Small business plays a significant role in Russia's agriculture, and production volumes are increasing every year, just like creating a competitive environment in rural areas. In this regard, state support for small businesses is an important component of Russia's agricultural policy. At the present stage of management, small business is the leading sector that determines the pace of economic growth. This sector is typically market-based and forms the basis of market infrastructure, as it primarily contributes to the formation of a "healthy" competitive environment of the economy. The agro-industrial complex is the main link in the economy of the Kurgan region. Small forms of agribusiness include peasant (farm) enterprises and private subsidiary farming. The article deals with the development of small forms in the Kurgan region. As a result of their research, the main indicators of small forms activities of management in crop science were considered. The sown areas of agricultural crops, gross harvest, yield and sales of agricultural crops are analyzed.
The effectiveness of measures implemented in the agricultural sector depends mainly on the formation and creation of conditions for the effective development of a variety of management forms (Borovinskikh & Vasilieva, 2019). Small forms of management in rural areas plays an important role in providing the population with food. These include the farming population, peasant (farming) enterprises. They produce more than half of all agricultural products. Every year, the production volume in peasant agriculture increases (Prutskova, 2008). Stimulating the efficiency of small forms entities will contribute to the development of rural areas. In this regard, research aimed at analyzing the current state of the organization of small agar business entities, their operating conditions and identifying reserves for its improvement and increase in efficiency is becoming more relevant (Kudasheva, 2019).
Small business development affects economic growth, accelerates scientific and technological progress, saturates the market with goods of the required quality, and creates new additional jobs. In other words, it solves many current economic, social, and other problems of society.
The subject of the research is the activity of small-scale farms in the region's crop production. In the structure of agricultural production, small businesses play an important role in agricultural production and in the preservation and development of rural areas. Of course, the studied sector is inferior in production efficiency to large organizations, but at the same time it is an objective reality in the development of the agricultural sector
Small forms of management preserve the diversity of self-employment opportunities for the rural population and maintain a stable way of life for them, and provide a guarantee of food security for the country and its regions in any conditions.
Small-scale businesses perform not only production functions, but also participate in solving social problems in rural areas: providing employment for the rural population, especially young people, increasing the income of rural residents, preserving the rural lifestyle, and developing rural territories.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the research is to analyze the indicators of small forms of management, with farms of all categories, on the basis of these data to draw conclusions on the activities of small forms in the Kurgan region.
Sources of information for writing the article were official data from the website of the Federal State Statistics Service of Russia (www.gks.ru): Russia in numbers; Kurgan region in numbers.
This article analyzes the summary statistical information that characterizes the activities of farms, based on the use of generalizing statistical indicators: absolute and relative values, average values.
Small forms of management in the agro-industrial complex of the Kurgan region are represented by peasant (farming) enterprises, agricultural consumer cooperatives of various types, and citizens who lead a private subsidiary farming (Sumarokova et al., 2019; Sirotkin & Ermakov, 2020).
On the territory of the Kurgan region as of January 1, 2019, registered: 1175 peasant (farming) enterprises (according to statistics); 27 agricultural consumer cooperatives, including 4 - credit, 13 - processing, 8 - supply and marketing, 2-servicing; 167.8 thousand families that lead a private subsidiary farming (according to municipal entities) (Federal State Statistics Service, 2019).
In peasant (farming) and personal subsidiary farming, more than 38% of the total grain production in the Kurgan region as a whole is produced annually, 86% - vegetables, 84% - potatoes, 63% - meat, 71% - milk and 86% - eggs (Kurgan region in digitals, 2020).
The size of cropped lands of crops in the Kurgan region is shown in table 01 (Artamonova et al., 2019; Karamyshev, 2007).
