Reflective Analysis Of The Subjects’ Readiness Levels For Inclusive Economic Realities


The modern development of the economic community obliges to involve “special” subjects in labor activity, which evokes new problems associated with the society and “special” subjects’ interaction. Preparing respondents for inclusive economic realities is an important sociocultural stage in the human relationships’ development. The study analyzes the possibility of introducing the discipline “Inclusive Economics” into the educational programs of higher educational institutions. In the course of the study, the formation and essence of the “inclusive economy” concept were analyzed, the main blocks of an inclusive economy were formulated, and global and local conditions of the subjects’ readiness for inclusive economic realities were identified. The technology for the reflexive analysis of the subjects’ readiness level for inclusive economic realities has been developed. The discipline “inclusive economics” was introduced into the economic specialties of TSPU on a trial basis, and the study results of inclusive economic realities understanding and perception by economic students and educational workers were summed up. Focus group methodology, associative series methodology, questionnaire survey and conversation served as the research tools. The “inclusive economics” discipline introduction into the educational process of students will provide flexible adaptation of respondents in a rapidly changing world and form interdisciplinary competencies necessary for interaction in the economic space.

Keywords: Inclusive economy, inclusive economic realities, “social exchanges”, “social entrepreneurship”, “social partnership”


Reflective analysis of the subjects’ readiness levels for inclusive economic realities is recognized as one of the leading economic trends. Inclusive items recall themselves occasionally (Skudalova, 2020a). They are associated, as a rule, with any activity, which often, indirectly, is not exclusively an economic prerogative. “Inclusive economic realities”, which the subjects should be ready for today, considering the world economy peculiarities - is a dynamic, hyper-variable, transdisciplinary category of modern society sustainable development. This category requires a certain systematization, detailed analysis and complex response from the part of active subjects in any economic society.

The main link in this economic category is the "inclusive economy" definition. Semantologically, this terminology is associated with the concept of inclusion, which originated from the French verb “include”, which means “to contain, comprise, embrace, incorporate”. Another synonymous translation series of the term “inclusion” helps to interpret it as a kind of implication, addition, entry and even addition. These term’s synonyms - insertion, accession, entry, adding - allow a deeper definition of its dominant foundations in order to maximize its use in describing a variety of socio-economic processes and phenomena. The concept of "inclusive economy" was formed gradually. Once, having arisen in philosophy, it gradually penetrated into medicine and at the first stage dealt exclusively with people suffering from certain physical ailments. Further, interest and need for this phenomenon has increased and affected educational processes (Kharisov, 2017; Maritz & Laferriere, 2016). The turn to the economy took place, although gradually, but rather dynamically and wavily. The similar result was shown by other authors' studies (Krutzinna & Floridi, 2018; Miethlich & Oldenburg, 2019; Sánchez et al., 2016; Zhuravleva & Chernonozhkina, 2018). This process was influenced by world changes in socio-cultural, legal, religious, economic spheres. In general, we can say that the “inclusive economy” concept formation came along proportionally to global trends in the social development and reached a peak with the emergence of the Syrian issue, which entailed global world migration. Today, inclusive economic realities are significantly complicated by contradictory processes associated, on the one hand, with the unification of nations and people, the erasure of borders between states and sociocultural systems, the transition to a single linguistic toolkit, the formation of common socio-economic institutions, and, on the other hand, with the own borders strengthening by states, the search for the lost identity, a return to own values, religion, traditions, culture, language. To find a harmonious balance point is an important factor on the path of sustainable development, which is impossible without solving the pressing problems of forced migrations, conflicts related to assimilation issues, and conducting difficult, intercultural and interreligious dialogues that often cross all boundaries of civilized communication. The way to properly prepare for such changes, the way to hold down oneself in modern society, the way to determine their position in the new realities without losing their comfortable living, the way to take a comprehensive look at this world, which will no longer be the same - these are the primary issues that require a certain reflective skill from any active economic entity.

In our opinion, the "inclusive economy" by its very definition can become a necessary toolkit that contributes to the development of new realities, as well as a guideline and the base for human adaptation to them.

As for the concept essence, the "inclusive economy" is an objective and sensory characteristic reflecting the subject’s economic status, which affects population’s standard of living in general, bridging the gaps in the living standard of various groups of the population on theintegratedapproachbasis, where individual characteristics are the dominant (Mogaji et al., in press). Essentially, we are dealing with behavioral economics, where the main core and the object side of science appears to be the sensory component of the individual, which in one way or another affects a specific economic result. It is no coincidence that shortly before the COVID pandemic, Western companies began hiring social anthropologists whose purpose was to study the behavioral characteristics of company employees who, as a result of their physical, cultural, religious, value characteristics, had different reactions to the same events.

