Interactive Paremiological Dictionary As A Means Of Implementing Multi-Aspect Pedagogical Interaction


The article presents the experience of organizing research activities of students and schoolchildren in the framework of a lexicographic project, that sets a goal to popularize folk culture and Russian paremiology and attract students’ attention to the problems of nature conservation. The expected practical result is the publication of the School Dictionary of Weather Signs, whose innovative nature being developed assumed the inclusion of the reader in interactive work with the material. The techniques of such work were tested at the second stage of the implementation of the lexicographic project: the materials of the dictionary were posted on the website, and the schoolchildren were invited to analyze the relevance of signs by observing the surrounding nature, and to submit the results of their observations in the comments. These data were used in structuring articles and developing linguoculturological dictionary comments of the School Dictionary. Thus, it was proved that practical work on a lexicographic project allows organizing multidimensional research activities of students of different levels: students who study Russian paremias from the standpoint of their relevance, frequency, linguocultural value, master the techniques of lexicographic representation of material, including using information technologies. within the framework of an Internet project, and schoolchildren who analyze the content of signs and identify their natural scientific basis, observe the surrounding nature during the verification of signs, reflect on the current state of the environment and offer their own solutions to environmental problems.

Keywords: Internet projectomenparemiographyschool vocabulary


One of the urgent tasks facing the pedagogical community is the formation of students at different levels of the ability to interact or be in a dialogue mode both with various participants in educational relations and with the educational Internet environment. Educational dictionary can be one of the teaching aids uniting these areas of pedagogical interaction (Rogaleva & Nikitina, 2015).

The development of such dictionaries, primarily phraseological and paremiological, is one of the activities of the Experimental Laboratory of Educational Lexicography of Pskov State University. According to the phraseographic concept of Rogaleva (2016), the article of the educational dictionary, which provides multidimensional pedagogical interaction, is built as an interactive cognitive hypertext, reading which, the student enters into a dialogue with the authors, performs various cognitive tasks related to the history of the origin of the linguistic unit or its modern functioning, responds to questions that refer to a wide variety of areas of knowledge, allow broadening horizons and even developing creativity. Every time, the authors strive to make an interesting and original form of presenting material within the framework of the lexicographic genre - a dictionary in stories (Rogaleva & Nikitina, 2016, 2017), a detective dictionary (Rogaleva & Nikitina, 2018), a travel dictionary (Rogaleva & Nikitina, 2019). This article will present a project of an innovative dictionary, which was developed in the laboratory on paremiological material not described before in the format of educational lexicography, and is designed to solve the problem of multidimensional pedagogical interaction.

Problem Statement

Educational and cognitive interaction between the reader and the lexicographic text, the reader and the author-compiler is carried out in the course of work with the educational dictionary. How should a vocabulary be built and how should it be used in the educational process to make this pedagogical interaction multidimensional and multilevel? The solution to this problem, in our opinion, can provide the implementation of the concept of an interactive “School dictionary of weather signs”. This dictionary is conceived as a dictionary-laboratory, where, in accordance with the author's concept of pedagogical interaction, readers became the developers of materials along with professional lexicographers - schoolchildren and students who observe the realities of the world around them, check the relevance of ancient folk signs, form a vocabulary and comment on the material selected for vocabulary. The novelty of this lexicographic project lies in this interactive character, which distinguishes it from all existing dictionaries and collections of folk signs, the history of which is more than 150 years old.

Research Questions

Linguistic and methodical tasks

The omen as a folklore text and a linguistic unit has been thoroughly studied by philologists: it is considered from the standpoint of structural-semantic and structural-semiotic modeling (Fedorova, 2019; Strausova et al., 2017), studied in the linguistic and cultural (Fattakhova, 2018; Ignatovich, 2018) and comparative terms (Chesnokova, 2019; Kulkova, 2019; Tarasova & Tarasov, 2018), in the aspect of intercultural interaction (Logutenkova, 2018). The main task of the research in linguistic terms is to reflect the results of the study of the structure, semantics, figurative structure of a sign as a paremiological unit in the materials of the dictionary at an accessible level for students.

The linguoculturological potential of the omen, which summarizes the centuries-old experience of human communication with nature, is revealed in the practice of integrated educational representation of the folk wisdom of Russian paremias and the laws of the surrounding nature to schoolchildren in the lessons of the Russian language, the world and geography, didactic games and “lessons in nature”, in the lessons of extracurricular reading and in conversations about folk calendar holidays (Khusainov & Minnebaeva, 2015; Norgello & Matisheva, 2017). The methodological task of the research is to determine the optimal ways and forms of organizing work with the dictionary and on the dictionary, providing multidimensional pedagogical interaction of the subjects of the educational process.

