Informational Socialization Of Personality: Problems And Prospects
Information technologies breaking into a person’s life dictate different rates and rates of socialization. On the one hand, they allow him to accelerate and tighten the time of socialization, which meets the requirements of the information society, and on the other hand, psychologically and biologically, a person is not ready for such rapid changes. In the transition to informational forms of socialization of the individual, there are many positive and negative consequences for a person and society. Scientists have different opinions on this matter. The existing positions have a fairly wide range and sometimes even contradictory. Therefore, to systematize the existing points of view, their analysis, comparison and generalization is necessary in order to further develop research on the problems and prospects of information socialization of a person. The authors of the study analyzed and systematized the main positions of scientists on the problems and prospects of information socialization. In the conclusion of the research there is a generalization of the main debatable points of the problems and prospects of information socialization of modern society.
Keywords: Information societyforms of public relationssocialization of personalitysociocultural space
In modern conditions of development of the information society, technologies, forms of culture, social structures, forms of social relations, sociocultural space and other important elements of human life are fundamentally changing, thanks to which he overcomes the path from a potential person to a person. Historically, the forms of socialization of a person, i.e. those mechanisms through which a person masters social experience and adapts to the cultural system are transformed in accordance with civilizational changes. Such transformations are especially active precisely during the transition of civilization from the industrial to the informational stage of development. This is due to the fact that from stage to stage of civilizational development, the technology that underlies cultural change is updated every time faster. So, if archaic and agricultural technologies have existed for thousands of years, then industrial technologies have been updated for a century, and information technologies have been updated in less than ten years.
In the scientific and philosophical literature the discussion about the consequences and prospects of information socialization is gaining a wide range of positions today. There is a contradiction over which consequences and prospects are considered positive and which are negative. In different works one can find positions when one position is interpreted both as a problem and as a perspective. Therefore, this contradiction actualizes the need for analysis and systematization of existing points of view on the issue of prospects and problems of information socialization of a person.
The subject of the research is the point of view of modern scientists on the problems and prospects of information socialization. To systematize the positions of scientists on the problems and prospects of information socialization, it is necessary to determine the phenomenon of information socialization itself. Next, conduct an analytical review of publications on the identified problem and systematize the main views and positions on the problems and prospects of information socialization.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the research is to study, analyze and systematize the main positions of scientists on the problems and prospects of information socialization.
In the course of the study, we used the method of an analytical review of the opinions of scientists on the problems of information socialization (Bodrunov, 2018). To compare and generalize the discussion points, methods of analysis and generalization were used (Grishina & Volkova, 2019; Heather, 2017). In studying the possible transformations of the human generic qualities under the influence of information socialization, we used the results of scientific psychological and pedagogical studies of the Internet and other information technologies used in the process of social interaction in the information space (Clowes, 2019; Heersmink, 2016; Ichihara-Takeda et al., 2016).
Undoubtedly, informational socialization at the present stage of development of digital civilization is ambivalent. The fundamental question is the boundaries of its positive and negative sides for the future of humanity. If a person is destined to change, then information socialization successfully performs this task. But in which direction are the changes taking place? Will a person remain a person with a spirit, soul, spirituality, or is he destined to become a different creature?
One of the important problems of information socialization of a person lies in the fact that it is realized within the framework of new types of social relations - digitized. Speaking about the fact that a new technological revolution is taking place in modern society, many researchers emphasize the fact of a change in economic relations. The traditional forms of the economy are being replaced by the digital economy, introducing its own specifics into the formation of the features of the modern person's personality (Bodrunov, 2018; Kharlamov et al., 2019).
In the context of new forms of economic relations the role of production and consumption of simulated objects, which increase consumerism in the field of information services, is growing compared with material production. There is an increase in the knowledge component in the material product.
New forms of socialization of the individual suggest the transformation of the educational system from its earliest stages. Already from a preschool age, a modern child will have to master the experience of information interaction with virtual quasi-subjects. Games with peers are becoming less interesting than computer games in which you do not need to build relationships with real people. As you know, if any child is given the opportunity to choose the easy and difficult path, then he will choose the easy one. But this is the path of the animal, and not of man, of an opportunist, and not of a creator and creator.
A similar position is quite actively developing in other publications. The authors note that in the digital economy, the behavior of subjects of economic relations is changing, the percentage of virtual trade is increasing (Kmet & Krutyakov, 2019; Sudarushkina & Stefanova, 2017). In this regard, the conclusions of scientists are contradictory, because in some publications it is indicated that the virtualization of trade relations increases economic efficiency, while in others, the emphasis is on the fact that the subject's level of responsibility is reduced, and there are risks of economic crimes. For example, scientists are particularly concerned about the development of digital economic relations regarding the safety and risks arising in these relations, which require special training and education from entities. (Nemova et al., 2020).
