Play In The Process Of Forming A Secondary Linguistic Personality


This article discusses play as one of the most exciting learning activities. Trends in the modern methodology of teaching Russian as a foreign language are characterized by the active use of interactive and multimedia teaching aids, and a student-centred approach to teaching Russian as a foreign language comes to the fore. In the course of a language game, a secondary language personality is formed, which, as we know, includes several levels. Our work presents the classical model of the "secondary linguistic personality" by Yu.N. Karaulova, the game techniques aimed at working on the formation of all levels of the secondary linguistic personality are analyzed. Particular attention in the article is paid to the filling of the third stage of the concept of Yu.N. Karaulov and the consideration of language game technologies aimed at the formation of the motivational level. Also, in this work, the ways of forming the lingua-cognitive level of a linguistic personality are considered. Since it is the filling of this stage that forms the understanding of the "Russian" picture of the world with its hierarchy of values. The game allows creating in the classroom such conditions in which the application of the knowledge gained, not only lexical, grammatical but also cultural knowledge will be necessary. The work will provide examples of language games that can be used in the lessons of Russian as a foreign language. The results of this research can be used not only in teaching but also in courses on cultural linguistics.

Keywords: linguistic personality, secondary linguistic personality, cultural linguistics, language game, RFL methodology


Language is a unique phenomenon; language is both a cause and a process, and a result. Undoubtedly, each native speaker has his characteristics. However, based on the analysis of the speaker's speech, we can talk about collective characteristics. Thought and language are inextricably linked, the system of language is formed by the way a person thinks, and the language itself affects the way of thinking. It is this postulate that underlies the concept of a linguistic personality. Let us consider the classical system of the linguistic personality of Yu.N. Karaulova (1987):

Table 1 - Linguistic personality system
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Based on the system of linguistic personality in the 1990s, I.I. Khaleeva used the term "secondary linguistic personality", which includes the study and acceptance of someone else's (different) mentality, a different strategy and practice of life, a different way of understanding information concerning all aspects of life (Khaleeva, 1995). So, in this work, we propose to consider the language game as one of the ways to form all levels of the language (secondary) personality.

Problem Statement

Modern manuals and teaching materials provide a considerable number of options for working with the filling of all levels of linguistic personality. Playing in Russian as a foreign language lesson is undoubtedly the most exciting way of working. Game qualification in teaching is based on the main goal and pedagogical characteristics. However, are all types of games equally well suited for the formation of the secondary linguistic personality of a student at different stages of learning?

Research Questions

A student who finds himself in entirely new conditions for him is in the process of cultural, psychological, social adaptation, which reduces his communication activity. The modern methodology of teaching Russian as a foreign language from the first days of study is aimed precisely at enhancing communicative competencies. Thanks to games, it becomes possible to remove the language barrier, create a special friendly atmosphere in the group, and the game contributes to the creative development of the student.

Purpose of the Study

The work aims to consider some of the existing classifications of games, to draw a parallel between game schemes and the formation of a secondary linguistic personality.

Research Methods

When carrying out the research, we used contextual analysis, linguocultural method, and frame analysis to consider linguistic forms of expression of mental images of real situations.


Modern standards of education, which are based on a personality-oriented approach, change the role of the student, increasingly involving him in the pedagogical process. Suppose we are talking about teaching the Russian language to international students studying in the Russian Federation. In that case, it is important to note not only the positive aspects of being in the language environment. At first, the student is in absolutely new conditions for him, which cannot but affect his psycho-emotional state. At all levels of language acquisition, our main task is to involve the student in communication, overcoming the language barrier. It is to solve the problems that language games are successfully used.

Currently, researchers note the extraordinary popularity of computer games that involve people in a different reality. Their influence on behaviour, reactions and decreased communication activity in real life is undeniable (Jie, Sherry, 2020); a teacher should make many efforts to bring students out of the world of computer games into the world of real-life, communication in the target language, replacing the behavioural exercises of games with mental ones (Huizenga et al., 2019).

Let us take a look at the classification of games, their purpose and function. In pedagogy, language games can be divided into reproductive and productive; teaching, educational, training, communicative, cognitive, diagnostic. Methodologists also highlight the main functions of games: socializing (which is the main one at the initial stage of training), entertaining, communicative, didactic (Ponkratova, Kobernik, Omelyanchuk, 2017). It is important to remember that a game is a recreation of a conventional reality; it has its own rules and goals. The student must make great efforts to perceive, understand and use new material in speech activity. That is why the game cannot be a spontaneous phenomenon, and the rules for its compilation and implementation must be taught, including teachers (Gabdulkhakov, 2016).

The system of linguistic personality Yu.N. Karaulova (1987) underlies the system of the secondary linguistic personality. For convenience, we will call the levels "first", "second", "third". All levels are interconnected, but there is no direct relationship; for accurate conclusions, a detailed analysis of each level separately is a need. At the first level of the formation of a secondary linguistic personality, students master the structural and systemic connections of the Russian language in the parameters of the system-forming function of the language, aimed at solving communicative problems. Moreover, at this level, the teacher can apply a play method based on motivation to speak. Games create the ability to reuse cliches and forms of speech, which allows bringing speech skills to automatism. We have already talked about the inextricable relationship between thinking and language. A thought precedes any word spoken in a foreign language.

