Relationship Of Self-Development And Self-Perfection In The Organization Of Personality-Oriented Educational Environment
The study is devoted to the analysis of the concepts of "self-improvement" and "self-development" in the organization of a personality-oriented educational environment. Based on the analysis of the concepts of "self-development" and "self-improvement", their essential characteristics are revealed. The article provides a pedagogical analysis of the processes of "self-development" and "self-upbringing" in the personal development at various stages of continuing education and their comparison with such processes as "self-education" and "self-upbringing"; defines the basis for the formation of the orientation of the individual towards self-development and self-improvement, which constitute the attitude towards self-change in the educational process; the substantial aspects of designing the productive interaction of the participants in the educational process are reflected. Activity is revealed through the organization of pedagogical support, as an element of unobtrusive pedagogical guidance of joint activities, with a focus on the most complete implementation of the processes of personal self-development (self-determination, self-actualization, self-organization, self-realization). As a result of the study, tendencies are established for the development of a personality-oriented educational environment and the implementation of self-development and self-improvement in the personal and professional formation of modern specialists, the regularities between the pedagogical support of personal self-changes in education and in activity and the results achieved in the educational process, professional activity, in personal growth and improvement professionalism..
Keywords: Educational environmentinteractionpersonalitypersonal developmentself-development
The need to maintain a high quality of human life in the context of global socio-political diversity and, often, aggressiveness of the social environment dictates the search for ways to enter the sustainable development highway of all spheres of life, the most important of which is the development of human potential. Under these conditions, the main resource for transformations in various spheres of society is the personality, its orientation and involvement in the creative process of reproduction of a favorable personality-oriented living environment. The development of personality and the realization of personal potential is not only a means of improving the quality of life, but primarily a source of continuous positive transformations in society based on universal values, moral and ethical principles, ethical standards, cultural, historical and professional traditions - on the orientation of the individual to the maximum full self-realization in society (Shchukina, 2015).
The growing need for specialists who are able and willing to creatively solve the emerging problems, defines as one of the priorities of continuing education the development of personality subjectivity, the education of a person capable of self-development in a rapidly changing world throughout his life and career.
Psychological and pedagogical sciences consider personality self-development as the main result and a necessary condition for continuous education, and the conditions for the formation of personality subjectivity as an important characteristic of the educational environment. These circumstances determine the vector of the study of the phenomenon of personal self-development in lifelong education and the formation of personality.
The study of the phenomenon of personal self-development is inextricably linked with the study of approaches to understanding the personality-developing interaction of subjects of education. Issues of human development and self-development have always been in the field of scientific search for scientists and practicing psychologists and teachers and remain the subject of research in various scientific fields and schools. Currently, scientists and practitioners still do not have a single view on the essence, content and features of the realization of the potential of the processes of self-development and self-improvement in the design of a personality-developing educational environment at various levels of lifelong education and the stages of becoming a specialist (Shutenko & Shutenko, 2015). Given the foregoing, it seems appropriate to conduct a historical and pedagogical analysis of the issues of designing a personality-developing environment, to determine the significant essential characteristics of the concepts “self-development” and “self-improvement” in order to determine the potential of these processes in the personal development of specialists in lifelong education.
The problematic field of research is constituted by questions of the conceptual apparatus of the processes of “self-development of personality” and “self-improvement of personality” in the conditions of organization of personality-oriented interaction of subjects of the educational environment in the continuous education of specialists; the issues of designing the interaction of participants in the educational process in a personality-developing space with an orientation toward launching processes of personal self-development (self-determination, self-actualization, self-organization, self-realization) into the value-targeted segment of personality-developing education; questions of developing ways to implement the ideas of personal self-development in the process of designing a personality-oriented educational environment.
Purpose of the Study
The study is aimed at establishing the characteristics of self-improvement and self-development of the personality in the education system based on historical and pedagogical analysis of concepts and phenomena that make up the totality of the process of positive self-changes in the personality structure in the interaction of the subjects of the educational process when designing a personality-oriented educational space at various stages of lifelong education.
