The article is devoted to the study of the discourse on figure skating. The focus of attention is the figure skating media texts posted on the Sports.ru website, the authors of which are professional journalists, readers, users, and fans. The article analyzes new genre-format, semantic, pragmatic and technological trends in media texts of various kinds: from professional journalistic texts to polycode texts created by fans. Gradual disappearance of traditional analytical and artistic journalistic genres can be considered the trend in the development of the genre system of journalistic sports Internet discourse on figure skating. Fans' discourse, on the other hand, is a special communicative environment in which they get the opportunity for creative self-realization, and users get qualitatively new content that differs from professional content in genre and pragma-stylistic semantic aspects. Analytics in the online discourse on figure skating are represented by ratings, reviews, longreads, investigations and pseudo-studies, etc. Artistic and journalistic genres and formats are represented by such types of media texts as an essay, "alternative", ironic review, art parallel, poetry. Such a genre-formatted variety of media products in the Internet discourse of fans is explained by new technological conditions and the creative implementation of the fans' competencies as authors, which allows achieving a high degree of individualization, differentiation of media products, and increasing the expressiveness of publications, both due to the ultimate creolization of texts, specific audio and video materials, infographics, and due to the postmodern style in the speech design of the text part of publications.
Keywords: Blogfigure skatingformatgenremedia linguisticssports Internet discourse
Modern Internet media today demonstrate multidimensional trends that are becoming the object of scientific comprehension. The transformation of the genre system of online media, new genre forms and formats are actively studied (Gladkaya, 2017; Kachanov, 2020; Kolesnichenko, 2019); the constituent features of the communicative behavior of the subject of Internet discourse are investigated (Blokhin et al., 2016; Kukueva, 2019; Lazutkina, 2016); as well as the speech and pragmatic features of Internet media texts (Ivanova, & Klushina, 2018; Kozlovskaya et al., 2019; Kudrina, 2019; Shchipitsina, 2019).
Sports Internet communication is a kind of "mirror", which reflects numerous, often dramatic changes in the system of genres and formats of Internet media, in the system of interaction between addressers and addressees of Internet discourse, and finally, in the cognitive and pragmatic characteristics of Internet media text (Beljutin, 2014; Koshkarova, 2019; Malysheva, 2016).
Of particular interest to researchers are contemporary discursive practices associated with such a national sport as figure skating.
The "figure skating boom" that began after the 2018 Olympics has now led to the figure skating section being one of the most visited on sports Internet portals, often competing with football, and its content demonstrates the general trends in the development of Internet media.
Thus, the focus of attention in this article is the modern sports Internet discourse about figure skating, which is understood as the process of thematically conditioned communication about figure skating, represented in the media texts of specialized Internet media.
The proposed understanding of the phenomenon of sports Internet discourse on figure skating means that the authors of media texts are both professional journalists and readers, users who can change the status of the addressee of the discourse to the status of the addresser.
The content of online sports media today is characterized by the activation of the role of the addressee, the fan, who not only leaves user comments on the texts of professional journalists, but also creates media texts that are largely superior in genre, stylistic and semantic characteristics to media texts of the "first order" (Dobrosklonskaya, 2019). In the media space, “there is also an authoring public now (Kachkaeva & Shomova, 2017, p. 77). On this occasion, Dan Gillmor ironically remarks: "The former audience joins the party" (Gillmor, 2006, para. 7).
Thus, the discourse of a fan is a discursive variety of the studied online sports discourse on figure skating., which is generally defined by Belyutin (2019) as "a special linguosemiotic formation, which, on the one hand, is subject to the laws and rules in force in sports discourse, and on the other, develops independent techniques, strategies, and scenarios for the representation of meaning" (p. 10).
In the course of this study, it is expected to obtain the following results:
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the research in this article is new genres and formats used by both professional and non-professional sports journalists, as well as the analysis of semantic and pragmatic dominants, explicated in the studied media texts. The research is carried out on the basis of the "Figure Skating" section of the sports Internet portal Sports.ru.
In addition to general scientific methods of classification, systematization, observation and description, the present study uses a number of specific scientific methods and techniques for analyzing empirical material, such as genre and pragmatic analysis of media texts; a technique for identifying formatting features of a media text; a method of complex analysis of verbal and non-verbal elements of a polycode Internet media text.
Genre trends in journalistic sports internet discourse
As a result of the study, it can be stated that the genre palette of the information segment of sports Internet media largely corresponds to the traditional one: in the "Figure skating" section there are frequent announcements of upcoming competitions, notes with information about the results of competitions and statistical data, express interviews, forecasts, text online - broadcasts, etc. However, daily
In addition, the technique of
“A new life” in online sports media is being given to a format that is actively used in converged media - a
It is curious that the demand for this format among users was initially checked by an unprofessional journalist, whose podcast "Icebreaker" was posted in the "Blogs" section.
The trend in the development of the genre system of journalistic sports Internet discourse about figure skating is the gradual disappearance of traditional analytical and artistic-journalistic genres, which were borrowed by the Internet media from the print ones: texts in the genres of analytical article, problem article, reportage, portrait sketch, etc. are rarely published on the Internet portal. Note, however, that specific Internet genres, which are a kind of "replacement" for traditional analytics and publicism, such as longread and storytelling, are also uncharacteristic for the discourse of professional sports journalists. The reasons why sports online journalism is not only gradually moving away from traditional analytics, but also inactively using the capabilities of modern analytical Internet genres, are very diverse and may become the subject of a separate study.