This means that teacher's task is to organize the game in such a way as to induce the student to think and turn to other participants in the game to clarify information. The difficulty level of the game is an important issue. The simpler the game, the better; dividing the entire study group into mini-groups makes it possible to show the creative potential of each student without hesitation and fear of making a mistake. At this stage, the main games are games to enrich and develop vocabulary. Combined forms of games and teaching methods (including problem-based teaching) are used (Kocharyan, 2018). Let us consider an example of games used in the formation of the first level of the secondary linguistic personality. The first and most crucial game is, of course, the dating game. Before starting the game, the teacher needs to make sure that all students understand the task; write on the board the vocabulary and constructions that the participants may need, and, most importantly, do not interfere with the students' speaking. For an example of work, the teacher is the first to start the game and build his message by constructions. The game for students aims to memorize all students in the group. The teacher's goal is to fit the game into the thematic lesson plan, to work out acquaintance constructions, to captivate students with the game. Another version of the first level game: "Who is this?" Questions are written on the board, which students must answer in writing on the cards, without duplicating the question. Then the cards are collected and shuffled. The teacher selects one card, reads the question on the board and the answer from the card. The task of the rest of the participants in the game is to guess whose answer the teacher read and explain their choice. Another option for building a language game is discussion. A question is written on the board, thematically related to the lesson, all students are invited to express their opinion using introductory constructions that need to be worked out.

At the second, lingua-cognitive, level of formation of the secondary linguistic personality, we can fully use riddles, proverbs and sayings, because, at this level, we are engaged in the formation of an idea of ​​the hierarchy of values ​​of the people, we consider concepts, ideas, concepts that add up to an ordered picture of the world. One of the students' favourite games at this level is the Totem game, in which students are asked to name an animal that matches the description on the card (or on the board). This game contributes to the development of linguocultural competences. On the card with the characteristics of "cunning, clever", students from China answer "dog", from India "elephant", from Mexico "cat", and Vietnam "ferret", while Russian students answer "fox". Students' answers are recorded, later teacher can move on to a discussion about the difference in the semantic content of lexemes that verbalize certain qualities. Another version of the game on the second level: "What's wrong?" Picture cards are passed from hand to hand one by one. After the card is returned to the teacher, the students express their options. For example, a picture: a young girl is lying on the stove, through the window the participants can see the sun at its zenith and an older man working in the garden; what's wrong? Or a picture: a guy carries a bunch of flowers in his hands, an older woman walks next to her with heavy bags in her hands; what's wrong? This type of game trains response skills is educational, develops the skill of composing a descriptive text. The above examples are elementary when working with cards with more complex content. Students receive additional information about the nature, life, traditions and realities of the life of native speakers of the target language.

The third, motivational, level at which the motives and goals of personality development are revealed, their texts are created, and their worldview is formed. Moreover, at this level, of course, we can use more types of games, these are role-playing games and discussion games, games for the development of creative abilities, motivational. An example of one of the options is as follow: "Desert Island". Words and phrases related to the thematic plan are written on the board (card), for example, "matches", "bottle of water", "book", "fan", "binoculars". The teacher reads out a description of the situation: "You are on a desert island, you have three things from the list in your backpack, what things would you like to see in your backpack and why?". Alternatively, another version of the game at this level: a statement for discussion: "The son must continue his father's work"; "Anyone can become an artist"; "Preserving ancient architecture is the best heritage" and other topics for discussion.


Game activity is one of the types of joint activities where the roles of the student and teacher are equalized; this creates comfortable conditions for a successful educational process. Despite the seeming ease of use, the teacher needs to keep in mind several important points. The game is an organized activity, which means that it has clear rules.

Any educational activity has a goal, and teachers must clearly understand what skill the students are working on, what competencies are being formed (Bolotov, Serikov, 2003). Also, during the game, it is worth moving away from the generally accepted assessment system, it is crucial to convey to each student that he did a great job, and in the course of the game everyone won. The game itself should make thought a necessity because, before a word in a foreign language, there is always a mental effort. The teacher himself must be involved in the game, participating in the game on an equal basis with the students.

With the help of the use of a language game in the educational process, it becomes possible to bring speaking skills to automatism, to consolidate the material passed, to improve the psycho-emotional mood of students, to reduce their anxiety and fearfulness. There are so many options for games that it is possible to choose a game for any section of the thematic plan, for any lexical and grammatical topic. Thanks to this type of educational activity, it is possible to deepen the knowledge of students, to give more information about the nature of the Russian people, its traditions, realities and life, which will undoubtedly help the process of forming a secondary linguistic personality.

Acknowledgments [if any]

The publication has been prepared with the support of the “RUDN University Program 5-100”.


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17 May 2021

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Igorevna Rubakova, I. (2021). Play In The Process Of Forming A Secondary Linguistic Personality. In D. K. Bataev, S. A. Gapurov, A. D. Osmaev, V. K. Akaev, L. M. Idigova, M. R. Ovhadov, A. R. Salgiriev, & M. M. Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Knowledge, Man and Civilization, vol 107. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 2429-2434). European Publisher.