At the present stage of the development of society, the problem of personal security that implies creation and implementation of conditions to preserve health of young people, formation of culture of health preservation as a basic structural element of personal security is of high relevance. A person develops a positive attitude towards healthy lifestyle and thus forms culture of health preservation as an integral part of the national security of the state. To solve the problem of formation of culture of health preservation in students, it is necessary to consistently introduce methods for development of the basics of healthy lifestyle, a value-based attitude to one’s health in the educational programs. Studies of students’ motivational-value orientations towards formation and preservation of health, their physical and physiological state during educational and training sessions, analysis of the medical record of occupational diseases of future musicians determine the content of PE lessons. A program for formation of culture of health preservation in students (through the example of music universities) is proposed. It suggests formation of the basics of health preservation in the system of professional training of students, and integration of sports activities and professional music education of students. The author’s course in Physical Education consists of six logically and professionally oriented groups: general physical training, professionally applied physical training, physical exercises with local muscular loads of musicians, exercises to regulate neuro-emotional tension, and other exercises.
For the modern Russian society at the current stage of development, a challenging task is to develop a system of large-scale measures to solve the problem of public health in general, and to form culture of health preservation in young people in particular. Conceptual approaches should be found to ensure health preservation and develop a health preservation system for young people. The problem can be solved with participation of all parties involved in education and development of student’s personality: the state as a guarantor of the education quality; the educational system that formulates goals and methods for development of culture of health preservation; student oriented towards a healthy lifestyle and personal safety (Bezotosov & Kolomok, 2008).
Physical inactivity largely initiates development of many chronic diseases, which ultimately determine the level of deterioration in physical and psycho-emotional health of young people, which leads to adverse economic and social effects (Durstine et al., 2013). Scientists note that physical inactivity is a problem in the global healthcare system due to its negative impact on health. This situation needs a change in the structure of health preservation; it needs new approaches to organizing a socially health-improving model, which would develop effective and culturally appropriate measures to promote formation of the basics of personal health preservation (Lia & Lijuan, 2019). Transition to new well-organized projects and advanced educational practices that are concerned with development of a value-based attitude of young people towards their health will ensure the success (Stukalov, 2018).
Questions are raised about the ways and directions to form culture of health preservation, about its structural components and methods of the general system aimed at formation of the basics of a healthy lifestyle in children and adolescents (Akhmetvalieva & Kim, 2019).
To date, a significant basis has been created to solve the social problem of health preservation in young people, and priority areas have been identified. Zhuravleva (2005) comprehensively analyzed the factors that change the attitude of adolescents to health-improving activities, and concluded that health care is rather an element of culture than a product (or object) of the health care system.
Semenkova (2013) developed ways and forms of upbringing key habits of a healthy lifestyle, designed a conceptual model of health preservations for young people. The basic methods to foster culture of health preservation in students as a way of personal safety are described in studies by Bezotosov and Kolomok (2008).
However, the practice of the technologies used to form students’ positive motivation for a healthy lifestyle and responsibility for physical and emotional state is not properly tested and not very effective.
In this regard, the main objective is to motivate educational institutions for consistent formation of health preservation culture, personal safety and health protection in young people. This primarily concerns people of creative professions who should be in good physical shape and with well-educated culture of health preservation to achieve success. Therefore, it is important to regularly and systematically improve the physical and emotional state of future musicians.
Education and training should focus on the formation of a personal concept of physical and spiritual security, and responsibility for their health (Bezotosov & Kolomok, 2008). The study of the motivational and value attitudes of students towards the problems of personal health preservation, medical records of professional functional disorders in future musicians, and measurement of physical and physiological development in the course of professional development play a significant role. Timely implementation of the leading provisions of Federal State Educational Standards and digital teaching technologies reveals the importance of diagnostics of the functional and emotional state of future musicians, which should be carried out at all stages of the educational process in order to select programs adequate to the professional training system with their further correction.
We assessed the somatic health of students in accordance with the Order of the Committee for Physical Education (No. 292/257 of 07.19.96) and the Ministry of Health, which recommends diagnosing the level of physical fitness and health indicators of students.
1. Sociological methods were used (interview, author’s questionnaire – a questionnaire of students’ motivational-value attitudes towards health and a healthy lifestyle).
2. Methods to assess the physical fitness of students: modified standard methods that determine the level of development of physical qualities and motor abilities.