"Inclusive economy" is a new terminological reality that is constantly being corrected, detailed and supplemented. For example, nowadays new terminology is often updated, which is directly related to the concepts of an inclusive economy: “social exchanges”, “social entrepreneurship”, “social partnership”, “social marketing”, etc. This demonstrates the combination of specific economic aspects with purely social ones. Let us consider graphically the main, relevant, in our opinion, blocks of concepts "inclusive economic realities".

Problem Statement

After having studied the works of authors who have made a significant contribution to the sustainable development issue (Shpak et al., 2019; Skudalova, 2020b), we have identified four interrelated blocks in an inclusive economy at the macro- and microeconomic level (Figure 1).

Figure 1: The inclusive economy structure
The inclusive economy structure
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To implement the macroeconomic blocks in the world economic space, certain socio-cultural conditions must be created at both global and local levels, associated with the subjects’ attitudes and preferences as the main factor triggering all these processes and phenomena. To study, realize, and strategically adjust to them – these were the parts of the research tasks. The global conditions presented in Figure 2 are recognized to consistently and stepwise contribute to solving the macroeconomic problems of society associated with inclusion.

Figure 2: Global socio-cultural conditions for the formation of subjects' preferences for economic interaction in inclusive realities
Global socio-cultural conditions for the formation of subjects' preferences for economic interaction in inclusive realities
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Setting the stages of a local order is directly related to the subjects of the economic process. An important factor in these conditions is the assessment of the subjects’ readiness level to accept the new inclusive economy and to implement in socio-economic realities:

  • Ready and disposed to a constructive dialogue to discuss the accession of inclusive economic actors into the economic life of society, understands the importance of this process, realizes the basic essence of an inclusive economy as a comprehensive integrative discipline.
  • Partially ready and partially disposed to a constructive dialogue to discuss the accession of inclusive economic actors into the economic life of society, does not fully understand the meaning of the term "inclusive economy", its interdisciplinary essence, the importance of this process, poorly represents the integrative nature of the economy, does not always realize the social changes consequences.
  • Not ready and not disposed: demonstrates closed, detached behavior, not ready and not disposed to complex reflection and constructive dialogue in this area.

Research Questions

During the study, the following tasks were set:

  • To explore definitions those are relevant in the "inclusive economy".
  • To develop, introduce into the educational process and test the discipline "Inclusive Economics" in the economic specialties of TSPU.
  • To develop and test a technology for conducting a reflexive analysis of the subjects’ readiness level for inclusive economic realities.
  • To analyze the competencies of respondents to inclusive economic realities.

Purpose of the Study

Purpose of the study: to assess the possibility of introducing the discipline "Inclusive Economy" as a skills formation factor of constructive cross-cultural, interreligious dialogue under ensuring national security difficult conditions.

Research Methods

Let's present the study process card. The research instruments were: focus group technique, associative series technique, questionnaire survey and conversation. The experiment was based on the study by the respondents of the discipline "inclusive economics" (Figure 3).

Figure 3: The list of issues studied in the "Inclusive Economy" discipline
 The list of issues studied in the "Inclusive Economy" discipline
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At the beginning of the study, entrance diagnostics were carried out, then pedagogical activities (lectures, seminars, master classes, trainings), then, in the end, the respondents were offered the final diagnostics. The survey took place before and after the experiment.

The research took place in three stages: at the first stage, during the conversation, the respondents' attitude to this new phenomenon was clarified; at the second stage, the respondents’ subconscious attitude to this problem was studied; at the third stage, it was determined who exactly was referred to the inclusive segments by the respondents (Table 1).

Table 1 - The essence of the technology we developed for reflexive analysis of the subjects’ readiness level to work in inclusive realities
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We used the well-known focus group technique - in-depth group interviews based on primary associations. A number of important, in our opinion, points were studied, which make it possible to visualize the picture of perception and readiness to work in the new realities of an inclusive type. It is the readiness that constitutes the main component of the reflexive analysis by the inclusion subjects. The respondents’ groups were deliberately selected in order to demonstrate the processes contrast in the most active part of the target audience of an inclusive economy. These groups representatives more than others faced the inclusive problems of society, they are the ones who need a clear strategy of action, they have to solve a huge number of controversial situations, it is they who, in one way or another, are responsible for preserving our identity, cultural, linguistic, etc. variety.

Reflexive analysis, aimed at understanding the situation in the future, will help significantly, with a complex impact, change the respondents' perception of the nature and essence of the declared concept and make their behavior more constructive.


The study presents the data of the conducted research to assess the understanding and perception of the “inclusive economic realities” definition. Two small groups with a total of 45 people were selected as the respondents: the first group consisted of students of economic specialties with a theoretical bias; the second, more diverse group - employees of educational institutions, with a greater practical bias.

As a result, the following quantitative data were obtained, which, due to their qualitative component, were subjected to the necessary refinements and analysis at the entire stage of the experiment (Table 2).

