Secondary Text: Structure And Language


The article deals with the notion of a secondary text as a speech work created on the basis of a primary source. The article is devoted to the actual didactic-methodical problem - formation of competences necessary for a modern specialist, including linguistic competences. To solve the problem, it is necessary to consider the typology of secondary texts presented in the scientific literature and to determine by comparative analysis the relation of the text to a certain type of secondary texts. Information is presented on the typology of secondary texts adopted in modern methods and the features according to which the text refers to a certain type of secondary: abstract, annotation, abstract review. The problem of perception of information from oral and written sources during listening and reading and its fixation in the form of one of the types of secondary text is considered; a comparative analysis of secondary texts in terms of their structure, the degree of reflection of the source information, language means is carried out. Recommendations are given for the design of peripheral and reference annotations. The analysis of speech clichés used in the introduction, main part and conclusion of secondary texts is carried out. The necessity of forming the skills of creating a secondary text as an initial stage in acquiring the skills of producing one's own research works is determined.

Keywords: Abstractintentionsecondary textspeech clichéssynopsistext interpretation


Each level of higher education is related to knowledge acquisition. Two types of knowledge are distinguished in pedagogical science: the first type is knowledge that "directly correlates with the content of the disciplines studied", the second type is information available to the person, which reveals a "relevant approach to the awareness and evaluation of the disciplines studied" (Bylkova et al., 2018, p. 75).

Broadcasting and fixation of these data, their critical comprehension by students (bachelors, masters and post-graduate students) are connected with primary and secondary scientific, scientific-educational, popular scientific texts.

The special role, in our opinion, in development of cognitive activity belongs to secondary texts. The texts created on the basis of original speech works of other authors or own, definitely processed according to the task in view belong to secondary texts. At the beginning of the twentieth century they became the object of study of some scientific disciplines, in particular, stylistics within the framework of scientific and technical scientific speech style basement. The term "secondary text" itself was then associated only with informative texts - abstracts and annotations.

Nowadays, among secondary texts there are paraphrases (in oral and written form – a composition, as a rule, of a fiction text), various plans (nominal, questionable, thesis plan), exactly theses, synopsis, annotation, abstract review, overview essay, comment, translation text, review.

Problem Statement

The article is devoted to the actual didactic-methodical problem - formation of competences necessary for a modern specialist, including linguistic competences. To solve the problem, it is necessary: to consider the typology of secondary texts presented in the scientific literature and to determine by comparative analysis the relation of the text to a certain type of secondary texts.

As a basic study we can consider "Theory of Secondary Texts" by Verbitskaia (2000), who defined stylistic secondariness as one of the author's techniques in parody texts. According to the scientist, the difference between primary and secondary texts is based on the universal category of similarity/distinction, since all secondary texts are characterized by a certain "similarity" with their primary texts (Dymant, 2017). That is, although the relationship between them is obvious, we can still say that the secondary text is essentially a new text because its author somehow transforms the information, including - by default - highlights the most important details (Ionova, 2006). Sukhaia (2011) focuses attention on another feature of the secondary texts - the dominant position of stranger's knowledge, while in the primary texts " stranger's " is displaced and transformed into "your own".

The above examples demonstrate only some characteristics of secondary texts; one should pay attention to a number of their features, which make it possible to draw a line between the types of secondary texts (Nesterova & Popova, 2017).

The above list allows us to find out that during the development of their typology by such authors as Verbitskaia (2000), Boronnikova and Bozhko (2018), Redkina (2017), etc., a number of features were taken into account, in particular: 1) volume, 2) method of information presentation (nomination or presentation), 3) ratio of the main and secondary, 4) expression/non-expression of information evaluation by the author of the secondary text, 5) complexity in terms of speech design, 6) change of authorship, 7) change of the language code.

