In a pedagogical reality the understanding is determined as one of leading principles of the organization of process of education which allows to systematize and comprehend earlier turned out pedagogical experience; promotes development of valuable semantic sphere of subjects of educational process; enables to carry out pedagogical activity on the basis of the valuable semantic communications basing consciousness of dialogue, defines intelligent behaviour of the person in modern society, promotes becoming of the conceiving, working and estimating person. In article problems of remote training through a prism of the understanding approach accenting attention on values and senses of professional pedagogical activity are examined. It is paid attention to technical and semantic specificity of remote training. Positions and reasons as apologets of online training, and critics of remote education are examined. Authors of article consider that the given discussions should lead to a birth actual practices online of teaching at preservation of alive dialogue, personal focused training. An empirical material in article became approbation of the practical tasks developed by authors («Article on film» and correspondence game on problem situations).
Keywords: Distance education technologieseducationremote training
Change of axiological part of person is peculiar to an epoch of a postmodernism. Values of the generation is socialized during globalization have pragmatical character. On the first place does not come the education but information and not casually N.Rotshild's phrase «who has the information that has the world» gets special sense in a modern information society.
Nevertheless education is a necessary component of the social and cultural changes occurring in a society. It always reflects those processes and problems with which the mankind in the historical development collides. It is possible to tell that education is the brightest parameter of those essential transformations which occur in public consciousness and in outlook of people. If to speak about specificity of modern education here it is necessary to take into account and change of the certain world outlook installations of modern young generation, and character of those common cultural processes and changes which education today collides. These two factors are inextricably related with development of digital technologies, Internet - culture which transform and even make impossible, out-of-date traditional methods of teaching. Classical lectures and the practical employments are constructed on a principle of didactic reading and submission of a material by the lecturer, leave in the past. This circumstance forces to look in a new fashion not only at process of teaching and understanding the pupil of the maintenance of a subject but first of all to pay attention to studying of outlook and needs of modern young generation and to put a problem of understanding the teacher of the person of the pupil. Thus, the problem of understanding in modern remote education is two-edged.
Modern socio-historical processes, situation of digital capitalism, procedure of constant acceleration of cultural dynamics give a push to formation of a new spectrum of educational strategy, first of all of the remote training. In this connection a subject of special attention and judgement should become ideas of personal focused education in their new embodiment in a situation postponed, mediated or absent dialogue of the teacher and the pupil. Fairly mark Pruzhinin and Shchedrina (2020): “Beyond the boundaries of modern humanitarian research is the very essence of the changes taking place under the influence of "media" in the phenomenon of education” (p. 98). Many researchers are seriously concerned that the "successful person" displaces the "ecological person" under the influence of digitalization of society and culture (Akhmetova, 2020; Akhmetova et al., 2020); the wide range of different risks (Rudskoy et al., 2019).
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the carried out research became diagnostics of the deep changes which have occurred with education as a result of introduction of remote interaction and also the scientific - methodical analysis and approbation of own technologies in a context of remote training.
Scale methodology in which borders we solve the put questionsis Wilhelm Diltey's understanding psychology which aims at a direct parity of experiences of an internal, sincere life of the individual with cultural - historical values surrounding him (Diltey, 2018).
The same scale paradigm is for us hermenevtic Hans Georg Gadamer's methodology which specifies on dialogical, focused on Another, character of understanding (Gadamer, 1998). The understanding mentions the most essential side of human relations.
Knowledgeis always as dialogue. As is known, this position for the first time has been found out by F.Shlejermaher, and then entered into methodology of sciences by M.M. Bakhtin who in the works marks: the opportunity of knowledge is incorporated that the person appears at the learning person as set of texts. Then pedagogical interaction becomes asking and conversation, i.e. dialogue (Bakhtin, 1995).
Also we base on the modern complex conclusions are made by researchers of pedagogics of understanding. Senko and Frolovskaya (2007).
In modern conditions development online of education is represented by some researchers a good choice, that is quite explainable with the occurred global changes of the essence of interpersonal interactions, process of reception of the information and knowledge. Positions of critics online of training also are clear and proved: «The comprehension of philosophy cannot be fully digitized since the ability to think cannot be formed without face-to-face interaction» (Kuznetsov, 2020, p.87). In our opinion, transformation has taken place irrevocable, therefore is extreme complaints about what effective classical education was and what unhuman modern education became are unproductive. We are imposed by the approach stated in the article of Serditova and Belotserkovsky (2020) which put forward a set of requirements to university educational programs in conditions of digital transformation and preparation of our youth for the future.
Listening to foreign experience and results of the analysis of strategy of university development, we will agree with the researcher declaring: “The expressions of the universities about digital transformation are coded under the category of diversity and flexibility of learning technologies, especially education theme and distance/open learning” (Kuzu, 2020, p. 9). Besides leading domestic methodologists fairly insist on necessity and timeliness of digital modernization of education (Tretyakova et al., 2020, р. 864).
The accelerated development of new receptions, technologies and ways is actual and essential that would help the modern teacher to carry out personal focused, prolonged, dialogue online training, achieving necessary levels of understanding.
Sociological monitoring of a modern condition of the Russian high schools forces competent researchers to declare confidently: “The digital transformation has affected all economically developed countries in the world including Russia” (Usacheva & Chernyakov, 2020, р. 61). In our opinion, transformation of education into sphere of manufacture changes not only shape, but also essence of university.
