In this work, the authors focus on the problem of the development of information and computer technologies in relation to the peculiarities of the development of the spiritual experience of society associated with folk culture and folk art. The article discusses the concept of “information society”, substantiates the processes of attention to folk culture and applied creativity on the example of the realities of the Russian school system. The society of post-industrial reality, as a rule, gets acquainted with information to a greater extent in a ready-made format and in an unlimited amount. This is both an advantage of informational reality and its disadvantage. With the increasing standardization of information resources, the problem of a lack of creative thinking arises. The creative beginning in the modern world of the predominance of finished information products is becoming a deficit in the spiritual experience of mankind. The basis for the development of creative potential is folk culture, folk traditions. In theoretical terms, acquaintance with them and their development reflects the worldview of society, and in practical terms, they form technologies (tools and techniques) for processing various materials. Introduction to folk art reveals personal and social qualities, forms the regional identity, necessary in the period of globalization. The authors revealed an imbalance in attention to issues of folk culture in comparison with the number of sections devoted to the personal information culture in the analysis of educational standards of the secondary school curriculum for the subject “technology”.
Keywords: Folk cultureinformation societymodern education
Nowadays, in the “age of the Internet” the world, society, values are changing. The spiritual world, the spiritual experience of mankind is experiencing the greatest transformation. Undoubtedly, general informatization has brought a lot of opportunities to possess information resources, social communication has improved, a promising circle of the person’s personal development has been revealed, the development of science and technology has intensified. The physical reality of a person often intersects with a virtual one according to professional necessity, during leisure and study. Therefore, modern life, traditionally perceived as real being, is no longer imagined without its virtual complementation for many people. How can we relate to this? This is a serious question, to which we will try to find the answer in the key of philosophical and ethno-pedagogical reflections on the development of modern society, on the criteria for its evolution, expressed in the preservation of the educational system, in the features of the transmission of information about the elements of the traditional way of life, a humanistic worldview, etc.
The objective of the study is to justify the need to adjust the development of information and computer technologies in the Russian education system, taking into account the crowding out of interest in folk traditions, folk art in the spiritual experience of modern Russian students and subjects of the information society as a whole. The objectives of the work is to identify the basic trends in the development of society in the era of informatization; designation of the role of folk culture of Russia in moral and aesthetic education; analysis of educational standards of the Russian school curriculum on technology education; determination of the realities of the study of folk art in the system of Russian education; revealing the correlation of the traditional spiritual experience of society in the conditions of information and computer technologies.
The scope of research includes issues of understanding the information society; development of upbringing and education in digital reality; substantiation of attention to traditional folk culture as a priority vector in national educational projects; understanding of the risks and threats of modern media education.
Purpose of the Study
The development of society in the era of informatization
The concept of “information society” appeared in the 1960s and designated society, in which the exchange of information predominates as a means of production. The development of scientific and technological progress, scientific and technological revolution in the XX-XXI centuries led to the fact that the meaning of the definition of the information society has become more complicated, affecting its goal-oriented characteristics (information as a development goal), the system-forming social composition of the trait (differentiation by the principle of ownership of information and communication technologies (ICT)) and the result of activities (changes in life related to ICT).
One cannot disagree with the opinion of Borovinskaya (2020), which revealed the criteria for the development of society in the conditions of informatization. “Since information resources have a very specific character of reproducibility and can be used by no means by all production entities, the proportions of the exchange of goods in a post-economic society are largely determined by such a parameter as rarity - rarity of a product, rarity of information processing abilities, rarity of knowledge, rarity of the optimal combination of traditional and new factors of production” (Borovinskaya, 2020, p. 61). Thus, the ability to use information and communication technologies is the criterion for successful socialization of a person. Under these conditions, the creativity of thinking and action is a condition for progress not only of the individual, but of the whole society. However, the formation of creativity of thinking is a complex worldview and educational process that occurs under the influence of various factors. Among them, perhaps the most significant role is played by upbringing and education, laid not only in the foundation of family values, but also in the content of many state regulations. Traditionally, the educational system and upbringing processes were based on the principles of folk culture, folk art, and the spiritual principles of society. The ambiguity of the assessment of modern media conditions for training and a critical look at them are represented by Mupinga (2017), Snyder (2018), Pruzhinin and Shchedrina (2020), Sokolov (2020), Markov (2020), Strebkov (2020), considering the societal risks of society while completely immersed in informational reality.
The role of folk art in moral and aesthetic education
Many scientists have identified the functions, purpose and influence of folk culture, folk art on the moral and aesthetic education of the younger generation. The role of folk culture in the development of society is considered by Clipa and Juravle (2017), Bennett (2018), Williams (2018), Hall (2018) and other authors. We agree with the conclusions of Hokanson (2016) and Jaeger (2016) that creativity is brought up with educational technologies as a skill, subject or value, being in the center of attention of pedagogy, and also with the fact that technological achievements impossible without creativity research.
Folk traditions and folk art are the basis of the spiritual culture of society, the foundation of many trajectories of upbringing and education, performing an important educational function, as well as being a resource for creative thinking. The educational experience of the past, expressed in folk pedagogy, is very important, because changes in the information world are so swift and specific that many people begin to worry about maintaining their regional identity. Therefore, an appeal to folk culture and traditions is advisable and possible both in the context of virtual reality and physical.
Analysis of educational standards of the Russian school curriculum on technology education
Students begin to get acquainted with elements of folk traditions and crafts in a comprehensive school, within the framework of such subjects as technology, drawing lessons and origins. These academic subjects help in solving the serious culturological task of education - familiarization with culture. However, if we analyze the educational standards of the school curriculum, we can note that the school subject “technology” has a different role. Modern society shifts the emphasis of technology development towards the study of finished information products. The ongoing processes of modernization of education are changing the approach to technological education. The concept of the school subject “technology” is being reconstructed, which focuses on the formation of such technological skills and universal types of activity (social technologies) as design, research, management.