Educational tasks

The objectivity of weather signs and their relevance for the current climate situation are actively discussed in scientific discussions, popular science publications and everyday communication. The main educational tasks of our lexicographic project, implemented within the framework of the research presented in this article is o attract the attention of readers of the School Dictionary of signs to this issue in line with the ecological approach in education (Shimanskaya, 2019), to form the environmental responsibility of schoolchildren, respect for the environment.

Purpose of the Study

Thus, the purpose of our study is to substantiate and implement the concept of an interactive paremiological dictionary, which will provide multidimensional pedagogical interaction between students, teachers and professional lexicographers, as well as allow organizing multidimensional research activities of students of different levels: students who participate in the lexicographic development of material, including with the use of information technology, and schoolchildren who analyze the content of signs, observe the surrounding nature, offer their solutions to environmental problems, mastering the culturally valuable layer of Russian paremias - folk signs.

Research Methods

The study of paremiological material within the framework of the project was carried out using the linguo-cognitive method and techniques of structural-semantic modeling, which made it possible to classify the material for its thematic-ideographic representation in the dictionary. Lexical-semantic and linguocultural analysis as methods for studying the content of paremias and the cultural background of their components ensured the identification of the ethnocultural specificity of signs. The method of linguoculturological commenting was used in the course of the lexicographic explication of the identified cultural component of semantics of signs and their core components. The joint research work of teachers and students was based on the principles of an activity approach in teaching and upbringing with a combination of personality-oriented educational technologies and technologies of collective creativity in line with the ideas of cooperation pedagogy.


The implementation of our lexicographic concept took place in two directions - within the framework of a lexicographic Internet project and in the system of working with materials prepared for a book-format dictionary. We present the results of the study for each of these areas.

Lexicographic Internet project “Weather signs in the modern ecological situation”

At the first stage of work on the weather dictionary, students of the Faculty of Educational Technologies of Pskov University were invited to intensify their linguistic knowledge of omen as a special type of paremias within the framework of elective courses and scientific circles. The omen was considered as a predictive unit with a two-part structure: one of the parts reflects the observation of the realities of the surrounding world (swallows fly low), the other - a forecast based on observation (it will rain). The main structural and semantic models of paremias are revealed, for example: “Who does what - to what”: A crow walks along the road - is to warmth ; “Who does what - there will be (will happen, will be done) what”: Swallows fly low - it will rain ; “What (who) has any sign - what for”: Clear sky in winter is to frost , etc. Superstitious and natural omens are highlighted, behind which are the laws of physics, chemistry, and biology. It was proved that most weather signs refer to the latter. The significance of weather forecast and natural signs for the peasant population of past centuries was revealed and the deactualization of weather signs-recommendations as a factor determining the planning of agricultural work in our days was established on the basis of the signs-recommendations: “ If you sow rye in a northerly wind, it will be stronger and larger in grain” (Nikitina et al., 2009, p. 196); “ Sow potato on the day when spring water flows very quickly - it will be large” (Grushko & Medvedev, 2000, p. 146) and proverbs about the signs: “ If you do not notice – you will not eat bread” (Nikitina et al., 2009, p. 3). Thus, work began to determine the criteria for selecting material for the School Dictionary of Weather Signs in close cooperation of lexicographers and students.

In addition to pragmatically irrelevant omens and recommendations, it was decided not to include signs where the object of observation is the object realities that have gone or are leaving everyday life (torch, Russian stove, etc.) and the processes associated with them in the dictionary. The ethnoculturally marked lexemes denoting them are undoubtedly valuable in linguistic and cultural terms, however, the verification of the signs to which readers are attracted will be difficult or impossible in this case: “ If the end of a burning torch turns black - to warmth, if it rebounds - to cold ” (Ermolov, 1905, p. 333); “ When the samovar hums strongly - to frost ” (Ermolov, 1905, p. 331); “ Porridge in the oven turns red in summer - to rain ” (Grushko & Medvedev, 2000, p. 148); “ The wind hums in the chimney - to frost ” (Nikitina et al., 2009, p. 305) Other signs with observation situations that are difficult for most schoolchildren are not included in the vocabulary: “ If there is a lot of fat in hares, then the winter will be severe” (Grushko & Medvedev, 2000, p. 114); “ The squirrel is cleared (molted) from bottom to top - for a strong winter” (Ermolov, 1905, p. 38), “ If the tench (burbot) spawns early, then the spring will be early” (Ermolov, 1905, р. 45).

