The methodology for assessing the effectiveness of education management includes the following blocks: ensuring affordable high-quality general and additional education; advanced training of management and teaching staff of educational organizations on the development of the education system; support and development of professional skills of teaching staff; development of a support system for gifted children and talented youth; formation of health-saving and safe conditions for organizing the educational process; development of the education quality assessment system. According to the Ministry of Education and Science, there are 940 educational institutions in the Chelyabinsk region. As a result of the analysis, the following problems in the education management system in the Chelyabinsk region and the ways to solve them were identified: 1. Insufficient provision of the material and technical base in educational institutions, especially in rural areas and a number of municipal areas. This conditions the relevance and timeliness of the decision of the federal ministry on the need to direct part of the federal funds for major repairs. 2. The slow process of updating the teaching staff to young specialists. In solving this problem, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Chelyabinsk Region was recommended to develop a departmental program "Pedagogical Personnel". When developing, it is recommended to use the experience of other regions of the Russian Federation and that of foreign countries.
The state is interested in achieving the modern quality of education and its universal accessibility. This implies a wide and flexible range of educational services that meet the most diverse and, moreover, dynamically changing needs of citizens and employers, the ability to choose the necessary educational programs.
In the Russian Federation, one of the most urgent tasks is the modernization of the general education system, which is the foundation of the Russian educational system. The success of the modernization of education in the Russian Federation largely depends on ensuring an optimal balance between the federal and regional components of the education system (Baranchikov, 2015). In modern Russia, it is necessary to determine the role of the regionalization of the education system, its correlation with the federal foundations to ensure the stability of the multinational state.
The development of regional education systems that are adequate to the characteristics of the educational needs and interests of students and to the specifics of the region represents a step forward in the development of Russian education, its movement towards democratization and modernization. Education, built on the basis of the priority of a person's personal educational interests, functioning as a system that provides educational services, the consumer of which is a specific person, cannot but respond to specific features, including regional, interests of the consumer. This specificity of the educational interests and needs of each person is a consequence of the differences not only in his personal abilities, but also in the conditions in which a particular person carries out his individual education. It is the properties and specific features of the educational space of a particular region that determine the originality of its education system and its differences from other regional education systems.
Education as a social institution is a complex system that has been and continues to be shaped by the state. The state determines the structure of the entire system as a whole, the principles of its functioning and directions of further development. The principles of state policy in the field of education are reflected in the Law of the Russian Federation "On Education".
Many administrative scientists have studied the problems associated with the implementation of public administration of education in the Russian Federation, among which the works of such authors as Cardona-Roman et al. (2018); Chivu et al. (2019); Ivashina et al. (2018); Kostina et al. (2017); Zinovyeva and Usmanova (2018) and others. The productive results of the analysis carried out in the works of the above authors were an assessment of the role of the state and regions in the implementation of regulation and management of education, as well as the search for ways and proposals for the formation of the main directions of educational policy in the context of education reform in the Russian Federation, substantiation of the need to increase the social component in management education.
The process of public administration, in our opinion, is a conscious and purposeful activity that is associated with the implementation of state and power privileges by subjects of public authority and regulated by legal norms, as a result of which there is a direct change in social conditions, events and phenomena, then the state manages education in the person of the bodies in charge of education management and exercising control over the availability of educational institutions with the necessary funds to conduct the educational process and educational activities.
The strategic goal of the state in the field of education is, first of all, to increase the availability of high-quality education that will meet the requirements of innovative economic development, the modern needs of society and every citizen (Baranchikov, 2015).
Education in the Russian Federation is in the sphere of primary state interests. In turn, the future of our state largely depends on the state of the Russian educational system, including its economic development, as well as the level of welfare in society.
The ongoing administrative reform in the country in terms of the delimitation of powers and subjects of jurisdiction between the federal and regional levels has significantly affected the education sector. "The procedure for financing educational institutions, the system of remuneration of workers in the education sector has been radically changed, the regional level has taken on the responsibility to ensure social guarantees for students and teachers" (Bartsitsa & Bakusheva, 2014, p. 69).
The most important feature of public administration of education in modern conditions is that the problems of education should be solved not only at the level of the educational system itself. The solution to these problems should become a component of the national policy. "That is, education management should be carried out not only by specialized educational ministries, but should be a component of large government programs covering all spheres of public life" (Belyakov, 2015, p. 49).
In the Concept of the Federal Target Program for the Development of Education for 2015-2020, it is said that the purpose of the Federal Target Program for the Development of Education is to provide conditions for meeting the needs of citizens, society and the labor market in quality education by creating new institutional mechanisms of regulation in the field of education, updating the structure and the content of education, the development of the fundamentality and practical orientation of educational programs, the formation of a system of continuous education. This will ensure the creation of the main mechanisms for modernizing the education system, form a network of educational institutions and Russian regions participating in the innovative development of the education system. In addition, a competitive environment has formed, as well as groups of leaders to spread the practice of modernization throughout the Russian educational system.