3. Medical records of students were analyzed.
Purpose of the Study
Many scientists consider the control of the physical and emotional state of future musicians, and monitoring the variability of the development of their general physical fitness in the process of formation health-preservation knowledge and skills as the basis for creating conditions for achieving high professional results.
Based on the indicators of diagnostics of the physical fitness and level of formation of the value attitude of students to personal health preservation, educational program for culture of health preservation in professional development of future musicians was corrected, and the stages of the formation of culture of health preservation in future musicians in terms of personal safety were developed.
Motivational and value priorities of students in the formation of the basics of personal health were studied using the author’s questionnaire Healthy Lifestyle designed to determine the leading motives for personal health preservation among students of 1–3 year of study, and preferences in the formation of a healthy lifestyle (HLS). The questionnaire provides 14 open and closed questions. The questionnaire suggests multiple choice questions. There are also essay questions to provide a short answer. They exclude hints or prepared answer options. Students have the opportunity to express personal views in detail and as completely as possible (Konyaeva, 2016).
Speed endurance level of students (index of sufficient endurance)
The speed endurance of students was determined using the formula developed by the authors – the index of sufficient endurance. The formula can be used to measure special physical endurance in sports medicine, physical exercises in an aerobic-anaerobic mode. The subject covers a long distance at different speeds but with a given rhythm and within a certain time period. The distance covered by the subject against clock is calculated, a formula is used to calculate the index of sufficient endurance:
EI = t1 – (tave– tsh n + tsh n1),
where t1 is the time for a long distance at a given rhythm;
tave is average distance time;
tsh is time for short distance;
n is the quotient of the average distance divided by short distances;
n1 is the quotient of the long distance divided by short distance (Konyaeva, 2016).
To measure the level of physical fitness of students of music universities, test exercises with specified control indicators were used (Table 1).
Motivational and value priorities of the students were identified by the questionnaire, which included the issues of health formation and maintenance. Students receive information on the problem under study mainly from the media gain the knowledge from parents, teachers, and friends, i.e. are guided by external motivators. Personal initiative to develop healthy lifestyle habits is not indicated in the musicians’ answers. First-year students mentioned factors that negatively affect the decision to take care of their health. This list includes demanding teachers in the specialty; a large amount of information for mastering theoretical courses; communication with friends. Many students understand personal responsibility for neglecting health issues.
Information on topical issues of maintaining health is acquired by students, in most cases without certain logic, from the media, the Internet, and from friends. The responses of second-year students indicate their negative attitude to physical education and intention to deal with health issues in older ages. Among the reasons indicated by students as hindering physical education and health improvement, the leading position is occupied by busy schedule, revision for seminars, music competitions. In our opinion, students are not active in PE classes due to their inability to manage their study and rest time. In addition, there is the lack of motivation that encourages students to do exercises in their free time and to focus on health. By the third year of study at the university, future musicians begin to realize the importance of adhering to a healthy lifestyle, since underestimation of health care yields adverse consequences. In the third year of study, students create a personal program for implementation of health projects based on the examples of friends, teachers, media persons.
According to the medical records of students, diseases of the musculoskeletal system (scoliosis) rank first among health problems (86.5–93.7 %) followed by hand diseases (dyskinesia, Raynaud’s disease, neuromyositis, etc.) (2.3–16.8 %), muscle diseases (muscle neuralgia, muscle spasms of various forms and complexity) (4.7–58.2 %), and vascular diseases of the lower extremities (1.5–2.6 %). From 4.8 to 31.2 % of students suffer from respiratory diseases; diseases of the vocal cords (14.5 %), stomatitis (59.9–63.8 ), the gastrointestinal tract disorders (17.3%–45.1 %).
Control tests performed to determine the general physical fitness of students showed:
- girls experience difficulties in performing strength exercises – push-ups (wrong initially position, weak muscles of the arms). Technically the exercise can be performed correctly, but the pace of execution is lost, and fatigue sets in. Boys showed satisfactory results in push-ups from the floor (70 %), and the average number of push-ups equaled 19;
- 14 % of students were unable to do coordination exercises (tossing a coin from one hand to another vertically at a distance of 40 cm), 11 % of the total number of students performed the exercise at a poor level. Certain mistakes were noted during training: exact adherence to the vertical between the arms, one arm deviated, unwanted arm tension, lack of coordination between the arms, emotional excitement;
- 37 % of students did not cope with speed exercises, 39 % of girls and boys performed the exercise at a poor level. These groups of students performed the exercise slowly (time limits were not observed);
- indicators of the endurance of students made it possible to form 2 groups. One group performed exercises at a relatively good level (more than 30 %), and the second group performed exercises at a poor level (67 %).