It was decided to leave "local" signs outside the dictionary, which are accompanied by geographical marks (for example, Arkh. - Arkhangelsk region; Chuvash. - Chuvashia) in paremiological collections and dictionaries, from which the material was selected: “ Sinochka / wagtail / will arrive - in twelve days the ice will break” . (Arkh.) (Nikitina et al., 2009, p. 610). “ If during the rain bubbles form of a size of a horse's eye, there will be bad weather” (Chuvash.) (Ermolov, 1905, p. 384). When selecting material, the criterion of belonging to the All-Russian Fund of Paremias was implemented in parallel, taking into account their representation in the largest paremiological collections of the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries. (Dal’, 2018; Ermolov, 1905; Grushko & Medvedev, 2000; Nikitina et al., 2009): a feature was selected for the school dictionary only if it was recorded by lexicographers of all these three time periods.

The work carried out at this stage on the formation of the vocabulary not only enriched the paremiological stock of students, but also activated their knowledge in the field of dialectology, linguo-geography, cultural linguistics, and the history of language. As for professional lexicographic skills, in addition to the selection of material, which was carried out taking into account the addressee factor, students mastered the techniques of macrostructuring the dictionary: 1500 selected signs were grouped by objects of observation in the process of developing a thematic classification of paremias, which then became the basis for the location of the material in the dictionary.

Topics reflecting a wide field of observation, and headings within topics are presented in alphabetical order: “ANIMAL WORLD”: Wild animals; Domestic animals; Amphibians and reptiles; Insects; Birds; Fish; “UNLIVING NATURE”: Water, bodies of water; Celestial sphere; Natural phenomena ; “PLANT WORLD”: Trees; Herbs and flowers. Subheadings are also given in alphabetical order within the headings, at the next level of classification, which become the headings of the dictionary macrostates. These are the names of the objects of observation, for example, under the heading “Birds”: Bullfinch, Chicken, Crane, Crow, Cuckoo, Dove, Duck, eagle owl, Goose, Jackdaw, Kite, Lark, Nightingale, Owl, Peacock, Rook, Rooster, Seagull, Sparrow, Starling, Stork, Swallow, Swan, Swift, Thrush, Tit, Turkey, Woodpecker

Under each such heading, signs with the corresponding core component will be combined, for example: PIGEON: Pigeons are swimming - towards the rain; Pigeons hide on a sunny day - to bad weather; The pigeons keep on cooing - to the sunny, sultry weather; Pigeons in the morning sit tightly on the roof and look to the east - towards the rain.

The thematic arrangement of the material presented above is realized in the first part of the school dictionary, which is called "Observing the surrounding nature" and suggests, as the title suggests, the inclusion of the reader in interactive work with the material. Techniques for such work were tested at the second stage of the implementation of a joint lexicographic project of teachers and students of Pskov State University, during which students improved their skills in the development and implementation of linguistic methodological Internet projects.

The pairs selected for the school dictionary were placed in the group of the social network VKontakte, and the users, who were mainly schoolchildren, were invited to join in the verification of ancient signs, to establish their relevance in the current ecological situation by observing natural objects. This goal of the project is revealed in an appeal to users of the social network:

<… Dear friends! Students and teachers of the Pskov University greet you. We invite you to join the all-Russian interactive vocabulary project "Weather signs in the modern ecological situation". Let's check if the ancient folk signs by which our ancestors predicted the weather are still valid. Meteorologists, for example, claim that there are only two such signs left (We read about this on the website of the newspaper Has the climate really changed so much? Maybe meteorologists are wrong? ...>

Further, schoolchildren, thus involved in the system of multilevel pedagogical interaction, are invited to observe their pets, birds, insects, trees in the garden, flowers in the field. The names of these and other objects of observation (Headings of the thematic classification of signs developed by students) have become topics of "Discussions" of the community: water, bodies of water; trees; wild animals; pets; amphibians and reptiles, etc.

Schoolchildren from various regions of Russia (thus the interaction expands horizontally) can connect to a "research group" open to any Internet user and implement an individual observation trajectory.