Research Questions

On the basis of volume - more in original texts and less in secondary texts - to the latter relate paraphrase (even detailed, it is, as a rule, shorter than the original text), synopsis, thesis, annotation. The attention of researchers is primarily drawn to the texts of scientific style of information character, which include an annotation, abstract review, summary. As it is noticed, these texts in which the abridged and most actual information for the author is presented, are created as the kind of assistants containing not so much disclosing, as the list of the important information which in full contains in texts of primary sources.

The level of language proficiency, both native and foreign, is largely determined by the ability to retell the text read or listened to and reproduce its content in the form of an oral or written statement (presentation, preferably an artistic work). At the same time, students are faced with several interrelated tasks: to preserve the main content of the source and its style belonging, not to distort, correctly interpret the author's intention, and observe the norms of literary language. The presence of appropriate skills of high school graduates is assessed when analyzing their essay-reviews (Vyshegorodskaya, 2018).

The problem formulated in the article is related to the real difficulties faced by students when studying at the university, especially in their first years. In this regard, the article raises the question: "How, by what means can be provided the skills of reading and listening and the creation of secondary texts?”(Shcherbakova, 2017).

The importance of these skills for mastering the wealth of language, ensuring communicative qualities of speech, and success in communication is undoubtedly important. However, already at the final stage of study at school and in the conditions of study at a university, it is necessary to develop skills, first of all, in creation of secondary texts in the educational and scientific sphere.

At the same time, it is found that most students have the relevant skills are in their infancy, so they have difficulty in perceiving oral speech and fixing it, as well as writing notes of written sources (Malyuga et al., 2016).

The concepts of "know", "can", "apply" traditionally used in the method determine to what extent students will be able to achieve their goal - to create a secondary text of the required type. Thus, it is necessary to have knowledge of features of functional styles of speech, typical for each of them genres and types of texts, specific language means, clichés and stable syntactic models; it is necessary to have sufficiently formed skills of defining the main and secondary, revealing the logic of the author's thought development, his point of view on the problem; it is necessary to possess the methods of comparison, evaluation of different points of view and the ability to formulate his own opinion.

Creating a secondary text of an educational nature can be considered as the most important stage in the development of skills to create their own scientific work, including the diploma (final qualifying) work, scientific article. These skills should be formed through a targeted system of exercises, tasks, used in the process of conducting practical exercises (Levkova, 2010; Romanyuk, 2016).

The attitude of modern students to writing synopsis has changed in many respects due to the increased opportunities for obtaining information not only from traditionally used textbooks and manuals, but also from electronic publications, access to which is not limited. If earlier lectures by famous scientists were almost the only information material on this or that problem, now they (lectures) perform a kind of guiding and - often - clarifying functions: this problem is covered in the following publications, and its essence is ... . Probably, even the lack of students' oral recording skills does not have a negative impact anymore: the teacher has outlined the basic information and indicated possible sources - this is enough.

This is not the case with of written synopsis. A self-created synopsis of a written text is always individual in terms of structure, method of recording information and its volume.

The author of the synopsis independently chooses, what information of a primary source and in what kind (the text, the scheme, the table, etc.) should be written down. In most cases it is individual and depends on the level of knowledge of the subject or theme, memory features, in some cases - on the availability of printed sources (Krainikova & Churilina, 2018).

That is, in a certain sense, the synopsis is a text free of any rules: its volume, the way of presenting the original source information, even the use of abbreviations, which are sufficiently regulated in Russian, are not strictly defined precisely because the abstract is a text for itself, a text that allows you to most fully and without distortion of the original source information for the specific person perceiving it.

In a number of cases - taking into account these conditions - the abstract is replaced by thesis (from Greek thesis - provision, statement), which formulates in the form of a complete sentence the main provisions of their own scientific work or read the original source.

Informativity of both the synopsis itself and the thesis is their main characteristic; do not miss the main thing, separate it from the secondary and create a secondary text is possible in the presence of the formed skills of text compression, various language transformations, paraphrases.