The cropped lands of crops in the Kurgan region for the period from 2015-2019 in farms of all categories decreased insignificantly, in households it decreased by 11.1 thousand hectares, but in peasant (farming) enterprises it increased by 56.4 hectares (Sokolova et al., 2019). The share of peasant (farming) enterprises in the entire cropped land of the Kurgan region increased from 32.3% in 2015 to 37.0% in 2019, and in private farms it decreased from 4.1% to 3.2%. In the last five years, in the structure of crops of peasant (farming) enterprises, most of the cropped land is allocated for grain crops 84.1 % in 2019. The structure of grain crops is dominated by spring wheat 87.6%, barley-7.3%, oats-3.1% (Gladkova, 2020). There is an increase in the area occupied by industrial crops in peasant (farming) enterprises in 2015-2019.
The yield dynamics are shown in table 02 (Karpova & Roznina, 2020).
The yield of grain and leguminous crops in peasant farm enterprises was lower than in farms of all categories.
The main directions for further increasing production volumes and increasing the effectiveness of the impact of grain crops are consistent intensification based on the development of chemicalization and reclamation, the introduction of innovative technologies for growing and harvesting grain, the use of new, more productive varieties, and hybrids of grain crops.
According to the data of the Federal state statistical observation on the products collected in these farms, the gross harvest of agricultural crops in agricultural organizations is determined, both from the main and from repeated and inter-row sowing (Speshilova & Kshnyakina, 2020). In 2019 fall on small forms 38.1% of gross grain collections, the remaining 61.9% on agricultural organizations, compared to 2015, this indicator has increased. The contribution of farming enterprises to the provision of food to the regional population is increasing. Peasant (farming) enterprises and households annually produce more than 40% of the total grain production in the Kurgan region as a whole, 91% - vegetables, 89% - potatoes. The continued increase in the production of grain and industrial crops in farming enterprises significantly increased their share in the total. The growth of potato production in peasant farming enterprises for the analyzed period was more than 3 times, in households 61%. (Kolomyts & Savelenko, 2020).
An important role in improving the efficiency of grain production is given to the choice of sales channels, improvement in the quality of production, state support for grain production, as well as the growth of material interest in grain growing (table 03).
Sales of crop production in peasant (farming) enterprises are increasing, so the volume of sales of grain and leguminous crops has increased. The share of peasant (farming) enterprises selling grain and leguminous crops in the Kurgan region has increased (Sokolova et al., 2019). In the Kurgan region, as well as throughout the country, there is a tendency to reduce the number of peasant (farming) enterprises with a simultaneous increase in land area. This indicates that the increase in agricultural production in nature of households is mainly due to sizable enterprises that have turned out to be more viable. (Kuzmina, 2020).
Thus, the activity of small forms in agriculture of the Kurgan region plays a significant role and this should be taken into account when implementing state support for the agricultural sector of the region and implementing regional programs in this area of the economy.
A significant problem of effective functioning of peasant agriculture is the low level and quality of life in rural areas, weak, even withering development of social infrastructure, and all this, in turn, leads to the outflow of the active part of the able-bodied population from the village, which leads to a decline in agricultural production. Future development of small forms of management as free enterprise is essential to overcome the socio-economic crisis in rural areas, is the key to the survival of the rural population and leads to stabilization of the rural economy, the formation of its rational structure and competitive environment. Thus, in order to ensure the sustainable development and efficiency of small form of management, it is necessary to expand the specialization and deepen the diversification of agricultural production; fully apply the latest technological developments in the production and processing of agricultural products; cooperate and integrate with large agricultural goods producers in order to reduce losses and increase the efficiency of production, processing, storage and sale of agricultural products.
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01 July 2021
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Land economy, land planning, rural development, resource management, real estates, agricultural policies
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Karpova, M. V., Roznina, N. V., Lapina, E. N., Pavluckich, M. V., & Zakharova, М. I. (2021). Activities Of Small Businesses In The Crop Production Of The Kurgan Region. In D. S. Nardin, O. V. Stepanova, & V. V. Kuznetsova (Eds.), Land Economy and Rural Studies Essentials, vol 113. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 387-393). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.07.46