the professional development of teachers. A significant contribution was made by Bakhtin, Bondarevskaya, Isaev and Slastenin (Bondarenko, 1999).
Professional and personal development of the future teacher, according to Bondarenko, must be in compliance with the cultural values, self-learning as a leading element, nteractions in communication as a means of self-reflection (Bondarenko, 1999). All these provisions were used in the elective course "Development of creative imagination in preschoolers."
The contextual approach provides for the use of bachelors' educational activities such as educational, vocational and professional orientation of bachelors to the development of creative imagination in preschoolers, which is aimed at improving professional competence of bachelors and teachers, which affects the pedagogical activities. (Novikova, 2019).
The authors pay special attention to the development of an elective course that will contribute to the development of creative imagination in preschoolers with speech disorders
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the elective course "Development of creative imagination in preschoolers" is the development of creative imagination in preschoolers. The elective course is aimed at solving the following tasks: formation of a pedagogical focus on the development of creative imagination in preschoolers; development of pedagogical emotionality and reflexive-creative attitudes; mastering knowledge about the nature of fine arts of preschoolers; improving knowledge of modern technologies of creative imagination of preschoolers in fine arts; mastering the methods and techniques of developing the creative imagination of preschoolers in different age groups.
In this study, the following theoretical methods are use: analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature, development of the elective course and generalization of the results obtained during.
For the effective preparation of bachelors for the development of the creative imagination of preschoolers with speech impairments, the following pedagogical conditions are presented, with the help of which the elective course is successfully implemented.
The first pedagogical condition involves the introduction into the educational process of the educational program of the elective course "Development of the creative imagination of preschoolers in preschool educational organizations."
The course is designed for 108 hours, of which 48 hours are allocated for classroom work, 60 hours for independent work. The elective course contains the basic requirements for the level of its development: a list of recommended educational literature, regulatory documents, materials that establish the content (topics of seminars, tasks for creative independent work) and the procedure for the final control.
The topics of the course are divided into the following sections: "Subject, history of formation and theoretical foundations of the course "Development of the creative imagination of preschoolers in preschool educational organizations"; "Basic theories of the development of the creative imagination of preschoolers"; "Content and organization of visual activities in preschool educational institutions"; "Features of the development of the creative imagination of preschoolers in the visual activity." The structure and content of the elective course is presented in table 1.
The second pedagogical condition is the introduction of active learning technologies into the educational process, orienting students to the development of the creative imagination of preschoolers with speech impairments.
The third pedagogical condition is the inclusion of bachelors in creative independent activity. Creative independent activity is understood as an activity organized by means of specially created problematic tasks that contribute to the independent transfer of knowledge and skills to a new situation, an independent combination of new methods of activity from the known ones, and leading to the development of skills for building a fundamentally new way of solving.
The table shows that a significant number of hours account for the individual work. This is due to its important role in the self-development and self-education.
Within the elective course "Development of creative imagination in preschoolers", different types of independent work based on a number of principles are used: consistency in increasing the levels of complexity and creativity; differentiation, which allows bachelors to choose a task based on their abilities and interests. In teaching the course "Development of creative imagination in preschoolers", the best result is achieved if the course precedes the pedagogical internship.
The pedagogical internship performs one of the most important functions in the professional training of bachelors for the development of creative imagination in preschoolers, because theoretical knowledge is realized and professional skills develop. During the internship, reflective goals, which provide the transition from the management of the training process to the conscious self-management in the joint activities of teacher and students, are dominant.
The elective course "Development of creative imagination in preschoolers" can help achieve effective results in the training of bachelors for the development of creative imagination in preschoolers. The control system used allows for obtaining the required data on the bachelors' level of mastery of educational materials, professional training for the creative imagination of preschoolers. I addition it can help bachelors to critically assess the level of their professional training.
At the same time, self-control plays an important role in the self-development of student's personality. With the help of this elective course students can track personal achievements, analyze and evaluate results and prospects for further development. At the same time, it is possible to monitor the development of reflexive and creative positions of bachelors and analyze the adequacy of their self-assessments.
Thus, we can conclude that the main goal of university education is to provide humane conditions for the personal and professional growth of each student, the individual and free self-determination of the future specialist in professional pedagogical activity and the full disclosure of personality opportunities (Yurlovskaya, 2015).
Acknowledgments [if any]
Rector's personal grant for students of NVSU for the 2020-2021 academic year.
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31 March 2022
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Ibragimova, L. A., & Novikova, E. A. (2022). An Elective Course For Bachelors Aimed At Developing Creative Imagination In Preschoolers. In I. Savchenko (Ed.), Freedom and Responsibility in Pivotal Times, vol 125. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 924-930). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2022.03.110