Collective work with the materials of the Internet project can be organized by the teacher within the framework of the school scientific circle or directly in the lesson (discipline “The World Around”), where a certain amount of time can be regularly allocated for the implementation of this joint “Internet project” activity within the framework of the “Paremiological Minute” as an element of integration of the courses “The World Around” and “Russian Language”.

Students choose signs in advance in a topic that interested them, observe natural objects and present the results of their observations in the comments, and in the lesson, having connected to a social network, they discuss both their comments and the results of observations submitted by users from other regions. As the comments left by the students show, in most cases, observers state the correctness of the people's forecast. For example:


Once, when I was walking, I felt a strong aroma of lilacs, and in the evening it started to rain, the sign worked))) (Tatiana T.).

A negative verification result is also recorded:


I don’t know about others, but my cat always loves to lie around, both in sunny weather, and before rain, and after rain, so he is not an assistant in determining the weather ( Olga M .).

More lengthy comments contain reflections on the reasons for the deactualization of signs: Domestic cats live in different conditions than before. Mine sleeps under the battery and does not cover the muzzle with a paw, as it should be before the frost (Tanya Sh.). A cat looking out the window - to warming? Nothing of the kind. We have a playground there, people walk, dogs - so he looks at everyone regardless of the weather (Galya S.).

Despite the careful selection of material, taking into account the addressing of the dictionary, many signs remained without comment due to the inaccessibility of objects of observation, as evidenced by the explanations of the guys: they write that they have never seen how flax, buckwheat grow, have not seen a crane, an oriole, and even a stork. (In the course of the analysis of such messages, it was decided to include illustrated linguocultural comments to the components of signs denoting such objects in the book version of the dictionary).

Reflecting on the interaction of man with the environment, schoolchildren note in the comments that modern man is moving away from nature, talk about climate change, about global warming as a reason for deactualization. Ways of solving the problem are also proposed: not to release hot air from pipes into the atmosphere, but to direct it to greenhouses equipped on the roofs of houses (Anna N.). Thus, it was confirmed that schoolchildren are ready to reflect on environmental topics and a reflexive assessment of their paremiological reserve, which the teacher should use when organizing work with the materials of the proposed Internet project.

The dictionary of signs in paper format and its interactive potential

In a paper dictionary format, the organization of various types of interactive work with linguistic material will be presented in the Preface after explanations regarding the cultural potential, the principles of the thematic distribution of the material into sections and headings.

If the educational or research group of schoolchildren will work with the book version of the dictionary when it is published, then, first of all, the students will need to be introduced to the Preface as a component of the macrostructure of the dictionary that sets the algorithm for working with the material:

“In each heading”, says the Preface, “the signs are arranged alphabetically by specific objects of observation, for example:



  • Yellow acacia flowers smell stronger than usual - to the rain.


  • Birch has a lot of sap in spring - wait for a rainy summer.

  • If at the beginning of October the leaf has not fallen from the birch, then the snow will fall late.

  • A leaf from a birch tree fell not fully in October - expect a harsh winter.


  • If there are a lot of acorns on the oaks in September, expect a lot of snow before Christmas.


Choose objects (those that you can actually observe in your area), check if the folk sign is valid, and put + or - in the box next to it. If the sign does not work, think about why this is happening. Maybe climate change is to blame - as a result of our interaction with nature. What to do? How to preserve nature? It's good that you are worried about these problems. You can send your reflections on ecology and folk signs to us at - we will include them in the next expanded edition of the dictionary.

And if you are interested in the scientific rationale, you can read about this in the heading “For the most curious” at the end of each section and connect to such research.

For example, here are some of the “transcripts” presented in the dictionary, which the teacher can use in the “inducement to reason” mode:

Maple “cries” - to close rain. If you managed to observe the “crying” maple, then you noticed that its “tears” are dripping from the petioles of the leaves in the place where they attach to the branches. We are also sure that in the box next to the sign you have +. Yes, this sign is true and always comes true. Why - let's figure it out.

Maple itself contains a lot of water. Part of the water evaporates all the time through the leaves, and instead of it a new one enters the plant through the root. This happens continuously, both when the air is dry and when it is humid. Due to the special mechanism of water movement in plants, it is not always evaporated by leaves in the same way: the drier the air, the stronger the evaporation. And vice versa - the higher the air humidity, the weaker the evaporation. Therefore, when the air is humid, excess liquid accumulates in the tree. Weakly evaporating, it begins to stand out in the form of droplets. So our maple “cries”. This always happens before the rain. Indeed, before the rain, humidity always increases, which means that evaporation decreases.