Table 2 - Data from a respondent’s survey on the understanding of the "inclusive economy" and their readiness for inclusive economic realities.
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It was found that economic students fairly good familiar with terminology, methodology and complex analysis adopted in economic knowledge understand the importance of inclusion in terms of the human capital accumulation, human potential growth, blurring the poverty boundaries, and pay attention to sustainable economic growth. However, there is a lack of comprehensive interdisciplinary knowledge on this issue. At the first stage, only 13% of the respondents thought about the social, philosophical, psychological and pedagogical side of the issue. This trend is further aggravated by the fact that teachers of this profile have constantly emphasized the interdisciplinary nature of economic knowledge, the behavioral essence of economics. Moreover, these students were given separate courses in pedagogy, psychology, philosophy, and cultural studies. As a result, the introduction of the discipline "inclusive economy" helped to significantly solve this problem. Then the semantic conceptual apparatus associated with the psychological perception of the term was analyzed. An associative technique was used to correlate a specific color with the declared concept. Before the experiment began, the color scheme was rather one-sided, the preference of the respondents was given to shades of red, which, as we found out in clarifying surveys, indicates a lack of a deep concept essence understanding and indicates a high anxiety level, pessimism, and difficulties in solving the problems of an inclusive economy. This was also confirmed by the chosen set of figures: for the most part, they preferred sharp corners, straight lines, rather primitive shapes. This is explained by the fact that the respondents were limited in specific knowledge related to the selection of inclusive economy subjects. As a result, 95% of the survey data were persons with disabilities.

The indicators of another respondents’ group differ significantly, both at all stages of the experiment and at the stages of entering and stating the results obtained in the course of exposure. Detailed analysis of the results obtained showed that the almost answers dissimilarity was associated with a different field of respondents’ activity. Thus educational workers, studying at this stage specialty related to the educational processes management, demonstrated associative rows that had a pronounced connection with the pedagogical essence of this concept. As for the first stage of identifying inclusive subjects, 98% of the respondents have also identified the disabled people and 2% of the respondents have also referred to the subjects of the inclusive economy parents who are called upon to provide accompanying support, often throughout their life. Obviously, this does not fully reveal the “inclusive economy” concept essence. The terminological module for working with concepts also indicates different aspects of the respondents' current activities: global economic entities prevail among students, and among educators, terms are revealed exclusively from the pedagogical side. Analysis of psycho-emotional perception showed a slight difference in the two groups of respondents. Educational workers have more acute psycho emotional reactions to the questions presented. Perhaps this is caused by the practice of working with only one of the inclusive economy subjects - the disabled people.

Comparing this study with the declared readiness levels, we should note that before the introduction of the discipline "inclusive economy" the subjects’ readiness level for inclusive economic realities in two respondent groups was clearly of the first type: "not ready and not disposed." A huge number of behavioral indicators such as: the terminological base of the discipline, value attitudes, subject-subject interaction analysis of the processes of society has not been fully formed. After the experiment, the readiness level reached the planned indicators: "ready and disposed" and "partially ready and partially disposed". Behavioral indicators were present; attitudes were clearly defined by the subjects themselves. On the basis of a complex conversation, which took place in the form of a training (various videos of famous bloggers, filmmakers, etc. were demonstrated and discussed,) the expected level of readiness was confirmed.

During the discussion, the respondents of the two groups noted that they had got a new look at the economy in general, perceived its new essential side, got acquainted with new concepts such as: "social entrepreneurship", "social business", "social exchange", "volunteering". Forms and typesof social economy and the problems of solving social projects were revealed in a new light.


The problem field, covering the topic definitions, was identified, modern realities were described, complex characteristics were given to the events reflected in them, the first steps for the meaningful implementation of inclusive subjects into society were outlined, which main systemic positions declared as the degree of these subjects’ readiness to enter this inclusive space.

The elements of the "inclusive economy" concept model were developed and experimentally verified.

The course of lectures on inclusive economics was developed and held.

The technology for conducting a reflexive analysis of the subjects’ readiness level for inclusive economic realities has been developed and tested in the following sections:

  • work with definitions;
  • inclusive economy subjects identification;
  • identification of an emotional attitude to the "inclusive economy" concept.

The carried out comprehensive detailed analysis allows asserting the need to introduce the discipline "Inclusive Economics" into the educational process.

The authors hope that the results of this work will make a significant contribution to a deeper understanding of the new inclusive realities by all concerned subjects of the society, and will also help to ensure a constructive dialogue in a rapidly changing world.


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25 September 2021

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Economics, social trends, sustainability, modern society, behavioural sciences, education

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Sanfirova, O. V., Kopytova, A. I., Loyko, O. T., & Sizov, V. V. (2021). Reflective Analysis Of The Subjects’ Readiness Levels For Inclusive Economic Realities. In I. V. Kovalev, A. A. Voroshilova, & A. S. Budagov (Eds.), Economic and Social Trends for Sustainability of Modern Society (ICEST-II 2021), vol 116. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 432-441). European Publisher.