The study was based on the methodological principles of the holistic approach (Smuts, 1926), which provides a holistic view of the conditions for constructing trajectories of constructive personal self-development; the subjective approach to education, in terms of determining the basis for self-determination of personality (Shchukina, 2018), which underlies the consideration of a person as an integrated functioning system in situations of crisis, uncertainty, difficulty, capable of not only adapting to adverse conditions of the social and professional environment, but also reshaping it by transforming social activity and professional environment through self-development and self-improvement; a personal approach in reflecting the nature of pedagogy of cooperation (Khodyakova & Mitin, 2017; Serikov, 2017; Ulyanina, 2018); heuristic approach in determining the basis of creative self-realization of subjects of the educational process in the course of their creation of educational products (Khutorskoy, 2017).
Operational environment require specialists of any sphere of activity to have the skills of professional and personal self-development, based on internal motivation in constructive self-changes. Moreover, in situations of difficulties in a professional and personal context, specialists need pedagogical support, the formation of a favorable environment for functioning, the creation of conditions for constructive personal self-development in the educational process and in professional activities.
Personality developing education, being the leading trend in modern pedagogical theory and practice, still does not have a clear understanding in today's pedagogical view (Shutenko et al., 2019). In various historical periods of the development of psychological and pedagogical sciences and in the process of developing the educational system in the world, various semantic attitudes prevailed on the organization of interaction of participants in the educational process from the position of personal development and self-development:
as a priority for the development of individuality in the system of education and professional activity as opposed to collective education;
as the basis of a holistic approach to personality development in education that excludes a narrowly focused strictly functional approach;
as the basis of humanistic pedagogy, based on the adoption of the learner as a person with unique individual characteristics, transforming in modern pedagogical concepts into pedagogy of cooperation;
as the principle of organizing the activities of the teacher (the subject of the organization of the educational process) around its main goal - the individual;
as a result of the implementation of the mechanisms of formation of personality developments in the pedagogical process from the perspective of the triggering elements of personal self-realization;
as a condition of individual freedom in determining their priority educational route (trajectory) in the formation and implementation of personal experience;
as an element of the model of specialist training, education and upbringing of a person with predefined qualities and properties;
as a criterion for designing a space of interaction in education and professional activity, focused on the development and self-development of personal qualities and human properties, the development of subjectivity as a source of positive self-change.
Each of these positions defines aa activity model of the participants in the pedagogical process, which is effective in a particular sociocultural context, which shows the complexity and multi-aspect of the phenomenon of personality development, and its integral process and resultant component - self-development and self-improvement.
Modern standards for organizing the interaction of participants in the educational environment create the prerequisites for reducing the role of the direct impact of the organizers of the pedagogical process on indirect leadership influences, accompanying students' self-development. A modern educated person is not understood as a “finished product” of a certain educational cycle, but as a person aimed at further development, continuing his formation, able to independently manage his personal and professional growth. One of the main goals of a person’s learning process is manifested as the formation and development of a person’s value attitude to himself as a person, not with predetermined properties, but with potential, raising the need for self-changes, transforming the student’s perception from the object of educational influences into the subject of designing his activity, constructing his trajectory development.
The rapidly changing living conditions in the modern social and professional space require specialists from any field of activity to have developed skills of introspection, self-organization and self-control, developed abilities to optimally plan their time and efforts, realize their potential, focus on readiness for self-development, verified decisions in situations of difficulties, which defines the introduction of the concept of "self-development" in the target orientation of education (Shutenko, 2018).
In modern psychological and pedagogical sciences, much attention is paid to the disclosure of issues of optimal organization of interaction factors (environmental conditions and personal prerequisites) of the participants in the educational process that determine the student’s self-development vector, the possibilities of organizing a favorable, personality-oriented supportive environment that "works" for the individual. The subject of scientific interest and the search for teacher-researchers is the self-development of the individual in the educational and professional space. The questions of the role of self-development and self-improvement in training and education, the relationship of self-development and self-improvement with self-education and self-education (Shutenko et al., 2018).
