The study attempts to identify the characteristics of youth communication in the context of various subcultures, taking into account national, social and gender aspects. The goal is to determine the role of youth jargon in the process of socialization of the younger generation, as well as the place that anglicisms take in it. The study allowed us to go beyond traditional lexicography in the direction of cultural linguistics, environmental and axiological linguistics, into the sphere of metasubject correlations, educational and educational mission. The analysis of the factual material is carried out on the basis of traditional and newest methods of linguistic research: observation, description, content analysis, synthesis, systematization, as well as elements of statistical, structural-functional, cultural and distributive methods of analysis. The article examines anglicisms in the system of modern youth slang, their genesis, word formation methods, lexical and semantic models and functional significance. The research object plays a unique role in this process. Scientists dealing with the speech of modern youth note a high degree of its jargonization. Among the reasons for this phenomenon there is the need for “one's own”, specific language for communicating with peers, the influence of globalization, the expansion of pop culture, the development of Internet communication and mass media. The authors come to the conclusion that modern Russian communicative behavior, even in public space, is characterized with a colloquial-slang constructive-style vector, which entails the need to revise not only the criteria of the literary norm, but also the orthological paradigm as a whole.
Keywords: Anglicismjargonslangsocialization; sociolectyouth
There are many definitions of jargon, youth slang, which in most studies is interpreted as a kind of sociolect that differs from the literary language in specific vocabulary and phraseology, expressiveness of speech turns and special use of word-formation models, but it does not have a unique phonemic and grammatical system. In lexicological dictionaries, it is indicated that “jargon is a speech of some kind of social or other group united with common interests, containing many words and expressions that differ from the common language, including artificial, sometimes conventional ”(Ozhegov & Shvedova, 2010, p. 190).
The existence of jargon is due to social stratification. However, at present, a kind of “common jargon” has formed - an understated style of speech that erodes already established linguistic norms and is not only used by a wide variety of segments of the population in everyday life, but also quite often sounds in television and print media. It is always important for young people to have their own language, which draws a line of demarcation, separates “friend-or-foe”. It is obvious that adequate communication in the youth environment is fundamentally impossible without understanding the features of its language (Albekov et al., 2019).
The study is supposed to solve the question of what role - productive or negative - youth slang and, in particular, anglicisms play in the process of personality socialization.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to determine the role of youth jargon in the process of socialization of the younger generation, as well as the place that anglicisms take in it - borrowings from the English language.
The analysis of the factual material is carried out on the basis of traditional and the newest methods of linguistic research. Among them, there are such techniques as observation, description, content analysis, synthesis, systematization, as well as elements of statistical, distributive and cultural analysis methods. A hermeneutic approach to the interpretation of linguistic units has been implemented. Based on a survey of students, a glossary of slangisms was compiled, which are used in their everyday speech in various communicative situations.
Youth jargon is represented with the following lexico-semantic groups:
1. A significant part of "general youth" slang is made up of words denoting the processes of interpersonal communication, since it is the communicative act that is the key factor in the socialization of youth (Larina, 2015). These are verbs associated with various kinds of activity and the emotional and psychological sphere:
2. There are the words of “general youth” slang associated with the so-called “search sexual activity” (Gromov, 2009). They are a) names of women and men:
3. Agonal words expressing the idea of verbal (Kolmakova & Shalkov, 2019) or physical aggression:
4. Words expressing an emotional assessment of the situation (Bogdanova, 2018):
5. Designations of clothing, footwear or their details (
There are many ways to form lexical units of youth jargon (Dedova & Petrukhina, 2019), in particular:
