The verbal violence is an invisible-made topic in Ecuadorian research, from there it is a deficient discussion that prevents it from analysis and regularization in classrooms. In that sense, research makes a short contribution to the knowledge of the thematic, which at the same time allows us to comprehend the gender violence that discriminates the girl- woman as the origin of the social phenomenon discussed; therefore, this study is exploratory, descriptive, of transversal cut, which purpose is to describe the teacher’s education for the treatment of the verbal violence inside the initial education. Its theory content is argued scientifically. The methodology is right at using the survey, under a questionnaire consolidated within three indicators, applied to the twelve teachers in initial education level 2. The most relevant results are: the teachers manifest to have knowledge about gender violence and consider that verbal violence form is its main manifestation inside education; on the other hand, they recognize the diverse emotional expressions from the schoolchildren, and the usage of offensive oral language by the students. The conclusion lies on confirming the existence of verbal violence inside the institution, observable by the usage of the word tonto-tonta (fool or silly) which discriminates very specifically to the student girl, although it is imperceptible and spontaneous, such information is an extenuating for starting the construction of curricular intromission, which in a pedagogical way could enable in good terms lead the human behavior towards the respect and mutual consideration between man and women.
Keywords: Initial educationteacher’s formationverbal violence
Gender violence in its whole historical context recognized as a social phenomenon, is a valuable reflexive argumentation about human behavior, which contribution lies on favoring the analysis and comprehension of women’s discrimination for the fact of being a woman, caused mainly by men.
One of this manifestation of such discrimination is the verbal violence, understanding it as the abusive use of oral language which offenses and humiliates the woman specially, watchable in every social ambit that implies habitual relationships between men and women.
The school as an academic and social responsibility formation center, is not alien to the existence of verbal violence; in this sense, the studies made for Ecuador evidence that:
The most common scholar violence between peers are about verbal and psychological matters, be it by insults and nicknames (38,4%), rumors (27,8%); 7,8% of students is victim of scholar bullying by rumors. There is a higher level of vulnerability in the female population (Ministerio de Educación et al., 2015).
The contribution of this research work is justly putting into manifest under scientific arguing achieved through a descriptive statistic, that verbal violence is not a cultural situation that obeys to male chauvinism situations, which in fact, come unnoticed by the society, but it’s the reflex of human behavior decadence that has maintained woman in submissiveness.
Visualizing this paradox that shows up the society, carries a big educational compromise, that if is not approached with the softness and seriousness that only scientific investigation is able to reach, will remain in the historical silence with an entire complicity that involves the educational community, whose accusing signal will be not have been able to generate, with enough pedagogical seriousness, actions to eradicate the discrimination against women.
Ultimately, all the scientific arguing from the investigation turns around the general question: How the teachers describe the presence of verbal violence inside initial education?
That verbal violence is not a cultural situation that obeys to male chauvinism situations, which in fact, come unnoticed by the society, but it’s the reflex of human behavior decadence that has maintained woman in submissiveness.
How the teachers describe the presence of verbal violence inside initial education?
Purpose of the Study
Describe the presence of verbal violence in early childhood education.
This article has a research exploratory scope, which intention is to examine verbal violence in initial education, being it, a topic or problem poorly studied (Hernández, Fernández et al., 2014).
On the other hand, the study has a descriptive investigation focus, because there have been examined behavioral features (McMillan & Schumacher, 2005), from the teachers inside initial education.
The inductive method has benefitted this research, because its field of study starts in an observation process of enough acts in order to be able to understand their common characteristics (Palella & Martins, 2012), and explain somehow their behavior.
The use of the deductive method has allowed to jump from the analysis of results understood as a whole thing, to then decompose it into more critical arguments (Palella & Martins, 2012).
Techniques and research instruments
Two are the techniques used in this study; the first one is the observation which has been used in the construction of the theorical framework through bibliographic observation cards; the second one is the survey, because it is used “often in educative research to discover new attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and other kind of information” (McMillan & Schumacher, 2005, p. 43); this instrument is designed through a questionnaire, and structured in 12 closed questions of dichotomous type and multiple choice. The purposed questions determine four indicators: a) the teacher’s knowledge about gender violence b) the behavioral state of schoolchildren c) the comprehension of verbal violence in the scholar environment; and d) the procedure state of the teachers in the face of verbal violence.
The studied population is every teacher inside the initial education from Unidad Educativa (UE) Luis Leoro Franco from Ibarra city, Ecuador; in total they are 11 professionals that convey their instruction in sublevel 2. In this case, the population has been chosen by convenience, since “it is a group of chosen fellows on the base of being accessible or suitable” (McMillan & Schumacher, 2005, p. 140).
The data as being of quantitative nature, has been operated on Excel and presented through tables mainly stablished in frequencies, whose reason “supposes to determine how many observations are presented in each answer category for the variable” (Palella & Martins, 2012, p. 176); on the other side, the usage of observation cards, have allowed us to focus the analysis of the topic, avoiding giving an inconsistent bias.
Indicator 1: Cognitive links of the teacher between gender violence and verbal violence.
Do you know the diverse kinds or manifestations of gender violence that occur in our society?
As shown in Table
Where do you consider that there is a higher frequency of gender violence?
The information from Table
From the following manifestations of gender violence, which one is displayed with the highest frequency in the society?
Which of the following manifestations of gender violence causes the highest psychological harm?
The results in Table
Indicator 2: Behavioral state of schoolchildren regarding to verbal violence
Inside the scholar environment, have you ever noticed in the initial education students, the following behavioral changes
According to Table
As a teacher: What is your way to attend the behavioral situation categorized as the first place in the last question?
When analyzing each one of the answers from the teachers, it has been able to contrast that most of them agree that dialogue is the best way of attending this kind of temperamental incidents. Such circumstance forces to think that the actuation protocols are unknown in the face of Violence Situations detected or committed inside the educative system (Ministerio de Educación del Ecuador, 2017, p. 84).
Indicator 3: Comprehension of verbal violence in the scholar environment
As teacher: What kind of verbal expressions do you use to keep the discipline with your students?
The answers from most of the teachers agree in that “the songs” are one of the most used verbal expressions to keep discipline in students. This kind of adopted attitude is very assertive, because, following Gari (2002) argumentation cited in Rios and Rojas (2018), songs represent an excellent playful resource available anytime, and they help to exteriorize emotions.
From the following teachers’ expressions towards female schoolchildren: Which ones are heard with the highest frequency?
According to Table
From the following expressions from teachers to male schoolchildren: What are the ones heard with the higher frequency?
The analysis that the data inside Table
In the scholar environment: From your point of view, what are the most used verbal expressions?
With the teachers’ arguments it could be analyzed that many of them have heard violent verbal expressions among children. Between those there can be highlighted:
Silly, dumb, fool (among both boys and girls)
That’s a girl’s color, you are a fool, you’re ugly
Girls don’t fight, don’t play soccer, they do the cleaning, they are weak
Boys don’t give toys, they’re rude and bad
You kick like a girl
The one who arrives at last is a girl
Boys don’t cry
The expressions fool are the ones used with the highest frequency, anytime and in any space inside the institution; most of the cases are undetectable, there are no specific reasons, they occur for any situation; however, one in particular is the one which has attracted the teachers’ attention, whose have argued that is the protection of their toys’ property, food, etc.; in that sense, it cannot necessarily be accused the predominance of men over women, neither from women towards men, but it can over the fact of being recognized as offensive and humiliating, Acevedo and González (2010) cited in Manzo et al. (2018) explain:
(…) the main perceived and felt scholar violence is the verbal violence; it’s the most invisible in the day-to-day colloquium, it does not leave trace, it’s not censured and is more practical, constant and effective to stablish control over the scholar dynamics and making the ones who suffer from it invisible. (p. 54)
Indicator 4: Procedural state from teachers towards verbal violence
Do you believe that is important to treat gender violence since initial education?
What strategies do you consider the most appropriate to mend the gender violence situation given by verbal expressions, in initial education?
From their personal point of view, the teachers declare that videos, stories, dramatizations and workshops for family parents, would be the best strategies to remediate gender violence inside initial education. This means would be used both for working with parents as with children, and in that way achieving a collaborative work to eradicate verbal violence; one of the immediate actions must have as objective “to guide about violence and its various manifestations, with the purpose of easing its prevention and detection” (Ministerio de Educación del Ecuador, 2017, p. 11).
Verbal violence in school is not treated as an isolated topic, but as part of scholar bullying; however, its offensive manifestation is a humiliating insult, especially given from boys to girls.
Teachers perceive a great knowledge about gender violence, which in most of the answers are coincident with several similar studies; this cognitive attitude favors the pedagogical processes in every moment and the scholar education spaces; although, it will always be opportune to revise and consider forced compliance rules as the “Action protocols in front of spotted or tasked Violence Situations inside the educative system”.
Verbal violence has been found manifested in initial education from Unidad Educativa Luis Leoro Franco, although it is of hard perception, it manifests specially with the use of the word fool, both for peers and different people; the cause is imperceptible and spontaneous.
In the classroom, dining hall, and recreation spaces, it has been seen both in boys and girls some negative emotional states such as sadness, isolation, and low verbal communication; for the fact of not bringing serious consequences, this is considered as normal doings, though it can be an alert motive for the teacher.
Teachers show having empathy towards schoolchildren at the time of intervening on conflicts; very rightly, dialogue usage results in being very effective, which at any case, is the recommended actuation by the pertinent authority. On the other hand, the songs use as a didactic resource to keep discipline is very assertive. It is very onerous to know that teachers have predisposition of a nonstop improving in favor of verbal violence eradication.