The initial ideas of personal self-development can be seen in the works, which focus on the establishment as the goal of pedagogical influences of the upbringing of the human essence in the personality, with a formed subjective position and value orientations for continuous improvement of oneself by one’s own efforts, through one’s own experience with the aim of self-realization (Dixit, 2019). At the same time, the organization of the educational process should be subordinated to the development and creation of the necessary conditions for students to study independently, and teachers to manage this independent work, providing it with the necessary material and conditions, i.e. to design such an environment that would contribute to the independence of students in all manifestations.
Of no small importance in the design of the educational environment is the formation of the necessary learning motivation and active independent actions by students to transform the external environment through the improvement of internal attitudes and aspirations, depending on the value system (Shutenko, 2015). Value orientations and guidelines determine the inner orientation of a person, which is a support and a necessary condition for a teacher in organizing educational interaction.
In pedagogy, the concept of “self-development” is considered in a two-pronged quality: from the position of spontaneous development of a person and self-development, as an independently organized development process. Self-development, understood in the meaning of spontaneity, is guided by the unconscious needs of a person and does not require conscious regulation on his part. This thesis opens up an important aspect of interaction in organizing the process of self-development - the supporting influence of a senior (teacher, educator, mentor) in joint activities.
For an adult, the process of self-development is the only possible way to increase the educational, professional, personal level of development. The functions of personal self-development and its forms are transformed - from spontaneous manifestations to conscious forms of self-development. In the matter of promoting the process of personal self-development, the main role of the organizers of the education system is to create an environment of activity that would stimulate the manifestation of certain qualities, abilities, and especially independence as necessary personal qualities for the implementation of the self-development process.
In the study of pedagogical concepts that make up the core of the process of personal self-development, it should be noted that in the analysis of modern research, a personality-oriented humanistic approach to the organization of the phenomenon in question prevails, using the terms “personality self-development” and the definitions “self-education” and “self-upbringing” in contrast to scientific trends of the past, when in the pedagogical science and practice a narrow-pragmatic utilitarian approach to the formation of personality with predetermined qualities (knowledge, abilities, skills) prevailed in order to most fully realize the usefulness of a person to achieve collective tasks of increasing labor productivity and improving the quality of life.
It should be noted that such a pedagogical organization of the space of personal self-development of students is justified when designing a personality-oriented environment at the stages of inclusion in a joint activity of a teacher with a group of students or when solving specific narrowly targeted educational tasks that primarily involve a performing function. As students increase their autonomy in choosing means and methods for solving educational problems, when setting goals for activities, independently or jointly choosing ways to solve problems, in situations of creative freedom, an external pedagogical organization transforms into “background observation”, the student’s abilities to introspection, self-organization, self-regulation, self-esteem and appropriate correction of their condition and their activity come to the fore. Moreover, the effectiveness of such activities not only depends on these abilities, but also ensures their development.
Analysis of the results of scientific research showed that the issues of organizing independent educational and cognitive activities covered individual elements of independent work and self-education. Later, independent creative activity of students began to correlate with issues of self-education, which were studied in many aspects: as cognitive creative tasks; as a cognitive interest in learning, value and motive of activity; as the personal meaning of cognitive activity; as motives of cognitive activity and relationships; as a link to the individual stages of education; as a form of cognitive activity in the educational process; as a condition for the continuity of development in education; as an element of building a system of continuing education.
In determining the conceptual and categorical apparatus of the study, it seems necessary to consider the concepts of "self-education", "self-development" and "self-improvement" from the position of their relationship in personal development. In scientific research and theoretical sources, these concepts are often used as synonyms to illustrate the enhancement of an individual's activity in its changes. There is a definition of one concept through another, for example, the process of self-education is defined as a person’s activity aimed at changing his personality, and the process of self-development is characterized as a conscious change or the same conscious desire to keep his self-identity unchanged (Serikov, 2017; Tsukerman & Masterov, 1995; Ulyanina, 2018). Thus, the concepts under consideration are revealed through the category of “change”, and the lack of a component of consciousness in the description of self-education is compensated by its definition through productive creative activity, which can only be directed, active, conscious.