Thus, it can be seen that the information culture, the foundation of which is education, is becoming the leading type of culture for modern man, which determines his ability to adapt and a high standard of living in the information society. Consequently, information socialization leaves no choice for the traditional subject - it requires continuous retraining from him, quick adaptation to the conditions of new economic relations. But there is a threat of loss of such human qualities as responsibility, conscience, decency, honesty, because consumerism and the ability to succeed at all costs become an important quality in such economic relations.
The second important problem of information socialization is that the information culture, creating a new kind of sociocultural space, forces a person to change at the level of psychology and anthropology. The generic essential qualities of a person are transformed: consciousness, language, activity and communication. This is due to the fact that information socialization involves the formation of personality in a network, and not just in a real society (Kislyakov et al., 2020).
The main feature of a network society is the presence of informal human relations in it, in contrast to the rigid hierarchy of real social relations of a traditional society. A person who is forced to live more in network structures must develop specific qualities that allow him to adapt to new conditions. This provokes changes in the forms of activity and communication, the forms of worldview and language. A unified subculture, language, and communication style are emerging in the online community. Culture, being a sociocode, has an informational nature. It is this circumstance that contributes to the fact that the information culture, forming a new sociocode, forces the modern person to transcode his own information world. There is a controversial opinion regarding this provision. The contradiction is that, on the one hand, information culture provides for the ability of the human mind to quickly process information and present it in the most simplified form to ensure the speed of information processes. On the other hand, such optimization leads to a depletion of the spiritual component of social relations. In the information society, slangs, clips, comics, tests, images, advertising, etc. are becoming popular. Easily and quickly acquired communicative primitive constructions. Education is replaced by information (Vaganova, Pavlova et al., 2020; Vaganova, Rudenko et al., 2020).
In the process of information socialization, a person develops to a greater extent isolated from real social ties (Grishina & Volkova, 2019). There is a short circuit to interact with information objects in the information environment. This, according to scientists, leads to the development of symptoms of autism and identity destruction, which formed in a real neighborhood with people at an early stage of socialization (Heather, 2017; Liu et al., 2020; Racine & Rousseau‐Lesage, 2017). If we remember that a person is, first of all, a creature capable of communication and activity based on consciousness and language, capable of reflecting the world in concepts and terms, many aspects of these qualities in the information world turn out to be superfluous. Communication and activity are subject-subjective and subject-object relations. In information socialization, these categories acquire a different meaning. Virtual subjects and objects with which a person interacts do not possess the generic qualities of the person himself, but can imitate them with one or another accuracy. Therefore, in the information socialization taking place in the information (digital) sociocultural space, the biological, physiological and psychological proximity of people, necessary for the formation of full-fledged social communication, disappears (Ignatiev, 2017; Micklos et al., 2020).
The transformation of the mechanisms of social communication and its transfer to the field of information culture, where the main means of communication, the environment and the conditions of socialization are informational imitations of real life, leads to a sharp increase in the psychological dependence of a person on similar methods of communication, which are taking on new forms (Musetti & Corsano, 2018). In addition, scientists are particularly worried that even in school and university programs, it is necessary to introduce subjects aimed at developing young people with special intellectual abilities aimed at mastering adaptation mechanisms to the information space (Heersmink, 2018).
These possible negative consequences of information socialization of a person are dialectically associated with its positive results. If we talk about information civilization as a stage in the cultural development of man, then the technological leap that we are now observing is the natural development of man himself, his evolution. Transformations of a person’s generic qualities turn out to be natural and necessary processes for his evolution (Heersmink, 2016). Modern psychological studies of the Internet reveal not only the negative aspects in changing the human psyche, but also show that they are necessary for its further evolution. The expansion of sign diversity in new types of communication contributes to the development of new intellectual abilities of a person, new types of cognitive functions, etc. (Ichihara-Takeda et al., 2016). Information culture simplifies the social relations of society, making social connections of people more accessible. This increases the sociability of a modern person, opens up opportunities for raising the standard of living of people for whom traditional society isolates those who do not have the ability to travel in space and participate in a full-fledged public life (people with disabilities, elderly people, etc.). An example is the 2019-2020 pandemic. Information culture expands the possibilities of transferring social experience while preserving and saving the biological resource of the human body. The expansion of sign diversity in new types of communication contributes to the development of new intellectual abilities of a person, new types of cognitive functions, the formation of new social practices, etc. (Weller, 2020).
The conducted research allows us to make the following generalization on the main debatable points of the problems and prospects of information socialization.
1. The problems are as follows: the transformation of real social relations, social exclusion, the formation of spiritually impaired forms of activity and communication, a change in language and worldview, the unification of cultures.
2. The prospects are as follows: consolidation and acceleration of the transfer of social experience, creation of conditions for human adaptation to rapidly changing conditions of anthropogenic civilization.
The ambivalence of information socialization requires philosophical reflection and research in terms of the advantages and disadvantages of information socialization in order to prevent and level its negative consequences for a human being.
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