Surface knowledge, lack of penetration into the problem does not allow to determine the main thing and, accordingly, to compress the text without distorting the information. The same can be said about the necessary changes in the means of speech used: the transformation implies a high level of knowledge of language material, the ability to reject little informative, and the ability to replace existing syntactic models with more compact ones (Pavlova, 2000).

In contrast to the synopsis, theses are not a grammatically linked text; numbered, they turn into a so-called thesis plan. The nominative plan is also singled out, in the points of which the themes of this or that part of the text are only named, but not disclosed. The plans play a predictive role: they not only allow you to get acquainted with the important provisions of the source, but also serve as a kind of support for the creation of another type of secondary text - annotations (from lat. annotatio - comment).

It should be noted that the definitions used do not always allow to separate this type of secondary text from some others. The definition of an abstract as a summary is hardly acceptable; rather, it is a certain enumeration , the name of the main information components of the source.

Recent research on scientific style texts uses the term "peripheral texts" (Plastinina, 2016) which, in addition to title, content (table of contents), introduction, conclusion, list of sources used (bibliographic list), includes an abstract. The examples given suggest that there are differences in terms of the functions performed by the two types of annotations. If peripheral (type 1) allows to judge the main content of a source and decide whether to refer to the full text of the source, the abstract as a secondary text (reference - type 2), also informing about the content of the book, article, etc., is widely used, first of all, to search for necessary information in automated systems or in printed information catalogues. In this case the annotation plays a reference or recommendatory role.

The peripheral annotation, "adjoining" to the source text, coexists with it, prepares the reader to perceive the information of the text, so, as a rule, they formulate only the main topic and the volume is one or two phrases.

The annotation as a secondary text exists outside the general context of the speech work; its task is to orient the potential reader in the available information on the problem in order to decide whether this article is necessary or not, and whether its content meets his needs. Thus, this type of scientific text performs two main functions - signal and search. Such an abstract is more informative, quite voluminous (in accordance with System of standards on information, librarianship and publishing 7.9-95.- 500 printed characters), strictly structured: in its first part - "presentation" of the source (title, authors, output data, sometimes - formulation of the topic / problem), then a brief list of the key concepts, in the final part of the indication of the addressee of the book or article. The conditions of "existence": either in the text of the source or independently - determine some linguistic features of the abstract. So, representation of a source assumes the information on the name, the author (authors), a place of the publication (if it is an article), year of the publication; aspiration for extreme brevity allows to include in the first phrase of the annotations and a formulation of a problem (theme) of a source: A.N.Petrov's article "Use of information technologies at the organization of work with documents", published in magazine "Business Processing" in 2016, is devoted to the analysis of efficiency of application of software products in document circulation of the enterprise . Further models with short participations are widely used ( the analysis is carried out, characteristics are analyzed, problems are considered, interpretation is presented, it is defined that..., advantages are shown and etc...), which are as follows are also used in annotations of peripheral.

The structure of the reference annotation as a mandatory part includes information about the source addressee, which is usually presented in one sentence: The article is of interest to..., The article is intended for... - and so on. In some cases, an optional component is used - information on the availability of tables, diagrams, figures and their purpose: To illustrate the theoretical provisions, the table provides statistics on ..., Schemes allow the presentation of the routes of documents ...

In any case, the task of the author of the annotation is to convey information about the source clearly and concisely; language clichés, the choice of which is largely determined by the type of text (description, narrative, reasoning-proof), provide invaluable assistance in this regard. Thus, in the annotation of the text description, the following clichés can be used: 1) in case of general description of the source : the article is an analysis of the peculiarities of what ?..., comparative description of what ?...; the article deals with the basic terms of gnoseology...; 2) in case of detail : Special attention is paid to what ?....

An annotation to the text of the type of reasoning suggests the designation of the problem ( the article deals with the problem...) , possible methods and methods of its solution ( such ways of solving are suggested.. .), the results of the problem consideration ( on the basis of the analysis... the author comes to the conclusion...).