Self-education and self-development can be characterized as processes of independent control of a person’s own personal development, defining self-education as an autonomously organized and controlled process that leads to an increase in personal experience, personal development, and self-development as a conscious management of a developing person by his own formation. Along with self-development, the concept of “self-improvement”, which also characterizes the process of self-development, has been included in the conceptual-categorical apparatus of psychologists and teachers to describe the processes of formation and development of a person. The concept of "self-improvement" in scientific research is mainly used by scientists in the field of psychological science - acmeology, often identifying it with the concept of "self-development", reflecting in this process mainly the professional orientation of self-development (including the personal development of an individual), its focus on the functional improvement of oneself, one's professional abilities and personal qualities and properties in the interests of a profession or a certain activity, which is manifested in the form of its professional socialization (Bodalev, 1995; Derkach et al., 2000) Experts in the field of developing the competence of employees of various professional groups note that the professionalism of a specialist is a generalized characteristic of a specialist, when the subject of professional activity has high results in the implementation of professional functions, and also, in terms of personality, is a model not only of external manifestations of personal qualities, but also of an internal focus on the achievement of the highest results in the profession, in the improvement of personal and professional qualities, in the goal-setting of activities aimed at personal self-realization, self-development and self-improvement in the profession, and significant socially approved achievements.
Such development can come both from the subject of activity and from the requirements of the profession, but it is subordinated to the development of knowledge, skills, personal qualities in order to meet the standards of professional activity or a certain position, to carry out professional functions at a given required level and ensure professional success, social approval and recognition, personal success at various professional stages of life. In this case, self-improvement is aimed at the procedural component - the activity, and not at the trigger mechanism for including the person in the active transforming activity of the subject. However, if the self-improvement of a specialist is self-determined and aimed at achieving an unspecified (sufficient) level of development, which is defined by a professional standard or job regulations for a certain position, but at achieving the highest level of his professional and personal development in the profession, then such self-improvement is a form of personal self-development.
If self-development is understood as voluntary controlled self-change for a specific task, as the conscious cultivation of certain traits, then self-development, self-improvement and self-education are identically colored in their orientation and meaning. However, when using the initial concepts - "education", "improvement" and "development" - semantic differences are obvious. The answer to the question of correlation of the discussed concepts ("self-education", "self-improvement" and "self-development") lies in the correlation of their generic categories: upbringing, improvement and development. As a starting point, we take the definition of education, which is understood as public leadership of individual development, improvement is revealed as a process aimed at improving something, of any quality, then self-education can be defined as leadership (management) of a person’s self-development (Anan'ev, 2001). Self-development is the result of the process of self-improvement, self-education and self-upbringing of the individual. Self-educational activities and self-upbringing activities are means of self-development with purposefulness and awareness under the influence of conceptions of an individual, i.e. based on the value component, about the results that the individual wants, can and should achieve (Maralov, 2002).
However, it should be noted that self-development occurs not only as a result of targeted self-upbringing and self-education, but can also be constant (latent, hidden), not necessarily visualized by the aspirations of the person in various areas of the application of his forces, including those in which the person actively perceives the stimulating effect of society and reacts to new life challenges by readiness to develop the existing potential, mastering new means of transforming the environment.
An analysis of the concepts of "self-development" and "self-improvement", as well as the concepts that make up the process component of self-development - self-education and self-upbringing shows that the phenomena in question are structural elements of the content of the interaction of subjects of activity in a personality-oriented educational environment, as an element of the transformation of personal qualities and the environment for students in the process of goal-setting activities, in the development of sociocultural, educational and professional context, as a result of personal transformations and self-realization in educational and professional activities.
The current sociocultural situation, the content of the activities of subjects in a personality-oriented educational environment requires all participants in the interaction to manifest creativity, mobility, communicative openness and dialogue, a broad worldview and pronounced subjectivity. In such conditions, professional and personal development can occur only if students are actively involved in activities to transform the environment of interaction through personality transformation by themselves, by “cultivating” social and cultural values in themselves in the context of full self-realization at each stage of personality formation, at each stage of education.
- Anan'ev, B. G. (2001). O problemakh sovremennogo chelovekoznaniya [On the problems of modern human study]. Piter.
- Bodalev, A. A. (1995). Osnovy social'no-psihologicheskoj teorii [Fundamentals of socio-psychological theory]. International pedagogical Academy.
- Derkach, A. A., Zazykin, V. G., & Markova, A. K. (2000). Psihologiya razvitiya professionala [Psychology of professional development]. Russian Academy of Public Service.