Genres and formats in the discourse of figure skating fans. Pragmastilistic dominants
In the fans' discourse, which is understandable, there are practically no traditional information genres. News notes published on the site are an informational occasion for bloggers, allowing them to quickly create analytical media texts in the genres of
Analytics in figure skating discourse are represented by ratings, reviews, longreads, investigations and pseudo-investigations, heat maps.
All sorts of ratings and reviews are presented in the blogs: "Subjective divan rating of productions of the 2019-2020 season"; “Who throws out the best? Hit parade of the most traumatic pair elements with parsing and gifs. The second part of the pair analytics is already with you." The ratings-reviews often concern the costumes of the skaters: "In victorious red: dresses that have already gone down in history", "The best suits for singles in the 2019-2020 season", "Top-13 best suits for singles". A numbered list with the names of athletes is accompanied by photos and comments of the author, as a rule, ironic: “In the category of unforgettable accessories, I would like to mention Burak Demirboga and his corset. It seems my grandmother had a similar knitted rug".
Analytical longreads, multimedia articles are presented in the blogs "The Scientist Cat's Blog", "Golovin for everithing". The topic of longreads is large-scale events and problems in the world of sports, for example, the use of meldonium by athletes.
An example of this kind of media text is the article "
Particular attention should be paid to
The symbiosis of artistic and journalistic genres and formats is represented by such types of media texts as an essay, "alternative" (alternative video versions of performances), ironic review, art parallel, poetry. So, in the blog "Figure scater’s" there are frequent materials of a historical and biographical nature - biographies of figure skaters, coaches. The series of materials "The Childhood of Champions" is noteworthy. Let us consider the text “The Childhood of Champions. Adelina Sotnikova". The text is built like a biographical sketch. The author indicates the key dates and moments in the life of the heroine: birth, circumstances that contributed to playing sports, the names of the coaches, etc. This information is interspersed with fragments of interviews with the heroine, in which she talks about the stages of her sports career, the first competitions, her experiences, emotions, etc. An integral visual component is a selection of photographs and video clips, almost unique - family with parents, as a child, photos from the first competition.
The blog about figure skating
The blog "Without a tongue even a bell is mute" presents the so-called art parallels. An art parallel is a series of photographs of athletes during the competition (freeze frames from the competition), each of which is accompanied by an artistic image - a work of fine, graphic or photographic art. The basis of the text of the parallel is “associative-symbolic illustrations (in the terminology of A. L. Svitich) - graphic images based on the principles of comparison, analogy, comparison with the displayed object” (Svitich, 2015). So, in the post "Surrealism, allusions and much more," the author presented collages with surrealist painting, computer graphics. Such a visual series acquires an aesthetic meaning, influencing the addressee's emotional and sensory sphere. The blog "Art on the theme of FS" presents alternative video versions of skaters' performances: the author Maxim Gavrilov carefully selects another, alternative musical accompaniment to the skaters' performances. So, the author presented a whole series of such "alternatives" for Alina Zagitova's performances. An alternative version of Alina Zagitova's performance to Diana Arbenina's song "Catastrophically" after the announcement of the suspension of her sports career can be considered a landmark. The verbal component of this media genre is minimal: in the preambles, the author justifies his choice of music.
Speaking about genre-format characteristics, it should be noted that the modern Internet discourse on figure skating today is characterized by a high degree of individualization, differentiation of media products. Traditional type and genre boundaries are easily overcome with the help of creative competencies and deep knowledge in this sport of the subjects-fans, carrying out activities in the field of sports journalism in new technological conditions. These creative competencies allow authors to increase the expressiveness of publications, primarily due to the extreme creolization of texts, specific audio and video materials, infographics - on the one hand, and postmodern style in the speech design of the text part of publications – on the other. Within the framework of the Internet discourse on figure skating under study, there is a tendency “to increase the volume of visual information, which has a higher information capacity and wider commercial potential than verbal information” (Svitich, 2014, p. 63). It is significant that bloggers take into account the clip-like nature of modern thinking and often manage with short video timing and / or short video elements - gif-elements, skillfully embedding them into a narrative or informational-chronological canvas of the text.
It is obvious that the trends in the genre and format system of modern sports Internet media, which are shown, first of all, in the media texts of fans, can be assessed as positive. However, the analysis of the “semantic scenarios” of the fans' publications allows us to see the negative tendencies that the fan discourse, brings to the sphere of modern sports communication in general and to the sphere of sports media in particular. Thus, in the texts of various genres and formats, created by fans, features inherent in this type of discourse are revealed: aggressive speech behavior; intolerance towards any opinion other than one's own; explication of active rejection of the interlocutor's position; active opposition of "friends" and "aliens" within the site; division of fans into "groups", etc. Naturally, what has been said generates a general aggressive stylistic “background” that characterizes the communication of users in sports Internet media, their comments under media texts of any genre. We can add that, unfortunately, public statements, interviews of many athletes, coaches, etc. are characterized by the same style.
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27 May 2021
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Malysheva, E., & Rogaleva, O. (2021). Sports Internet Discourse On Figure Skating: Genres, Formats, Style. In E. V. Toropova, E. F. Zhukova, S. A. Malenko, T. L. Kaminskaya, N. V. Salonikov, V. I. Makarov, A. V. Batulina, M. V. Zvyaglova, O. A. Fikhtner, & A. M. Grinev (Eds.), Man, Society, Communication, vol 108. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1156-1163). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.05.02.147