Modernization of education in the logic of the third generation federal state educational standards requires changes in the construction of educational practices from the standpoint of strengthening their role in the formation of a graduate's competence model and the implementation of continuity within the educational module. The article presents an analysis of building practice programs within the framework of a modular approach, identifies a number of key tasks, the solution of which makes it possible to effectively build an educational program, identifies the positive results of implementing educational practices from this position. The authors presented the experience of developing and implementing a modular program of educational practices in line with the competence-based approach to teaching students: the implementation of the continuity of submodules in the training module “Practices”, the logical sequence of the studied submodules, the introduction of a system of certification procedures as a necessary measure to promote the formation of sustainable learning motivation for any type of activity.
Federal state educational standards of the third generation set the task of revising the role of educational practice and internship in the context of training bachelors in the field of “Geography”, which boils down to developing a phased system of organizing and conducting practices in accordance with the formation of the types of competencies required at this stage (Dmitruk , 2017).
The competence-based approach to training is focused on the training of highly qualified specialists and is based on the definition, development and demonstration of knowledge, skills, attitudes and types of behavior necessary for a specific work activity. This approach is most effectively implemented in the form of modular programs that require serious methodological comprehension (Konyakhina, 2012).
The modern education system at the university is characterized by a modular approach to the structure of the educational process. The concept of modular training was developed by a number of scientists and is successfully used in the practice of the educational process (Kenzhalieva & Grigoriev, 2013).
In this study, the modular approach is considered in the higher education system, where the module acts as an element of the curriculum of educational programs. The structuring of curricula during the transition to federal state educational standards for bachelor's degree entailed significant changes in educational programs in areas of training and work programs of educational practices, as an obligatory component of educational programs. We note that in different universities there are significant differences in the construction of educational programs and, including educational practices. This study demonstrates the experience of implementing educational practice programs in line with the modular approach in training students in the field of “Geography” with a training profile “Recreational geography and tourism”.
Most of the works of foreign and domestic scientists are devoted to the consideration of the methodological aspect of the implementation of continuity in education. In the process of organizing and conducting educational and industrial practices, continuity is built on one component of the learning process – its content (Bordovskaya et al., 2020). At the same time, the methods of searching and selecting the rational content of the studied material, consistent with academic disciplines, are not considered, and there is no consideration of the sequence of the process of its study. The issue of organizing student practices in the context of modular training has not been sufficiently studied (Polupan, 2017).
In this regard, it is necessary to modernize third-generation educational programs within the framework of a modular approach, which involves:
- development of programs of practices coordinated with academic disciplines, having organizational and substantive continuity;
- rethinking the effective contribution of practitioners in the formation of the graduate's competence model (GCM), which includes a set of competencies acquired by the graduate, aimed at the ability to apply knowledge, skills and personal qualities in accordance with the tasks of professional activity (Mosin, 2012);
- the implementation of the continuity of educational and industrial practices, contributing to the connection between the new and the old, as the basis for the progressive development of the educational process within the framework of modular training and, accordingly, the phased formation of the declared competence from the basic to the professional level (Pechnikov et al., 2018).
To solve the indicated problems, it is necessary to answer the question of how the existing programs of practices are focused on the formation of GCM and how the continuity of submodules within the framework of the “Practices” module can be implemented.
What are the features of the construction of educational practice programs, taking into account the modular construction of the curriculum for bachelors – geographers?
How is the implementation of continuity between the programs of practices carried out, aimed at developing and deepening knowledge, increasing the complexity of the requirements for mental activity?
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was the development, implementation and testing of the “Practice” program in teaching geography students, taking into account its modular structure and identifying the effectiveness of students mastering the necessary competencies.
The methodological basis for research, development and implementation of the “Practice” program was a systematic approach that promotes the interconnection and interdependence of all elements (submodules) of the system and a modular approach aimed at implementing the continuity of the content of the module and improving the quality of vocational training through the gradual formation of the declared competence.
The research methods were the methods of comparative analysis, synthesis and generalization, observation, analysis of the results of students' independent activity.
Changes in approaches to the training of bachelors, the introduction of new federal state educational standards based on the competence-based approach led to changes in the peculiarities of training a specialist-geographer. The reduction in the study time from five years to four years caused the need to revise the curricula, and to combine the studied theoretical disciplines with educational practice (Sarsembaeva, 2017).
The modular approach implemented at NovSU became the starting point in the formation of the educational process. Cross-cutting directions in the preparation of students from the position of “academic discipline – educational practice” were identified. In this case, the educational practice was not of a leading nature, but served as the basis for the final formation of competencies in the field of a number of disciplines that lie in the sphere of the geographer's activity.
The concept of “module” from the point of view of vocational training is defined as an organizational and methodological interdisciplinary structure, which may include submodules on the basis of its methodological formation. Each stage (submodule) of this system can be individual in terms of educational and scientific knowledge, but all of them must be united by a specific goal, methodological guidance and control, a single requirement for the level of formation of the result (Pastushkova et al., 2019). The educational process in modular training ensures the individualization of training in terms of content, pace of assimilation, level of independence, methods and ways of teaching, methods of control and self-control, and the purpose of modular training is to promote the development of students' independence, their ability to work taking into account individual ways of working out educational material (Sazonov, 2020).