- Dixit, Sh. (2019). Organizaciya samorefleksii: Rezul'taty master-klassov po samorazvitiyu v ramkah programmy pedagogicheskogo obrazovaniya [Generating self-reflection: Findings from self-development workshops in teacher training curriculum]. Obrazovanie i Samorazvitie [Education and Self-development], 14(1), 20-30.
- Khodyakova, N. V., & Mitin, A. I. (2017). Uchet psihologicheskih mekhanizmov razvitiya lichnosti v proektirovanii obrazovatel'noj sredy [Addressing psychological mechanisms of personality development in educational environment design]. Psihologicheskaya Nauka i Obrazovanie [Psychological Science and Education], 22(4), 101-109.
- Khutorskoy, A. V. (2017). Metodologicheskie osnovaniya primeneniya kompetentnostnogo podhoda k proektirovaniyu obrazovaniya [Methodological foundations for applying the competence approach to designing education]. Higher Education in Russia, 12, 85-91.
- Maralov, V. G. (2002). Osnovy samopoznaniya i samorazvitiya [Basis for self-exploration and selfdevelopment]. Akademy.
- Serikov, V. V. (2017). The teacher and pedagogical science: How to overcome the barrier? Espacios, 38(40), 36.
- Shchukina, M. A. (2015). Psikhologiya samorazvitiya lichnosti [The psychology of personal self-development]. Saint-Petersburg State University.
- Shchukina, M. A. (2018). Evristichnost' sub"ektnogo podhoda v psihologicheskih issledovaniyah samorazvitiya lichnosti [Heuristics of the subject approach in the psychological consciousness of personal self-development]. Psikhologicheskiĭ zhurnal [Psychological journal], 39(2), 48-57.
- Shutenko, A. I., Shutenko, E. N., Romanova, G. A., Tsareva, E. V., Kupavtsev, T. S., & Shvetsova, V. A. (2019). Pedagogical model and principles of applying modern it for the development of social-educational environment in the contemporary university. Dilemas contemporáneos: Educación, Política y Valores, 7(10). 46.
- Shutenko, A. I., Shutenko, E. N., Sergeev, A. M., Sokolov, B. G., Tsareva, E. V., & Tegaleva, T. D. (2018). Self-realization of students as the value of small business enterprises development in Russian universities. Espacios, 39(49), 37.
- Shutenko, E. N. (2015). Motivational and conceptual aspects of student self-fulfillment in university education. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 214(5), 325-331.
- Shutenko, E. N. (2018). Psikhologicheskoye zdorov'ye molodezhi v usloviyakh sotsiokul'turnykh transformatsiy sovremennogo obshchestva. [Psychological health of youth in the conditions of sociocultural transformations of modern society]. Psikholog [Psychologist], 3, 32-40. https://doi:
- Shutenko, E. N., & Shutenko, A. I. (2015). Socio-сultural trends in the development of the higher school's innovative potential. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 214(5), 332-337.
- Smuts, J. C. (1926). Holism and evolution. Ripol Classic.
- Tsukerman, G. A., & Masterov, B. M. (1995). Psikhologiya samorazvitiya [Psychology of self-development]. Interpraks.
- Ulyanina, O. A. (2018). Psihologicheskie aspekty sozdaniya praktiko-orientirovannoj sredy v obrazovatel'nyh organizaciyah MVD Rossii [Psychological aspects of formation of a practice-oriented environment in educational institutions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia]. The Education and Science Journal, 20(10), 121-138.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
About this article
27 May 2021
Print ISBN (optional)
Culture, communication, history, mediasphere, education, law
Cite this article as:
Kupavtsev, T. (2021). Relationship Of Self-Development And Self-Perfection In The Organization Of Personality-Oriented Educational Environment. In E. V. Toropova, E. F. Zhukova, S. A. Malenko, T. L. Kaminskaya, N. V. Salonikov, V. I. Makarov, A. V. Batulina, M. V. Zvyaglova, O. A. Fikhtner, & A. M. Grinev (Eds.), Man, Society, Communication, vol 108. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1515-1523). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.05.02.192