The modern university is built in economy that first of all is reflected in change of character of dialogue of the teacher and the trainee. It is critical adjusted Markov (2020) fairly declares: “Today in the market of educational services wins the one who wins in the fight for ratings” (p. 90). Requirements of profitability forces administration of high schools to increase loading of teachers and to reduce state of the professorial teaching structure. In an educational audience, real or virtual, it leads to that one teacher simultaneously enters "dialogue" with growing quantity of pupils. For the sake of justice it is necessary to recognize that basically such dialogue (one - the set aspiring to infinity) is possible, it is carried out when one (the producer or mediator of knowledge) turns to the text (art, scientific or educational) which is not ordinary on quality, novelty and originality.
So that such dialogue was carried out, made all necessary educational and upbringing effects, each teacher needs to learn to create either Shakespearian texts or to write textbooks that, undoubtedly, is utopian expectation. Therefore we count that indemnification of the lost alive dialogue should become practical tasks of the creative character motivating the pupil to creation of own product (in humanitarian sphere there are texts) adjoining with design activity. For example, in one of the online - rates is developed by authors of this article the section «Creative laboratory» is offered to students. The key task designing for multistage performance for an output of the student with own product on a new level is «The article on film». The student is offered to execute at own choice Science Research the part of the teacher cannot be authoritative, the situation of creativity is created, the reusable approach is meant to the created text at various levels (the recommendation of a choice of the literature, aspects of the analysis, check by the teacher, editing, preparation of the report and performance, presentation, preparation for the publication).
Besides dialogue is not only the fact of contact, but also listening to inquiring in the answer adequate, his alive reaction. Remote education is based on replacement of the teacher with the text (video, test, presentation, etc.), therefore dialogue is reproduced virtually, in consciousness of the trainee. The described practical task «The article on the text» is called to reanimate dialogue in new conditions of remote training. The choice of a material for formation of the given practical work has been dictated features modern screen culture.
We examine an art cinema as an educational resource already for a long time. In conditions of the compelled mass experiment online of training we have found out that the feature film (in particular, about the biography and creativity of the philosopher) is appeared that text as what at the first stage the teacher appears and his discipline at the modern pupil. But appearing on aesthetic "hook" the student is gradually involved in scientific creativity and intensive dialogue with the teacher.
We count the main problem of loss of alive dialogue that for the teacher the person of the pupil escapes, she is dissolved in weight; and for the pupil the person of the teacher escapes, she turns to the static universal text. In a situation of a global escaping of sense most sharply sounds a refusal of ancient Greek philosopher Sokrat of written fixation of his wisdom. The understanding of sense is that as after an ancient philosophy, in Christian metaphysics is designated by Spirit, it is carried out in interpersonal space of alive dialogue of two people.
Shatunova (2015), the professor of one of the oldest universities of Russia, is sure that the university lecturer, the teacher of philosophy is capable to influence process of simulation and escaping of a dialogue: «… any teacher while he still reads alive lectures and conducts alive, instead of electronic seminar employments, is capable to separate student's weight» (p. 298). We understand that return to classical lectures today is practically a Utopia, therefore we are in search of new forms. Understanding of the text as such is not the end in itself for the person, we address to art texts to understand Another. It became a methodological core of a practical work «The article on film».
In view of humanitarian educational paradigm ability to understanding and semantic creativity are one of the basic, deep features of the person. The idea of orientation on the person in the modern domestic pedagogical theory has found the realization in concepts person focused education. Personal focused education is characterized first of all by orientation to development of the person, her abilities to be the subject of educational process. The basic purpose and value of education thus becomes not «teaching to correct behaviour» and not formation at pupils «knowledge, skills», and first of all becoming of the person, finding by him, his image "I am", unique individuality and spirituality, the creative beginning.
In these conditions a task of sphere of education is creation of maximum full conditions for disclosing essence of the humanitarian knowledge which is focused on
The main condition of display of personal abilities in educational process Serikov (1999) counts creation personal focused situation (educational, cognitive, vital). It is such situation in which personal functions of the individual are staticized, that is the pupil gets in a situation when it is required to search for sense, to think of itself, to construct an image and model of the life, to choose a creative variant of the decision of a problem, to state a critical estimation to factors, etc. The Basic attention in the concept is given to pedagogical technology of creation person focused situations. Designing of such situation offers use of a triad "problem - dialogue-game". Elements of the maintenance of education are represented as personal focused
Ability to understanding designs the person, from it a dialogue is born with the world and with each other. Realization of personal functions occurs in conditions
Thus, it is found out that a condition of constructive scientific - cognitive activity of the teacher and the pupil in a context of online training is ability and an opportunity "to understand" the precondition of the most cognitive activity. This "understanding" is property of really working subject of knowledge, represents his subjective reality. It is important to emphasize that this «subjective reality» representing itself as a necessary condition of the decision of educational problems integrally enters into structure of scientific - cognitive activity as teacher as the pupil. Hence, the understanding as «real movement in senses», practical possession of these senses accompanies with constructive cognitive activity of the teacher and in a remote operating mode. Therefore the work directed on restoration of understanding or creation of new conditions of understanding, consists in formation of value-semantic sphere as way of transformation of digital technologies in toolkit of pedagogic of understanding.
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27 May 2021
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Saenko, N., Panova, E., Tjumentseva, E., & Baturina, L. (2021). Understanding In The Context Of Remote Training. In E. V. Toropova, E. F. Zhukova, S. A. Malenko, T. L. Kaminskaya, N. V. Salonikov, V. I. Makarov, A. V. Batulina, M. V. Zvyaglova, O. A. Fikhtner, & A. M. Grinev (Eds.), Man, Society, Communication, vol 108. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 772-778). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.05.02.98