The way of presentation of information - the statement of the main provisions of the source with its addition if necessary, not the main, but relevant information for the author - and a larger volume separates the reference abstract from the abstract-review.

As a rule, the abstract-review is considered as an educational research work, believing that, unlike the synopsis, the abstract-review allows to determine not only the possession of the subject and, as a consequence, understanding of the information presented in the source - the main and explanatory, secondary, the ability to choose the appropriate language means, but also the skills of analyzing the source, identifying the author's point of view, expressing his attitude to his opinion.

Having a sufficiently clear structure, the abstract-review is also created using a variety of language clichés. To represent the source (introductory part of the essay), models similar to the initial phrase of the annotation of the second type are used: In the article (by B.A.Korotkov, a famous astronomer) "Black Holes: What is it?", published in the (popular science) journal "Science and Life" in 1988, issue 2, the questions are considered... (analysis, review...) or Article by whom ? "..." published where ? when ? dealing with what question, problem ? (the source idea is formulated). Then - sequentially - the content of the article is presented: The Introduction formulates what? At the beginning of the article is a definition of what? The main part sets out what?, analyzes what?, analyzes the viewpoints on the problem...; raises issues such as...; in addition, the author stops at the problem such as...; concludes with conclusions..., sums up..., the author concludes that .... The presence of illustrations (examples, digital data, drawings, etc.) in the sources is also reflected in the abstract: To confirm (illustrate) the conclusions (theoretical provisions) are used....

The most important part of the abstract-review is the assessment of the source content expressed by the reviewer, which can show the degree of his satisfaction with the completeness of the information provided ( Thus, the article contains a detailed analysis ..., a comprehensive description ...) or the merits of the author and the credibility of his conclusions ( The author convincingly proved ..., The merit of the work is ..., The following conclusions are objections / doubt ). In the second case, words and word combinations with explicit modality are always used.

Thus, the expressed evaluation of the source content and speech clichés demonstrating the ability to analyze the text and, in some cases, change the logic of information presentation distinguish the abstract-review from the synopsis.

However, the abstract presentation of one source is only the first step towards the creation of a full-fledged educational and research text. The next step is to create an over- review essay. In this case, in addition to the skills needed to write an abstract review of one source should be formed skills of comparing, summarizing information on the topic of several authors. In this case, the problem is considered either from the point of view of the general (topic) and additional (degree of disclosure by micro themes), or from the point of view of different authors on the problem from the point of contradiction/coincidence of views of different authors.

The work on the abstract review is carried out in stages: 1) Searching for literature on a relevant topic (a well-written subject bibliography and annotations are very helpful here); 2) Reviewing the selected sources to identify the information that unites them; 3) Rereading the sources again to identify the special feature that distinguishes them from each other in terms of additional information, methods used and techniques of analysis made by the authors of the conclusions; 4) Processing and systematization of information in the form of synopsis; 5) Selection of a basic source with the mostly complete information; 6) Over review essay development; 7) Writing the over review essay.

The paper, term paper, theoretical part of the thesis (final qualification) work and the history of the issue can be considered as an abstract review. The components of the Over Review correspond to the speech clichés used, on the one hand, for an abstract review of one source and, on the other hand, emphasizing the comparative nature of the text. Such semantic fragments include: information about the works devoted to a given topic and, therefore, serving as a justification for using them for the essay over-review (general); a block of similarities; a block of differences, containing a presentation of the points of view of the authors of the sources; the abstract's attitude to this or that point of view; motivation for choosing this or that point of view.

Purpose of the Study

The problem formulated in the article is related to the real difficulties faced by students when studying at the university, especially in their first years. In this regard, the article raises the question: "How, by what means can be provided the skills of reading and listening and the creation of secondary texts? We mean the so called speech clichés, which recommended for using in different types of secondary texts.

Thus, the list of works related to the problem is formed as follows: This problem is considered (analyzed) in the following articles...; Detailed development of the problem is devoted...; The problem under consideration is reflected (reflected) in a number of works, in particular...