1. Foreign language borrowings: chelyendzh, tresh, boyfrend, pruf.
2. Associative sound transfer: “
3. Borrowing criminal vocabulary:
4. Affixation (sometimes accompanied with truncation of the base stem):
5. Foreign language borrowings, as a rule, from the English language, constructed by analogy with Russian derivational models. For example, they include the suffix -er- to denote persons by the nature of their activity or the suffix -yan-):
6. Universalization (semantic condensation) is one of the ways of "thickening" the meaning, i.e. the formation of a word by splicing on the basis of a stable phrase, to which it is synonymous (often accompanied by an affixation): "contract murder" -
7. Contamination - all sorts of overlap without the use of interfix morphemes (Dedova & Grigorieva, 2018): “
8. Truncation of the stem as a way of forming abbreviated words:
9. Truncation of the stem + affixation:
10. Metaphorical transfers: a
11. Development of polysemy:
12. Abbreviation and its varieties:
13. A pun, including elements of a language game:
There are factors that stimulate the replenishment of slang due to Anglicisms:
1. Digitalization processes and communication in social networks: hashtag
2. Modern music and "club" subculture, as well as the film industry and show business: remake -
3. The development of fast food restaurants, the popularity of fast food:
4. Imitation of the communicative models of behavior of English-speaking youth (Dedova & Lee, 2020): party-
When processing statistical data, it turned out that the indicators of the use of jargon differ among boys and girls, as well as among students of the 1-st and senior years.
When considering the frequency of word usage of jargon (Table
where is the share (in %) in the first array of frequencies;
–in the second array.
where is the number taken as 100% in the 1st sample,
–in the second, P and Q are calculated by the formulas:
The sequence of actions for calculating
1. Let us compare the frequency of the use of jargon by 1st year boys with the frequency of use of jargon by senior young men:
2. Let's compare the frequency of use of jargon by 1st year girls with the frequency of use of jargon by older girls:
3. Let us compare the frequency of jargon use by 1st year girls with the frequency of jargon use by 1st year boys:
4. Let us compare the frequency of the use of jargon by senior girls with the frequency of use of jargon by senior young men:
The established discrepancies in the frequency of the use of jargon between girls and boys of the 1st and senior years are statistically significant. The fact is that among both boys and girls the frequency of the use of jargon has significantly decreased in the process of studying at a university. There are also certain psychological reasons for this. It is well known that slang is most actively used by young people aged from about 14-15 to 24-25 years. It was during this period that the desire to find like-minded people came to the fore, to gain authority among peers (Zhilina et al., 2019). The use of slang is due to the formation of "self-concept" and the formation of self-esteem. Over time, the awareness of oneself as a part of this or that subculture loses its significance and, therefore, the need for communication in one's own language is sharply reduced.
According to psychologists, girls develop emotionally faster than boys do. Thus, female students of all courses and all specialties had a richer vocabulary of emotions than young men, and their speech was more literate and “standard” (Ryleeva et al., 2019). Many young men admitted that the level of their use of jargon is actually even higher due to coarse, often obscene language, which, of course, they did not include in their list (Kolmakova & Shalkov, 2017, 2018). Girls use slang words and expressions, first of all, as a word game that fills their speech with ironic or humorous notes.
Thus, the higher the level of knowledge of information and communication technologies and the English language is the higher the level of use of anglicisms among students. The data obtained during the research indicate a high degree of jargonization of the speech of modern youth. The reasons are the need for “their own” language to communicate with peers, the influence of globalization, the development of the media, the dominance of pop culture, mass communication in social networks, multiculturalism as a social and linguistic phenomenon.
At the same time, one cannot ignore the fact that in the depths of the national linguistic consciousness a transformation of the generally accepted style hierarchy is taking place. In the concept of V.G. Kostomarov, the diffuse state of the traditional system of functional styles of speech leads to dramatic changes in the relationship between “ the stylistics of language resources” and “the stylistics of their current use (stylistics of texts)” (Kostomarov, 2005, p. 43). Modern Russian communicative behavior, even in a public space, is characterized by a colloquial-slang constructive-style vector, which entails the need to revise not only the criteria of the literary norm, but also the orthological paradigm as a whole.
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27 May 2021
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Kolmakova, V., & Shalkov, D. (2021). Anglicisms In The Structure Of Modern Youth Slang: Genesis And Lexico-Semantic Models. In E. V. Toropova, E. F. Zhukova, S. A. Malenko, T. L. Kaminskaya, N. V. Salonikov, V. I. Makarov, A. V. Batulina, M. V. Zvyaglova, O. A. Fikhtner, & A. M. Grinev (Eds.), Man, Society, Communication, vol 108. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 170-176). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.05.02.21