Continuity is a system of connections at different stages of the development of educational activities, ensuring the unity of tasks, content and methods. At the same time, target continuity is aimed at consistency of goals and objectives at different stages of training and education. Substantial continuity involves the combination of content, repetition and development of common approaches to the organization of educational activities. The presence of general approaches to defining goals, objectives and content at each stage, taking into account their continuity and prospects, ensures the systematic development of the learner from one level of education to the next (Abramova et al., 2019; Rybakina, 2018). The continuity of individual programs within one module presupposes, in essence, the implementation of a single style of organizing and conducting practices, gives the module a consistent, operational and promising character (Chapaev & Efanov, 2013).
Moreover, the first stage is the base or, in other words, the launching pad for further development and forms fundamental personal qualities and a basic level of competence. The second stage includes reliance on knowledge, skills and personal experience, as well as comprehension of the material at a higher level. The third stage involves the development and deepening of knowledge, the complication of the requirements for mental activity, the formation of personal and social behavior. The fourth stage involves relying on independence, thinking and the ability to determine the course of one's actions. Compliance with this rule of continuity is an important indicator of systematic and consistent learning, which contributes to the accumulation of high-quality knowledge and skills, the formation of communicative and socially significant sides of the individual (Cejas Martíneza et al., 2019).
It is possible to implement the principle of continuity at different stages of the educational process when creating a developing educational environment on the part of the teacher. On the part of the student, the implementation of continuity is carried out through the processes of self-organization, self-control, self-actualization of the individual, the manifestation of the student's ability to selectively relate to the educational material, the ability to learn and carry out research activities (Henner, 2018).
The introduction of a system of certification procedures is a necessary measure that contributes to the formation of sustainable educational motivation for any type of activity (Zhafyarov, 2019). Therefore, the final stage is exactly that. During certification, the degree of educational results achieved by the student is determined. For this purpose, the practice program clearly specifies the requirements for the level of training of students in the module, and the content of educational results correlates with the level of formation of the declared competence. At each stage, the content, stages of work, requirements for the presentation of results are correlated with the evaluation criteria. Attestation based on the results of the practice is carried out by the attestation commission on the basis of the results of the defense of the report for each type of practice and certification sheets, including the types and quality of work performed, and, which is very important, the characteristics of the student's educational and professional activities during the practice (introspection). When evaluating the results of the work, the content and correctness of the student's field diary and practice report, the quality of answers to questions during his defense are taken into account.
Thus, each stage of practice implements its content, types of work, development of knowledge, the formation of skills, abilities and personal qualities in accordance with the level of the declared professional competence. Therefore, without observing the continuity of work programs within the module, it is impossible to ensure a high level of educational achievements, as well as to maximize the development and implementation of the student's abilities and inclinations.
The implementation of training practice programs from the position of a modular approach began in 2011. For the implementation of the educational process, teachers have developed teaching aids covering three academic years. Educational practices are organized in the following areas of knowledge of the geographer:
- cartography with the basics of topography, climatology with the basics of meteorology, geology (1 year),
- geomorphology, hydrology, biogeography, soil geography, landscape science (2 year).
In the third year, students undergo practical training in the field of training “recreational geography and tourism”. This practice is of a complex nature and includes a complete regional study of the territory. Particular emphasis is placed on the analysis of the tourist and recreational potential of the investigated territory, the relationship with the studied disciplines, research methods and the establishment of interconnections between the elements of the natural-anthropogenic complex of the region is carried out. Thus, in the course of purposefully organized work with students in the “Practices” module, a competence-based approach to teaching is systematically implemented (Table 01).
Implementation of educational practices from the position of a modular approach:
- made it possible to link the theoretical training of students with practical;
- to form basic knowledge, which became the basis for passing subsequent educational practices. For example, in the field of hydrology, competencies acquired in practice in cartography with the basics of topography and geology are used. The final character is the practice of landscape studies, where, when constructing a landscape profile and a thematic map of natural-territorial complexes, it is necessary to rely on all the skills previously acquired during the practice;
- to carry out continuity between the studied courses;
- to strengthen the methodological training of future specialists through the repeated use of working methods in various types of educational practices;
- to ensure that students master the required competencies, not only as an appropriated knowledge, but also as a conscious skill that is freely applied in practice.
Analysis of educational activities in the context of the “Practices” module made it possible to draw conclusions:
- the task of implementing a competence-based approach when conducting and organizing practices is solved by the teachers of the department in different ways, taking into account their specifics;
- the structure and content of practices is changing, their range is expanding;
- along with traditional educational practices in the 2nd and 4th semesters, the practice (6th semester) was designed and implemented, aimed at acquiring the skills of studying the tourist and recreational potential of the territory, designed to form the declared professional competence;
- the content and structure of long-term comprehensive practice for the study of the tourist and recreational potential of the territory of another region (mountainous Crimea, platform areas of the north-west of Russia, etc.) in the 6th semester, expands the range of application of the previously formed competence;
- the curriculum of educational practice is logically interconnected with the disciplines taught and serves as the basis for the subsequent study of the sections of the educational certification);
- internship is aimed at consolidating and deepening the theoretical knowledge gained in the learning process, gaining invaluable experience of independent work and the formation of competence at an advanced level;
educational practice and internship are structured in such a way as to form the declared competence from the basic to the professional level.
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15 July 2021
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Globalization, digital education, leadership, challenges of the time, оn-line pedagogy, universal and national values
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Dmitruk, N., & Druzhnova, M. (2021). Continuity Of Educational Practice Programs From The Position Of A Modular Approach. In A. G. Shirin, M. V. Zvyaglova, O. A. Fikhtner, E. Y. Ignateva, & N. A. Shaydorova (Eds.), Education in a Changing World: Global Challenges and National Priorities, vol 114. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 719-726). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.07.02.86