Thus, another direction of the integrated scientific research work of schoolchildren is set - natural science (the substantiation of the natural mechanism of signs) and lexicographic (development of comments on signs).

Schoolchildren will be able to generalize their observations of the surrounding nature by working individually or collectively with the second part of the dictionary, which is called “Drawing conclusions”. Here they are invited to group the material by the scope of the forecast. The Preface presents an algorithm for performing this analytical task: “For example, we select all the active signs (+) that will help predict rain, and enter the observation material in the appropriate heading” :



yellow acacia flowers smell stronger than usual,

clover shrivels,

dandelion flowers close up,

the cat reaches for water or laps it more than usual,

moles come out of the ground, …...


There will be SUNNY WEATHER if

the branches of the spruce rise,

the fern twirls the leaves in the morning,

fog spreads in the morning on the water,

the cat lies face up,

horses lie on the snow, ……

And for students, future primary school teachers who worked on the dictionary within the framework of our project, the heading “Making conclusions” allowed approaching the material from a methodological point of view and construct entertaining tasks for junior schoolchildren to consolidate knowledge about weather folk signs and thus preparing for implementation of pedagogical interaction with their future students.

Let us give an example of a task:

Read the weather forecast from "Wise Owl" and complete the task that follows the text

Weather forecast “From the Wise Owl”.

– Hello dear listeners! Today is Monday, and for some reason our cows lie on the ground. Tomorrow, on Tuesday, in the late afternoon, low flight of beetles is expected. For some reason, ladybugs will come together on Wednesday. On Thursday and Friday, cats plan to lie belly up. According to the Bee Society, bees will sit on the walls of the hive on Saturday, not inside it. And finally, on Sunday we will see a lot of spiders. This was the forecast for the whole week. See you next time, my dear listeners.

The task. Analyze the text and fill out the weekly weather forecast page: draw a sun where clear weather is expected.

Which day will the weather be bad? Mark it with raindrops:








In the course of approbation of dictionary materials in schools of Pskov and Pskov region, the work of student trainees with vocabulary materials in the primary grades was also organized in addition to the proposed types of pedagogical interaction, “student - vocabulary text” (classroom and extracurricular work), “student – teacher” (classroom, including circle work with a dictionary), “student - authors vocabulary” (creative and research assignments involving contacts using Internet communication means). The results of the work, testifying to the effectiveness of the lexicographic concept, are summarized by students in coursework and final qualification works.


So, the practical result of our project was the creation of a research Internet community of students and schoolchildren in a social network, which continues its analytical work with folk signs, as well as the “School Dictionary of Popular Signs” prepared for publication, which can be used in the Russian language lesson, in scientific circle and is recommended for family reading.

As for the scientific and methodological significance of the research results, we note that the developed lexicographic concept made it possible to implement a model of multidimensional and multi-level pedagogical interaction, the participants of which at the university level were students who study Russian paremias in the linguistic and linguocultural aspects and master the techniques of dictionary representation of material organizing scientific co-authorship and lexicographic co-creation within the framework of students' research work, and at the school level - students mastering Russian paremias and observing the environment, and teachers (or students within the framework of pedagogical practice), who, guided by the principles of cooperation pedagogy, organize collective work with the materials of the dictionary, supporting popularization of folk culture and drawing attention to topical environmental problems. The participation of the authors-compilers of the dictionary in pedagogical interaction is ensured through a system of techniques for creating the dialogicity of the lexicographic text, and the Internet platform on which the dictionary materials are taken will allow all participants in the educational process, including lexicographers who provide its vocabulary linguo-methodological support, to carry out multidimensional interaction in virtual space that opens up new prospects for cooperation.


The study is funded by the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 20-18-00091, implemented at St. Petersburg State University).


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Nikitina, T., & Rogaleva, E. (2021). Interactive Paremiological Dictionary As A Means Of Implementing Multi-Aspect Pedagogical Interaction. In E. V. Toropova, E. F. Zhukova, S. A. Malenko, T. L. Kaminskaya, N. V. Salonikov, V. I. Makarov, A. V. Batulina, M. V. Zvyaglova, O. A. Fikhtner, & A. M. Grinev (Eds.), Man, Society, Communication, vol 108. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 237-247). European Publisher.