Modern journalism is undergoing changes in the context of functional role status, principles and values, culture, and professional education. Today, journalists, in addition to traditional skills for performing journalistic activities, require specific skills that are characteristic of the post-truth era, first of all, media literacy. The authors pose a problem - future journalists lack sufficient (professional) media literacy due to the predominance of entertaining and destructive models of journalism in Russia, as well as the lack of a system of teaching media literacy in modern conditions. The authors set a goal - to analyze the current state of the profession of journalism, to present methods and technologies for the formation and development of media literacy, where media education plays a key role in their formation. The authors come to the following conclusions: in modern journalism, news journalists fade into the background, authors working in analytical and narrative journalism are in demand. The principles and values of the profession remain unchanged under the influence of information and communication technologies. Vocational education as a factor in ensuring the status quo of a profession in the modern world is not mandatory. In modern Russia, models of entertaining and destructive journalism predominate, which is reflected in the content of mass media texts and media consumption habits. The authors believe that a number of methods can be used in the teaching of journalism that will contribute to the development of media literacy among future journalists.
Keywords: Developing journalismjournalistic educationmediamedia culturemedia educationmedia literacy
Modern journalistic education should be focused on the formation of media literacy skills. To identify and describe these skills, we will rely on three journalism groups described in the monograph “Typology of the Modern Russian Press” - developmental, entertaining, and destructive (destructive) (Grabelnikov, 2018, p. 115-137). The profession of journalism will be analyzed in the following logic: functional role status, principles and values, culture and ideology, professional education as a factor in ensuring the status quo of the profession.
Based on the definition of Vartanova and Zasursky (2003), by media education we mean the process of training student journalists to study the organization of the media, their essence, function and typology; as well as the development of media creation skills (creation, editing of texts and programs for the media) for active participation in media culture. Taking the term “media literacy” as proposed by Kazakov (2017, p. 82-85), we take into account that it refers primarily to future journalists, and not to information recipients. By the term, we mean the availability of special higher education; critical thinking skills when working, evaluating and analyzing sources of information and texts of other media. In addition, it is the ability to verify the information received and navigate its flows and sources quickly and without compromising on quality. