Comparison Of Pedagogical Descriptions Of Hand-To-Hand Combat Training In Police Higher School


In this study, the authors consider and analyze the main components of the pedagogical systems of hand-to-hand combat training of educational institutions of the Germany, Israel, USА and Japanese police. On the instance of maintenance and methods of organization of this direction of the vocational training of future Interior Ministry officers, we grounded failures to complete Russian higher school of police. Considering the specific of hand-to-hand combat training of future police officers of different countries we generalized the differences of educational and educator process. At first, in all considered foreign states hand-to-hand combat training of power structures is a separate educational object. Secondly, training process of hand-to-hand fight practically does not differ between an army, police and security service. Thirdly, all pedagogical systems of hand-to-hand combat training in different countries are based on methodologies of judo and karate. Fourthly, a psychological constituent of hand-to-hand combat training is the fundamental aspect of this vocational training. Fifthly, the vocational training to the hand-to-hand combat training takes place in form of training process, with competition method of sporting training, in its different variations. All positive components of professional hand-to-hand combat training of foreign states must be used in Russia, taking into account the historical, philosophical, social and mental specifics.

Keywords: Cadet, teaching, police, hand-to-hand combat training


In the educational organizations of the police of the economically developed civilized states, the educational process of hand-to-hand training is one of the main areas of professional education. Moreover, in these countries, this area of training is a separate subject of special one, with its own, science-based curricula and orders. And the quality of preparedness is determined by the constituent principle of professional competence of the future police officer.

The specifics of hand-to-hand combat training is determined by the fact that it is usually built on the basis of pedagogical systems of the Far Eastern martial arts, primarily judo and karate-do, which in turn determines the sports and applied field with a clearly oriented psychophysiological dominant (stress stability, confidence, patience , “victory at all costs”, “contempt for death” etc.).

Problem Statement

The imperfection of the modern system of hand-to-hand combat training in Russian police high school.

Research Questions

1. The positive aspects of the hand-to-hand combat training system of the US police.

2. The positive components of training in hand-to-hand combat of German police.

3. The specifics of hand-to-hand training of employees of the security forces of Israel.

4. The uniqueness of pedagogical technologies for hand-to-hand training of police officers in Japan.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to show main positive components of hand-to-hand combat training in the leading countries using the empirical research methodology and to propose innovative directions for improving the domestic system for the formation of skills and abilities of future Russian police officers.

Research Methods

Research methods include first of all work with sources, as well as analysis and synthesis of the empirical results.


The technique of hand-to-hand fighting in American police educational institutions is based on the law of maximum simplicity: no more than three components, which is determined by the psychophysiological specificity of a real hand-to-hand "collision".

In American curricula, the regularity of phased learning is definitely indicated. At the beginning go the fundamental principles of hand-to-hand combat and basic physical preparation. Then goes a course of improvement of individual combat training. At this stage, the skills of combat tactics are formed through sporting hand-to-hand combat. Separately, there is a special technical and tactical complex (for rangers and Special Forces) (Kartamyshev, 2017).

Analyzing the specifics of hand-to-hand training of employees of the American superstructures, A.N. Kochergin scientifically substantiates that they use special methods of self-activation based on the psychophysiological methods of the Far Eastern martial arts. “This is reproduction with the help of facial expressions of rage, rapid breathing, screaming and bestial growl. All this by the mechanisms of motor-visceral reflexes stimulates a number of mechanisms of emotions. This point of view can be confirmed by the fact that opposing actions (voluntary restoration of facial expressions of a calm state, restoration of rhythmic breathing, partial muscle relaxation) effectively contribute to the rapid reduction of excessive emotional stress” (Kochergin, 2011).

In the educational institutions of the US police, in hand-to-hand training, protective equipment is constantly used: vests, helmet masks, bandages, etc. This equipment involves conducting exercises that are as close as possible to the realities of force detention, which in turn is determined by the widespread use of the competitive method of sports training. Moreover, this method, at an advanced stage of improvement, through protection, makes it possible to work in submaximum and maximum power modes, as well as in a full contact version of the battle. In addition, the equipment allows for training fights using training mock-ups of applied and edged weapons (stick, knives, etc.). The positive effect of the introduction and use of protective equipment in the classroom with cadets of higher departmental educational institutions of Russia has been repeatedly covered in modern research by Russian scientists (Baranyuk, 2018; Kartamyshev, 2017; Kochergin, 2011; Nikiforov, 2012).

The technique of motor actions of hand-to-hand fighting in educational organizations of the US police is not much different from the techniques of hand-to-hand training in high school Russian police. This is the same standard set of fighting stances, movements, punches and defenses against them. There are the same punches and protection against punches with a stick and knife take place. And the same work with the threat of using firearms and attempts to master it. They also study inspections and escorting, and the same technique of handcuffing. As for wrestling equipment, the arsenal here is somewhat wider. More complex throws are also being studied – deflection back, passage to the legs, lateral and frontal coup, etc.

The training programs contain special directives on the specifics of the technology and tactics of conducting force detention: the classical principle of defense is an unexpected and maximum attack in terms of time, with initial and permanent dominance, tactics cut right through or straight ahead, or ahead or stopper; use the full possible arsenal of throwing and striking techniques in the most painful and open at the given tactical moment areas of destruction; in order to master at least a slight predominance over the criminal, you need to use all kinds of handy things (broken bottle, sharpening, a bunch of keys, etc.), at the same time using various feints and deceptions, using lights and putting criminals (if their group) on one line attack directors for the possibility of phasing them off, with a loud verbal accompaniment, leading the criminal into a stupor.

According to A.N. Kochergin's “instinctive method of training in hand-to-hand fighting is based on the assumption that in a battle before mortal danger, a person’s consciousness is blocked and his actions are determined by the innate instincts of aggressiveness and self-preservation. The implementation of techniques is accompanied by menacing growls and piercing screams that contribute to a better manifestation of primary instincts and have a demoralizing effect on the enemy" (Kochergin, 2011).

The main difference from the Russian approaches is a large number of technical elements of wrestling and shock character in the stalls, in a lying or sitting position. There are many painful levers and suffocating techniques, the execution of shock attacking actions with fists, elbows, feet and knees, as well as various transitions and changes in combat positions. Apparently, this specificity of this area of training for future police officers is caused by the peculiarities of the national character of the American nation, which is less conservative than, say, the British or we Russians. Therefore, the pursuit of "fashion trends" by the US representatives was expressed, including in the technical and tactical arsenal of hand-to-hand fighting of power structures. The thing is that the most popular, and therefore the most profitable, which by the way also plays one of the cardinal dominants of the American way of thinking, in the modern world of martial arts are the so-called “fights without rules”, where more than half of the actions are carried out in the stalls. But, according to the author, this approach to the professional training of a police officer is quite controversial.

As was already described above, in the training of future US police officers, in contrast to the domestic educational process, the competitive method of sports training is widely used, especially at the final stage. Competitions are held according to the rules of sports in hand-to-hand combat: protective equipment, punches in contact, throws, pain and asphyxiation techniques.

By this time, cadets of police educational institutions are already achieving the necessary degree of psychophysiological training, which gives them the opportunity in real combat to work at the level of anticipation (anticipation of an attack), that is, quickly and intermittently come to competent tactical conclusions under unexpected unpredictable conditions of not only training, but and real clash. The competitive method contained in the curriculum of educational organizations of the US police undoubtedly assists in the pedagogical effect of acquiring the strength of special skills formed, with their further maximum positive embodiment in professional activity.

The competitive method of hand-to-hand training in American police schools is due to strict differentiation, depending on the level of preparedness. The Americans suppose that this pedagogical approach makes it possible to avoid the so-called "psychological breakdown", yielding to more experienced rivals in sports matches. Over time, the best cadets in terms of technical, tactical and special physical training are transferred from general groups to groups of a more advanced level, where hand-to-hand training is already being built according to a more individual program, similar to professional martial arts athletes.

Cadets with progressive results in competitive fights are encouraged either financially or through additional layoffs. But for those who have a permanent negative, who do not go to the higher level of professional hand-to-hand training, various punitive, of course, primarily financial (the "American dream") measures are used.

According to pedagogical tasks, competitions are divided into standard-basic, transitional and complicated ones. Students, personally improving, participate in all areas of competitive activity. In the course of increasing the degree of complexity of fights, the “contact” of shock equipment also increases. The phased complexity of the requirements enables cadets with a low level of training to grow professionally from less traumatic and conditionally restricted areas to more and more complex in terms of technical and tactical preparedness and functional energy consumption and tough contact (Kartamyshev, 2017).

In the author’s views, this goal setting of the training methodology, as well as the specifics of hand-to-hand fighting in the stalls disclosed above, are a rather debatable issue. With undoubted positive components, there are also negative aspects.

In American educational institutions, where future police officers are trained, along with planned training sessions according to a strictly established schedule, moreover, fully taking into account the latest scientific research in the field of sports physiology regarding a competent transition from one type of training activity (static) to another (dynamics) every day up to three hours, and section work in various martial arts groups is conducted. This is primarily boxing and wrestling in all their interpretations, fencing, arm wrestling, athletic gymnastics, athletics, as well as various oriental martial arts of the contact direction.

Thus, it can be summarized that the educational process of professional hand-to-hand training of American police educational institutions has the character of a purely practical direction, with emphasis on the formation of special psychological qualities and with the wide use of the competitive method of sports training in the final period.

Hand-to-hand combat in police educational institutions in most countries of Western Europe, as well as in the USA, is a separate subject of vocational training. At the same time, as with the Americans, it was determined that the main task of the educational process of future police officers by hand-to-hand fighting is the formation of special endurance to physical and psychological overload. Europeans, as well as in the USA, widely use outside school hours. In educational institutions and units, there are sports clubs of the so-called "applied areas": karate, judo, jujitsu, etc.

In German police schools, hand-to-hand fighting is one of the major educational subjects, and one of the most significant ways of forming special psychophysiological qualities of a person.

The German training system is divided into two mutually complementary components: judo and self-defense. Wrestling training is carried out by the methods, means and methods of traditional sports judo, contributing primarily to the development of special endurance and power qualities, and shock technical and tactical skills are formed through sports training in karate, which mainly train speed and speed-strength qualities (Kartamyshev, 2017).

Judo training in the German interpretation of police training consists, by analogy of the sports training process, of four periods. The initial training period contains the simplest acrobatic exercises, insurance in pairs and self-insurance, which involves the formation of basic skills of grouping and kinesthetic perception of a partner and wrestling mat. These qualities also suggest a decrease in the level of injuries in the classroom.

The second period of preparation solves the problem of forming the skills of performing basic technical motor actions of grips, counter grips, footboards, sweeps, throws, pain and asphyxiation techniques. Returning to the origins of traditional judo, developed at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries by the great Japanese master Dzigara Kano (Kano, 2006), German experts included future police officers in training programs, training in attacking actions on the most vital centers of the human body.

The third period is aimed at improving previously acquired skills in the technique of performing basic judo techniques, that is, bringing technical actions to the level of skill (subconscious). This problem is solved by repeatedly throwing in tandem with an assistant. The classical method of exercise in the methods of physical education. For reasons incomprehensible to the author, the Germans call this period “Rough Form”.

The final stage of this section of German police training institutions is a competitive method of sports training. This is primarily a training of bouts in various positions, as well as in the stalls. It also includes the struggle in non-standard positions.

The second part of the hand-to-hand training of future German police officers is officially called Self-Defense. Here, the basis of training is the technical actions of traditional karate in interaction with throws, steps and judo sweeps.

In previous studies, author (Uskov, 2017) drew attention to one rather distinctive and little-known aspect of the features of the entire arsenal of equipment of these two areas of Far Eastern martial arts. The thing is that in karate-do, since the Middle Ages, all kinds of wrestling elements were used, first of all, as auxiliary components. It can be assumed that this technique was adopted by the masters of Okinawa-te (the original name of karate) from jujitsu – the struggle of Japanese samurai. Unfortunately, historical sources on this issue do not exist, but for example, the creator of the modern pedagogical system of sports karate Gichin Funakoshi (Funakoshi, 1973), as well as his followers, who began the "road back" to the traditionally applied direction – Hidetaka Nishiyama (Nishiyama, 1999 ) and Ilya Jorge (Jorge, 20005) in their capital educational and methodical works, unambiguously derive wrestling equipment (Nage-Waza) in a separate section.

As for judo, then again, if we turn to the primary sources (Daigo, 2005; Yamashita, 1996). In the traditional interpretation of this martial art there are a number of elements of striking technique. Developing judo as a pedagogical system of martial arts, Dr. Jigaro Kano, being for his time a well-educated and broad-minded person, realized that it was quite problematic to win a real clash using only wrestling equipment. Therefore, first of all, to disrupt the distance and gain a firm grip, the great master added a number of karate-do strike actions to the technical judo arsenal. And, in our opinion, the great merit of German, and indeed all Western European experts, that they, developing curricula, drew attention to this very important aspect of the complementary methods of traditional directions of these martial arts.

Against the backdrop of the foregoing, the opinion of a number of modern researchers regarding the integral impact-wrestling technical and tactical training seems quite controversial to us. For example D.A. Kartamyshev says that “in many modern systems of hand-to-hand fighting, the synthesis of various types of technical actions occurs simultaneously at the beginning of the training process (in the absence of strong basic skills). All this leads to the fact that when jointly practicing both shots and throws, their accuracy is lost ”(Kartamyshev, 2017).

But, firstly, such areas of the Far Eastern martial arts as karate and judo were originally created precisely as shock-wrestling and wrestling-percussion, respectively, as already mentioned above. Secondly, “strong basic skills” of both strokes and throws are quite well formed integrally already at the initial stage of preparation, since the biomechanics of these technical actions are absolutely identical. So to talk about the "loss of their accuracy", and indeed about the futility of constructing in this way the educational process of sports or vocational training is very problematic.

Author of this study has the right to “doubt” a little, because in addition to many years of scientific and pedagogical work in higher educational institutions of the police (militia), he has been engaged in coaching for two decades, and he has prepared a sufficient number of Crimean winners during this time, Judo and karate-do Ukraine, Russia and Europe.

Let us go back to Germany. The periodization of the second part of hand-to-hand training, like the first, is built by analogy with the methods of sports training, and contains three periods. The karate technique is represented by basic strokes and defenses against them. In this part, there is also training in working with knives, which involves not only disarmament, but also training fights "on knives", as well as disarming a criminal armed with a pistol. The technical training in the second part also involves learning the techniques of personal inspection, convoy under the influence of painful techniques or under the threat of firearms, as well as dressing handcuffs and tying. The formation of abilities and skills of strikes and defenses is carried out interconnected with the technique of movements in various direction vectors. The affected areas are divided into three levels: upper, middle and lower.

The second period involves the improvement of acquired skills, and bringing them to the level of skill. Here, special emphasis is placed on the accuracy of the striking technique.

The final period, as in the first part, is based on the competitive method of sports training. That is, training and improvement of the tactics of using previously acquired skills in the technique of performing both strikes and those formed in the first part of the shots are already taking place.

Created in the Middle East in 1946, according to UN resolutions, the state of Israel has practically no analogues in the world. A highly developed economy, the latest scientific achievements, a rich and unique multicultural are combined with a permanent state of war with the surrounding countries of the Muslim world. But, thanks to the powerful financial support of the Jewish diasporas in the USA and Western Europe, the Israelis managed to form some of the most effective law enforcement agencies in the world, including the criminal police. In general, no other country has such an organic relationship between the army, the security service and the police. For 75 years, the entire state has been a single combat camp.

The hand-to-hand training of the military and police structures of Israel, over many years of constant practical testing, crystallized into a rather specific combat training system “Krav Maga” (Hebrew – contact fight) (Levine, 2016), the creator of which is former intelligence officer Imi Lichtenfeld. This is the clearest example of the formation of martial art through the integration, optimization and further testing of various martial arts with the added technical and tactical components that have passed combat tests in extreme conditions. This system is intended only for purely practical use in the permanent conduct of hostilities, the fight against terrorists and criminals, the search and physical destruction of Nazi criminals, etc.

At the same time, after meeting at a special seminar with instructors from educational institutions of the Israeli police, we came to the conclusion that the foundation of the technical and tactical training of “Krav Magi” is karate-do of the applied Old Okinawa direction. Moreover, this type of Far Eastern martial art is very popular in Israel. This is, first of all, the goal-setting of the preparation – to inflict the maximum possible defeat on the enemy in the shortest possible time period. This tactical aspect is achieved only through attack tactics “in the cut” or “ahead of schedule”. Here, as in traditional karate-do and judo, the enemy’s mass and dynamics are also used. The strikes are defeated, including through work on the most vital areas of the human body (throat, groin, etc.). The principles of spontaneity, naturalness and simplicity of the ancient Taoists, on the basis of which the technical arsenal of techniques of medieval Okinawa-te was built, is also easily traced by the specialists of Krav Magi.

Shock technique, as in karate-do, is the basis of this direction of hand-to-hand fighting. Throwing technique is used as an auxiliary aspect. The fight in the stalls is carried out through the defeat of pain points (bumps, grips with a twist, bites, etc.), with the task of breaking the grips and quickly reaching the rack. The fight in the stalls, in the wrestling understanding of this type of duel, according to Imi Lichtenfeld, is considered suicide.

A lot of attention is paid to working with various types of cold and improvised weapons. But if, for example, karate-do or w-shu is often used quite exotic, and sometimes even theatricalized by today's standards weapons: “kama” (Japanese – sickle) or “sai” (Japanese – trident dagger) in karate Before, a halberd or a medieval sword in Wushu, the Israelis prefer real everyday weapons or objects of modern everyday life. These are fittings, belts, broken bottles, stones, sticks, chairs, umbrellas, boards, wires, adjustable wrenches, screwdrivers, shovels, scissors, backpacks and bags, forks, chains, garbage can covers, etc. etc. That is, everything that is possible to produce a striking action or put to use as an alternative to a knife, to perform a throw with the task of feint or to kill, to use as protection against cold or striking weapons, and also to be used on a whip principle with further strangulation or fixation potentials. Naturally, the masters of “Krav Magi” perfectly master the techniques of knife fighting. Like all applied systems of hand-to-hand training, there are also present here, developed on the basis of Far Eastern trainings, various methods of special psychophysiological training.

The uniqueness of the Japanese nation’s self-awareness lies in its enormous industriousness and disposition to general order, respect for parents who are older in age and rank, as well as following ancient traditions, primarily in the national religion – Shintoism, which in turn is quite original combined with cutting-edge computer technology. The main feature of the population of the “Land of the Rising Sun” is a permanent and all-consuming acmeological worldview. Everything that the Japanese do not (industrial production, tea drinking, agriculture, calligraphy, pedagogy, etc.), he seeks to bring to perfection. Moreover, this process often acquires such forms of self-giving and self-sacrifice, which simply shocks representatives of Western civilization.

Naturally, the foregoing is fully projected onto the Japanese pedagogical system of hand-to-hand training of future police officers. The moral and psychological component of this area of professional training of all Japanese power structures is based on the commandments and techniques of the samurai (the military nobility of medieval Japan). These commandments are based on various religious and philosophical teachings of the Far East: Confucianism, Taoism, Zen Buddhism and Shintoism. These teachings are uniquely intertwined and mutually enrich each other for many centuries. The foundation of the technical, tactical and physical training here defines two Japanese martial arts – karate-do and judo, both in applied and in sports interpretation. It must be added that at the moment karate-do and judo are an integral part of the physical education training programs of all educational institutions in Japan.

In karate-do a unique pedagogical technology of the competitive method of sports training has been developed. At the initial stage of the training process, the so-called “conditional” fights for one attack, two, etc. are used. A special place in the training of cadets (students) is occupied by simulated training battles, in the course of which either individual elements of the battle or a meeting according to a predetermined plan are carried out. It is believed that simulated fights are a laborious intermediate stage in the transition from mastering technical actions at the initial stage of training to free competitive fights. In the process of this type of battle, the ability to respond to subtle movements of the opponent is practiced, as quickly as possible to switch to various combat stances, from which one or another technique can be conducted. To simulate a fight, the defender is given the task of applying strictly defined protective actions, it is regulated to respond to a particular technique that is performed by the attacker. These actions bring this type of duel closer to real free fights, when the actions of rivals are unpredictable. To enhance the training effect in simulated fights, various methodical techniques are usually used: fights of cadets of different weights, different fitness, different height, with limited area of movement, etc.

Then at a more advanced stage “semi-free” fights are also used for one, two, etc. attacks. This method of forming skills and raising abilities, unlike the previous one, consists in dynamic modes of conducting a conditional duel.

And finally – the integral method: free duel in non-contact, limited-contact and full-contact versions; conducting fights with several opponents in various tactical and operational conditions: “conveyor”, “corridor”, “in development”, “in consumption”, etc.; fights at venues of various sizes and coatings: hard, soft, slippery, uneven, as well as in a limited space and lighting.

In the educational and competitive process of modern karate, there is the Old Okinawan “tsumai” methodology (Jap. – wave going forward). Tactically, a sports duel consists in moving two rivals only forward, towards each other. Any movement backward or to the side is considered a loss” (Uskov, 2017).

Another type of competitive method of karate and judo is "en-boo" (jap. – conditioned duel). This is a pre-programmed training battle, where, as a rule, either one on one or one against two. Opponents perform various techniques, including with weapons, which, due to their high, even fatal, injuries, cannot be used in sports fights, but nevertheless they are often used by Japanese criminal investigation officers in the process of professional activity.

In this direction, each of the rivals alternately uses attacking, then counterattacking, then defensive actions. This contributes to the formation of tactical skills as quickly as possible change defense-attack-counterattack and contrariwise.

According to Japanese experts, permanent training sports fights bring up, first and foremost, self-control of psychophysiological and intellectual components, which in turn develops a personal algorithm of technical and tactical movement actions of a real battle.

The educational process of developing technical and tactical skills and special qualities of future Japanese police officers is identical to the classical technologies of sports training: training, that is, the formation of primary skills at the level of conscious performance of motor actions, and the desire for acmeological peaks of professional competence – improving acquired skills to the level of anticipation or super skill. This degree of training involves holding force at the subconscious level with the anticipation of the enemy’s active actions. The specifics of pedagogical technologies of hand-to-hand training of police schools in Japan is that the improvement stage is prevailing and based primarily on the pedagogical principle of strength, in other words, a permanent, varied and mutually complemented process of returning to the basic elements of technology, tactics and biomechanics.

Special psychological training is completely interconnected with other components of the educational process, and is diametrically different from training systems in other countries of the world. Here again it is necessary to return to the peculiarities of the historical and political development of the “Land of the Rising Sun”. We, at one time, carried out a rather deep analysis of the religious and philosophical foundation of Japanese society, the basis of which was composed in its own unique military nobility – the samurai, with their main acmeological code Bushi-do.

So, “the perfect samurai, during all the centuries of the formation and perfection of this military estate, was to serve as the personification of canonical Confucian virtues, endowed with the strength and fury of an impeccable warrior. Grown in the midst of pantheistic rites and holidays of the Shinto religion, having absorbed Confucian theories of life goal-setting with their mother’s milk, having gone through a tough school of Zen and Taoist psychophysiological training, samurai from childhood were formed as “knights without fear and reproach”, able to go to the “mountains of swords” and die in battle, relying on the basic religious and philosophical law of Busi-do – the law of honor. Before this law fear and admiration, tenderness and repentance, passion and hatred – all that meets the natural human feelings, receded into the background. Over time, the samurai became a superman in the Nietzschean understanding of this philosophical definition. His self-consciousness was a sword, his professional activity was war, his constant pursuit was the pursuit of excellence in exercises, both in martial art and in other activities of a representative of the nobility (poetry, painting, etc.). Religious philosophy entered into his nature under the roofs of Shinto shrines and Zen temples during hours of meditation and training. Physical and psychological perfection, the exaltation of aspirations and thoughts, moral purity – this was the image of a true samurai” (Uskov, 2019).

So, it’s quite natural that the modern Japanese criminal investigation officer differs from his colleagues in the profession from other countries with a very peculiar look at the value of his own life. Here, again, as in everything, the Japanese acmeological uniqueness is manifested – contempt for death, perfected, fanatical aggressiveness, an all-consuming awareness of dominance over the enemy. It is understandable that all this leads to the fact that in the process of force detention, the Japanese police officer achieves a positive result, ignoring nothing, even, under exceptional circumstances, and his own life.


We examined the specifics of hand-to-hand and physical training of future officers of the criminal investigation department of various countries with advanced scientific technologies for the development of society. In general terms, the differences between the educational process of these educational institutions of the police and the domestic higher school of the Ministry of Internal Affairs were summarized.

Firstly, in all the foreign countries we have examined, hand-to-hand training of power structures is a separate subject, and physical training is either a separate subject, primarily in the West, or an integral component of the fundamental foundation in the Far East.

But in higher education institutions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, not only does the name have a one-sided interpretation – “Combat techniques”, the very direction of hand-to-hand training is considered to be a component of physical education (Khabarov, 2018).

Secondly, the sport-training process of hand-to-hand combat, namely its methodological aspects, practically do not differ between the army, the police and the security service, which in turn speaks of the universalization of the entire process of professional hand-to-hand training competently organized from the standpoint of scientific didactics.

In Russia, these training systems are fundamentally different. There is an explanation for this. Due to the fact that the laws regarding the admissibility of the use of hand-to-hand combat techniques, and even the goal-setting of the activities of a police officer (police), have not changed since the Soviet Union, the tasks of hand-to-hand training are "slightly" different.

Thirdly, all pedagogical systems of hand-to-hand training of future police officers in Germany, Israel, the USA, Japan and other countries of the civilized world are based to one degree or another on the methods of judo and karate-do, which in turn speaks of a global pedagogical and combat the potential of these Far Eastern martial arts.

In Russian higher education institutions, karate-do and judo techniques are also used, but because of many reasons such as the “narrow-mindedness” of views, ignoring the laws of sports pedagogy, misunderstanding of the prospects of using a personality-oriented approach, fear of positive and extremely necessary criticism of the highest command staff of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the educational process using technical and tactical elements of the Far Eastern martial arts is becoming one-sided and "flawed" character. For example, in the training programs (Khabarov, 2018) for the preparation of future opera commissioners of the criminal investigation department, there are no sections on the training of striking techniques in hand-to-hand fighting.

Fourth, the psychophysiological component of hand-to-hand training, not only, as in Russia, is declared verbally and in documents (Khabarov, 2018), but also in reality is a fundamental aspect of this professional training. And it’s very effective, given the fundamental trainings of the ancient Taoists and monks of Buddhist monasteries in the direction of Zen (Chan).

Fifth, in all countries, professional training in hand-to-hand combat takes the form of a sports-training process, with widespread use, especially at the final stages of training, of the competitive method of sports training, in its various variations. Moreover, in free full-contact fights, various protective equipment is used (helmet-mask, vest, bandage, etc.) We don’t have this at all, which once again proves the urgent need to “sportize” the entire educational process of hand-to-hand training of the Russian police high school.

If you do not take into account the minor controversial moments of hand-to-hand training in foreign police schools (for example, a large percentage of the time devoted to fighting in the stalls among Americans), then the only, but global, negative aspect of training in foreign countries, as this may seem paradoxical, is morally – educational moment. With all the understanding of the urgent need for highly specialized work on the result in the preparation of operational criminal police officers, work on defeats under any circumstances, just hiding behind the law, seems to us to be incompatible with the Russian moral mentality. An officer of Russia, including the criminal investigation department, is not a spiritless super soldier of a Hollywood action movie. This is the color of the nation, the foundation of the state. For all the obsolescence of the goal-setting and methods of the Soviet police, one cannot be taken away from that system. It was precisely the police (fr. –) whose main goal was protection, and not just punitive measures. Naturally, the current situation in the Russian Federation is completely different than it was under the Soviet Union, but still you should not stoop to the moral level of the Anglo-Saxons or Japanese. They are no worse and no better than us. We are different. Therefore, all positive components of professional hand-to-hand training of foreign countries must be used, while taking into account the historical, philosophical, social and mental specifics of Russia.


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Uskov, S. V. (2021). Comparison Of Pedagogical Descriptions Of Hand-To-Hand Combat Training In Police Higher School. In D. K. Bataev, S. A. Gapurov, A. D. Osmaev, V. K. Akaev, L. M. Idigova, M. R. Ovhadov, A. R. Salgiriev, & M. M. Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Knowledge, Man and Civilization - ISCKMC 2020, vol 107. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 2597-2608). European Publisher.