Thus, performing the exercises, students-musicians experience emotional frustration and difficulties in observing the time limits and switch to a convenient pace, thereby disrupting the set pace (pace is intensive at the first stages, then it slows down).
Based on the data obtained, it was necessary to develop innovative ideas for PE class designing, which can objectively improve the quality of professional music education, to create the conceptual content for culture of health formation to provide an adequate level of sports, sports-humanistic and health-improving awareness.
To maintain professional performance, musicians need to maintain good shape, develop physical and emotional endurance. Therefore, the educational process of future musicians was based on a comprehensive pedagogical technology, with due regard to the features of their professionalization.
PE classes are a complex of complementary and logically subordinate directions:
- theoretical and formative direction – organizational design of the program of innovative technologies aimed to form general cultural competences in physical education, conduction of an integrative course Fundamentals of culture of health preservation in students, creative competitions;
- health-improving and regulating direction – creation of the basics of professionally-applied physical training for musicians (health running, swimming, sports games: volleyball, basketball, football, table tennis, badminton). The main idea is in the training principle of 'one sport per semester';
- health related sportization – solving problems of forming a value attitude to physical education and sports, popularizing a healthy lifestyle, implementing health-preserving programs;
- professionally oriented sporting – formation of culture of health preservation, realization of the cultural potential of sports, involvement of music students in the world of sports through participation in sports and game programs, projects, master classes and trainings in various areas of a healthy lifestyle;
- sports and music festivals – development, organization and running innovative sports and recreational events aimed at developing students’ physical skills and training for passing the RLD norms while playing (Konyaeva et al., 2018).
Practical PE classes are a system of six professionally oriented groups, which include general physical training, professionally applied physical training, physical exercises with local muscular loads, exercises to regulate neuro-emotional stress, exercises for independent extracurricular activities, assessment and self-control for physical condition.
General physical training includes exercises to improve health and restore the body after physical exertion. The exercises develop professionally important characteristics: physical development, development of external lability and adaptability, flexibility. Professionally applied physical training improves physical qualities, which determine the success of the professional formation of future musicians and ensure personal safety due to the development of endurance of the body as a whole. Physical exercises with local muscular loads ensure restoration of the functional capabilities of blood supply in actively working muscles. This complex of physical exercises is aimed at restoring the functionality of muscles and revitalization of the body as a whole. Exercises for regulating neuro-emotional stress contribute to normalization of stage excitement, development of potential and effective physical recovery of musicians. The key exercises in this complex are relaxation exercises, breathing exercises, exercises for muscles of the neck, head and facial muscles. Exercises for independent extracurricular physical education are necessary for normal functioning of the body. Stable positive motives form the desire to independently engage in physical training and sports. Gym clubs have become popular among students in recent years. Self-control over physical condition provides for independent observation of the state of body with regard to a number of objective and subjective indicators, showing the adequacy of training loads and their health-improving effectiveness.
Thus, physical education increases efficiency in the development of professionally applied skills and psychophysical qualities (preparation for public speaking, establishment of the performing apparatus, formation of motor skills), and adaptive capabilities and efficiency of the body.
Cultivation of culture of health preservation in students of music universities implies a complex of interrelated forms and methods of pedagogical activity. The structure of pedagogical measures for the formation of culture of health preservation consists of components that are logically built and create a prerequisite for fostering a system of personal safety in students. The conceptual approach to training of musicians is based on the main forms and means of physical education: theoretical classes, which provide an opportunity to master the necessary professional and applied knowledge about physical education; practical classes, which develop physical, motor and psychophysical skills and abilities required for further professionalization. The curriculum, in turn, is based on diagnostic data to evaluate physical development of students and their motivational and value attitude to health preservation, and to develop the format of physical education that is optimal for musicians.
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17 May 2021
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Konyaeva, M. A., & Akhmetvalieva, M. G. (2021). Diagnostic Basis Of Directions Of Culture Formation Of Health Preservation In Musicians. In D. K. Bataev, S. A. Gapurov, A. D. Osmaev, V. K. Akaev, L. M. Idigova, M. R. Ovhadov, A. R. Salgiriev, & M. M. Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Knowledge, Man and Civilization - ISCKMC 2020, vol 107. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 837-843). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.05.113