- Acevedo, A., & González (2010). Alguien me está molestando: el bullying [Someone is bothering me: bullying]. Ediciones B Colombia S.A. Retrieved on March 15, 2013 from https://tinyurl.com/y633nf54
- Barredo, D., Liberia, I., Macías, A., Palomeque, V., Delgado, M., Zurbano, B., Espinoza, M., García, M., & Cedeño, G., (2014). Actitudes y percepciones sobre la violencia de género del personal docente y administrativo y de servicios de Manta: estudio del Colegio 5 de Junio [Attitudes and perceptions about gender violence of the teaching and administrative staff and services of Manta: study of the Colegio 5 de Junio]. Revista San Gregorio, 38-45. Retrieved on February 4, 2014 from https://tinyurl.com/ql73gcp
- El Comercio. (2017). Tendencias. Apodos e insultos son comunes en el aula [Nicknames and insults are common in the classroom]. ElComercio.com. https://tinyurl.com/t3jh3kj
- Esparza, A. (2005). Instituto Nacional de las Mujeres- El Enfoque de Genero en Educacion Preescolar- México [The Gender Approach in Preschool Education- Mexico]. https://tinyurl.com/4t7kt2s9
- Gari, A. (2002). Aprender cantando [Learn by singing]. Material mimeografiado. www.monografías.net. https://tinyurl.com/a3jkfffn
- González, M., & Moya, J. (2017). Palabrotas: expresiones verbales de jóvenes interpretadas como agresión en su colegio [Swear words: verbal expressions of young people interpreted as aggression in their school]. Palabrotas. https://palabrotasud.wixsite.com/palabrotasud
- Hernández, C., Magro, V., & Cuéllar, J. (2014). El maltrato psicológico. Causas, consecuencias y criterios jurisprudenciales. El problema probatorio [The psychological abuse. Causes, consequences and jurisprudential criteria. The evidentiary problem]. Aequitas, 27-53. https://tinyurl.com/hnka927m
- Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, P. (2014). Metodología de la investigación [Investigation methodology]. Mcgraw-hill / interamericana editores, s.a. de c.v.
- Manzo, E., Salazar, C., & Arellano, A. (2018). El insulto y los apodos: objetivaciones léxicas de la violencia escolar en el occidente mexicano [The insult and nicknames: lexical objectifications of school violence in western Mexico]. Axon, revista de ciencias sociales, humanidades y tecnología, 51-59. Retrieved on February 5, 2020 from https://tinyurl.com/t4ncxkm
- McMillan, J., & Schumacher, S. (2005). Investigación educativa [Educational investigation]. PEARSON EDUCACIÓN, S. A.
- Ministerio de Educación del Ecuador. (2017). Protocolos de actuación frente a Situaciones de Violencia detectadas o cometidas en el sistema educativo [Action protocols for Violence Situations detected or committed in the educational system]. Retrieved on February 2, 2020 from https://tinyurl.com/wrxv4pn
- Ministerio de Educación, Unicef, & Vision, W. (2015). Una mirada en profundidad al acoso escolar en Ecuador [An in-depth look at bullying in Ecuador]. Retrieved on January 26, 2020 from https://tinyurl.com/8kazbp8j
- ONU Mujeres. (2019). Hechos y cifras: Poner fin a la violencia contra las mujeres [Facts and Figures: End Violence Against Women]. Retrieved February 4, 2020 from https://tinyurl.com/y5w6a4sg
- Palella, S., & Martins, F. (2012). Metodología de la investigación cuantitativa [Quantitative research methodology]. FEDUPEL.
- Puerta, E., & Colinas, I. (2007). Detección y prevención del maltrato infantil desde el centro educativo. Guía para el profesorado [Detection and prevention of child abuse from the educational center. Guide for teachers]. Retrieved on February 4, 2020 from https://tinyurl.com/ty7ay8m
- Rios, I., & Rojas, J. (2018). La canción como estrategia didáctica para el logro del desarrollo de la expresión oral en los estudiantes del segundo grado de primaria de la Institución Educativa Mi Pequeño Genio de Vitarte-2017 [The song as a didactic strategy for the achievement of the development of oral expression in the students of the second grade of primary school of the Educational Institution My Little Genius of Vitarte-2017]. UGEL 06. Retrieved February 4, 2020 from https://tinyurl.com/wpgv7dz
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
About this article
01 June 2021
Print ISBN (optional)
Health, well-being, comprehensive health, psychosocial risks, education, pedagogical processes, social development, human behavior
Cite this article as:
Fárez, A. A., Onofre, P. Q., Toledo, D. S., & Ayala, J. B. (2021). Verbal Violence: Contributions From the Initial Level Teachers, Unidad Educativa Leoro Franco. In C. Guzmán Torres, & J. V. Barba (Eds.), Psychosocial Risks in Education and Quality Educational Processes, vol 109. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 52-61). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.06.6