The key idea of the new content of the technology course for the main school stems from a modern understanding of the essence of the concept of “technology”, which is based on the conceptual characteristics of this scientific and industrial category developed by the United Nations. This methodology defines the so-called “technology” in its purest form, based only on methods and techniques for the production of consumer material objects and services (dissembled technology). In addition, “technology” is interpreted as a mode of production and is considered as embodied technology. It covers production methods, qualifications of workers, machinery, equipment, structures, entire production systems, infrastructure, as well as products with high technical and economic parameters.
The realities of the study of folk art in the system of Russian education
The solution to the problem of studying technology in the framework of the national project "Education", as well as in the key of the "Modern School" project, involves the implementation of the "Technology Lesson" direction on the basis of high-tech equipment organizations, including on the basis of the Quantorium children's technology parks, which allow expanding the scope of the mechanisms of network interaction between educational entities in the course of educational programs. Of course, this leads to a reduction in the cost of organizing the educational process for teaching technology in other general educational organizations (schools).
Analysis of textbooks recommended for schools in the subject “Technology” edited by Kazakevich et al. (2020), indicates that the emphasis is on the modular structure of education in teaching technology, where the use of elements of folk culture and traditional crafts is possible only in the module “technology for obtaining, processing, transforming and using materials”, offered for classes in grade 5. In the remaining modules, the subject “technology” solves the issues of preparing students for professional activities, which in modern society are associated with an engineering and technological orientation, with mastering the tools of modern ICT.
Comprehending the national project “Education” in conjunction with the federal project “Success of every child” in the system of additional education, it should be noted that they have the task of educating a harmoniously developed and socially responsible person on the basis of spiritual and moral values of the peoples of the Russian Federation, historical and national cultural traditions. And in the framework of this project, the proportion of children covered by the system of additional education from 5 to 18 years old should be at least 80% by 2024 (Nacional'nyj Proekt "Obrazovanie", n.d.). It must be recognized that the system of continuing education in the Russian Federation does not currently cover as many students as it does in the study of a subject at school, and until 2024 a significant number of students will not be able to a priori be familiarized and fully associated with spiritual culture (in the aspect of acquaintance with folk arts) of our country. An urgent socio-economic and sociocultural issue is the situation with the fact that many parents cannot afford to educate their children in the supplementary education system, as part of the clubs and studios require tuition for a fee, or certificates of supplementary education.
The conclusion suggests itself that the modernization of Russian education in line with modern information technologies leads to the risk of impoverishment of the spiritual culture of the younger generation, the loss of a traditional worldview, and the loss of creativity in building up activity based on the endless possibilities of folk art.
Traditional spiritual experience of society in the conditions of information and computer technologies (pedagogical aspect)
The spiritual experience of society is created and developed exclusively in the process of communication, information transfer, disclosure of the emotional-sensual sphere. The study of applied folk traditions with which children get acquainted in institutions of additional education, partly as part of technology lessons, allows preserving historical and national-cultural traditions, as well as solving the problem of educating a harmoniously developed personality. It should be noted that when solving any pedagogical problems, such a thing as “pedagogical conditions” is distinguished considering the pedagogical aspect of this issue.
Pedagogical conditions are effective components of the pedagogical process with a targeted selection of elements of its content, methods and forms of training in achieving didactic goals. Important pedagogical conditions are: equipping classes with visual objects of folk art based on local regional material of decorative and applied art, and the application of modern information and communication technologies in the lessons. Products of arts and crafts are attractive, create an atmosphere of comfort and cause a desire to repeat this on their own. This is explained by the peculiarity of folk traditional crafts, when the product has an attractive "simplicity" of manufacture in appearance, due to the refinement of processing techniques of materials common in the region.
The use of ICT in technology lessons provides an increase in the effectiveness of the educational process. Computer learning tools are called interactive; they have the ability to “respond” to the actions of the student and teacher, to “enter” into dialogue with them, which is the main feature of computer training techniques. It is impossible to single out one condition that is currently effective and convenient, such as, for example, distance learning technologies and Internet information resources, because applied technological and artistic skills cannot be correctly formed only by a picture of a monitor, video information, or presentation without the help of a teacher. The teacher must find the possibility of using modern tools and complement the applied process of transferring knowledge about folk traditions, form the need for creativity in students and interest in original folk culture in real space.
The Internet space allows understanding and possibly adopting the experience of the masters of the artistic image, which is captured in the databases of the virtual world. However, on the other hand, it is impossible to absolutize the augmented world of virtual life as the only one possible for the development of modern society.
The socio-philosophical method and the method of theoretical analysis of pedagogical sources were used among the research methods of the problem under consideration. The socio-philosophical view of the culture, creativity and development of society is due to the studies of Meighoo (2020) and Williams (2018), Ionescu and Geanta (2018). Using the applied methods, the idea of an acute contradiction between the principles of the modern information society and the traditional value system in teaching technology lessons based on folk culture is substantiated.
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27 May 2021
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Culture, communication, history, mediasphere, education, law
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Kasatkina, S., & Garth, M. (2021). Additional Reality: National Traditions In The Spiritual Experience Of The Information Society. In E. V. Toropova, E. F. Zhukova, S. A. Malenko, T. L. Kaminskaya, N. V. Salonikov, V. I. Makarov, A. V. Batulina, M. V. Zvyaglova, O. A. Fikhtner, & A. M. Grinev (Eds.), Man, Society, Communication, vol 108. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 674-680). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.05.02.84