The subject of the article is the process of management in the field of education.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the article is to develop measures to improve management in the field of education using the example of the Chelyabinsk region.
The work uses general methods of scientific research, namely: the systemic and dialectical method of cognition; and private scientific methods: analytical, statistical and formal-logical ones.
The priority of state policy in the field of general education, which meets the requirements of modern innovative socially oriented development of the Chelyabinsk region, is the development of infrastructure and organizational and economic mechanisms that ensure the availability and quality of general education services, modernization of educational programs aimed at obtaining modern high-quality education (Romanov, 2018).
In the Chelyabinsk Region, a set of measures has been implemented to modernize general education. At the expense of the regional and federal budgets, the following activities were carried out: purchase of equipment; replenishment of the funds of school libraries; advanced training of teaching and management personnel; equipping distance education centers; ensuring energy efficiency; development of school infrastructure. School buildings were overhauled, a modern digital educational environment was created in schools, and young specialists were involved in the work. The prestige of the teaching profession has increased. The creation of conditions in educational institutions that meet modern requirements ensured the transition to training in accordance with federal state educational standards of general education.
At all levels of management of the education system of the Chelyabinsk region, the unity of approaches to understanding the quality of education was ensured. These approaches are reflected in the content, procedures and mechanisms for assessing the quality of not only general, but also preschool, additional and secondary vocational education (Zinovyeva et al., 2020).
The Chelyabinsk Region consistently ranks 5th in terms of the number of winners and prizetakers of the All-Russian Olympiad for schoolchildren, falling behind Moscow, St. Petersburg, the Republic of Tatarstan and the Moscow Region.
The share of graduates of the higher education system of the Chelyabinsk region who are employed in their specialty has a tendency to increase annually: in 2019, 79.1% of graduates of higher education institutions of the Chelyabinsk region were employed, with an average of 57.9% in Russia. In the Chelyabinsk region, 65 organizations carry out research and development.
The peculiarities of the scientific sphere of the Chelyabinsk region include a significant presence of higher education in it (Miller & Xu, 2020). The share of universities engaged in scientific research included in the list of scientific organizations and institutions of the Chelyabinsk region is 62%.
Employment of graduates is one of the main indicators of the efficiency of professional educational organizations. By the end of 2018, almost all subordinate professional educational organizations achieved the planned rate of employment of graduates (65.6%). Monitoring of the overall employment of graduates in the context of enlarged groups of specialties and in the context of levels of professional education showed that in 2018 it reached 91.4% for the training programs for skilled workers, office workers and 95.1% for the programs for mid-level specialists. The achieved values reflect their increased level in the Chelyabinsk region in comparison with the average values for the country as a whole.
The general state of management in the field of education can be characterized as ambiguous. On the one hand, management continues to remain mainly administrative and use administrative and administrative-regulatory methods, since it was formed in its main features under the conditions of the administrative-command system. On the other hand, management is adapting to modern conditions.
Improving the education management system should solve the following tasks:
1. Management of the education system in the form it has developed to date.
Important areas of this work are:
- transfer of a number of management functions to public organizations, especially in terms of determining the content of education and its quality. It should also be noted the need for public participation in the management of resources transferred to the education system;
- a clearer definition of the interaction between the educational institution and the higher management body. Today, these relations are determined by various documents, including an agreement between an educational institution and its founder, but still remain largely unsettled;
- resource management. It is necessary to have a clear understanding of how to distribute, how to reallocate, what criteria to apply when assessing the efficiency of resource use.
2. Management of the processes of transition of the education system to a new qualitative state, which includes:
- initiation of work with ultimate goals and solving specific problems associated with the transition of the education system to a new qualitative state; assessment of the progress of these works and the degree of achievement of the set goals (tactical management, management of individual projects, works, activities in the field of education modernization); assessment of the impact of each of the results obtained on the change in the state of the education system;
- adjusting the course (directions) of all works on the transition to a new state (strategic management, assessment of the state of the entire education system as the modernization measures are implemented and results are obtained);
- competitive selection of performers of work in the field of development of the education system for the most effective use of limited resources (Lazarides et al., 2020).
It should also be noted that there is a need for training performers of work both through teaching and advanced training, and by involving them in the implementation of individual stages of work.
3. Management of the emerging education system and its individual elements.
Within this area it is necessary:
- to train personnel capable of managing the implementation of innovations;
- to form structures capable of assessing the effectiveness of the introduction of innovations and propose corrective measures;
- to introduce functions of management of innovation processes at various levels of management;
- to create structures that are able to independently set tasks for themselves, based on the results of the formation of a new system, to solve these problems, to correct the change in the system.