The similarity of approaches of the authors is formulated as: The author of the article shares the viewpoint..., adheres to the same opinion, the authors are united by the same view on the way of solving the problem...

The block of differences is presented by such language models: The approach of one of the authors to the problem consists in ..., The author of this article formulated the following point of view: ..., When comparing the presented points of view, it is found that ...; Unlike the author of the monograph, the author of the article believes that ... The point of view of the author of the monograph is diametrically opposed; If the author of the monograph believes that ... The author of the monograph is of a different opinion...

The attitude of the referee to the points of view under consideration can be expressed as agreement/disagreement or evaluation ( It is difficult to agree with the author... in that...; The author's point of view... certainly seems to be the only correct/unquestionable one ).

Motivation of a choice of a point of view implies the use of such models: The indisputability of the author's point of view... determines the choice...; Accepting this point of view, we proceed from the following considerations.

The quantity of recommended language clichés is considerable, among them there are interchangeable - clichés-synonyms, and the choice of optimum model depends not only on features of the text, but also on a degree of possession by the author of scientific style of speech.

Work at each stage requires sufficiently formed skills to create your own speech work. Apparently, it is quite legitimate to name the secondary text your own , as " stranger's " is only information; structure, logic of presentation of the material, the language means used - the choice of the author of the secondary text. However, success is possible only if one is able to read, i.e. understand the information presented in the sources and interpret it adequately.

In modern methods three types of reading are usually distinguished: skimming, survey and study reading. Skimming reading is used to get the most general idea of the text content based on the analysis of the table of contents, headings, selected and named information parts. Skills in this form of reading allow you to create an annotation. For other types of secondary text, the skimming reading is not enough. Survey reading is aimed at finding the necessary information, for example, when selecting sources for writing an abstract review and over review essay compiling a bibliographic list on a certain topic. Skills in this form of reading allows you to highlight the main thing, determine the secondary, identify keywords that carry the main information load, and typical language models that can be further used in the abstract review and over review essay and so on.

Study to read implies the fullest possible understanding of information and the possibility of its reproduction in the form of oral retelling or written secondary text, including analytical character. Building skills to create secondary texts is a part of teaching, as it reflects the ability to both obtain the information needed and use it for practical purposes (Karamalak & Pesina, 2017).

Research Methods

Thus, work with the material was carried out using the analytical method (analysis of linguistic characteristics of secondary texts), comparative (when considering the similarities and differences of types of secondary texts), statistical (when determining their quantitative parameters).


Returning to the typology of secondary texts proposed by researchers, a few comments should be made. It seems that a comparative analysis of the structure and content of secondary texts should be made for training purposes. For example, a reference plan, like an abstract, lists the main information components of the original, but the abstract is a coherent text; the difference between an abstract review and a synopsis is to demonstrate the ability to analyze the source presented, even by changing the order of presentation of the material in some cases and using appropriate speech clichés.

It is controversial to refer to secondary texts of comment and reviews, since the task of these texts is not to transmit information, but to critically assess the speech works (art, journalism, science) or films, performances, etc., and in this regard they can be considered as independent texts of reflection (Asadova, 2016).


As a result of the conducted research:

  • the classification criteria for types of secondary texts were analyzed,

  • the differences in their structure and linguistic design are considered,

  • the need for training in the production of secondary texts as a necessary stage in the establishment and development of research skills has been identified.

  • it was suggested that the review (review) should not be referred to the category of secondary texts.


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Vyshegorodskaya, E., & Bylkova, S. (2021). Secondary Text: Structure And Language. In E. V. Toropova, E. F. Zhukova, S. A. Malenko, T. L. Kaminskaya, N. V. Salonikov, V. I. Makarov, A. V. Batulina, M. V. Zvyaglova, O. A. Fikhtner, & A. M. Grinev (Eds.), Man, Society, Communication, vol 108. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 345-354). European Publisher.