All these areas should be provided with the necessary administrative, organizational, financial resources and, therefore, taken into account in the implementation of the processes of budgetary financing of the education system.
In addition to solving methodological problems, it is necessary to provide appropriate information support for education management. Recently, a number of works have been carried out to monitor the economy of education, in which various methods of collecting and analyzing information on the education system have been applied, statistical and sociological data on the education system have been published, proposals have been developed to improve the forms of state statistical observation.
Monitoring can be considered the main source of information for the education management system. It is implemented as a system that solves the following main tasks:
- collection, primary processing, storage and presentation of information characterizing the state of the education system and allowing to assess and predict changes in this state;
- formation of a visual representation of the education system.
The result of monitoring is information in a form convenient for assessing the state and predicting changes in the state of the education system.
At present, monitoring in education is essentially limited to state statistical observation (the improvement of which is a constant task) and to the just-begun deployment of education economy monitoring. Its further development should be carried out in close cooperation with the assessment and forecasting of the state of education.
The presence of indicators for assessing the accessibility and effectiveness of education makes it possible to form management decisions to change them in accordance with the goals and objectives set, as well as to assess the effectiveness of the implementation of measures to modernize education.
The management of Russian education lacks a system of comprehensive forecasting and planning based on forecasts of the labor market and technological development. The allocation of budget places by the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia is not based either on labor market monitoring or on the country's economic development strategy..
Based on the results of the analysis, the following problems were identified.
1. Insufficient provision of the material and technical base in educational institutions, especially in rural areas and a number of municipal districts
In connection with the transition of primary and secondary schools to new federal state educational standards, the educational base of schools requires further updating, including the equipment of classrooms, equipping teachers' workplaces with modern multimedia and interactive equipment, etc.
A similar problem is indicated in the departmental program of the Ministry of Education of the Chelyabinsk Region: the inconsistency of the equipment of the educational material base of educational institutions with modern requirements for the organization of the educational process and the implementation of sanitary norms and rules.
In the region there is a problem of the technical condition of school buildings and structures. According to the statistical reports of municipal education authorities as of December 31, 2018, the buildings of 122 schools require major repairs (including 40 urban schools, 82 rural schools). Of these, 29 educational institutions are in an emergency condition, in 9 of which the educational process is not carried out, in 20 schools some of the buildings are not functioning (9 of which are currently being renovated). In this regard, the decision of the federal ministry on the need to direct part of the federal funds for major repairs is timely and relevant.
2. Slow process of updating the teaching staff
According to the Ministry of Education and Science of the Chelyabinsk region, the number of teachers in the schools of the region is 21.725 people. The number of young specialists is 822 people, i.e. 3% of the total teaching staff. The most in demand today are teachers of English, chemistry, physics and mathematics. Having received a pedagogical education in these areas, students prefer to find a better paid work.
The program for the modernization of education in the Chelyabinsk region does not solve this problem in any way. In this direction, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Chelyabinsk Region is recommended to develop a departmental program "Pedagogical Personnel". When developing, it is recommended to use the experience of regions of the Russian Federation and of foreign countries.
In our opinion, special attention should be paid to the experience of Soviet times, when measures were in force on the compulsory work by young teachers of a certain compulsory period after graduation from a university. During this period of time, young people could finally establish themselves in their decision to link their lives with school. There is a feeling that the state does not care who graduates from pedagogical universities and where young people go.
An obligatory direction in the program should be the development of the institution of mentoring. In developing this direction, it is necessary to take a closer look at the experience of a number of European countries, where after 15–20 years the teacher finishes active teaching and becomes a mentor. Moreover, this occurs at a time when the so-called "professional burnout" of a teacher comes. They do not leave school. They become a mentor with a very good salary. They accompany the "immersion" of a young teacher in the profession, design lessons with the mentee, are present in the classroom, analyze and correct further work for 2–3 years.
Social support and material incentives for teachers are of great importance. Among the measures common in the regions are one-time payments to young teachers and bonuses to the best teachers. In addition, the executive power in certain regions fixes actions for social support and material incentives for teachers with special regulatory legal acts.
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01 July 2021
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Land economy, land planning, rural development, resource management, real estates, agricultural policies
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Zinovyeva, E. G., Balynskaya, N. R., Koptyakova, S. V., Ibragimova, O. V., & Solovyova, I. E. (2021). Assessment And Improvement Of Public Administration In The Field Of Education. In D. S. Nardin, O. V. Stepanova, & V. V. Kuznetsova (Eds.), Land Economy and Rural Studies Essentials, vol 113. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 709-716). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.07.85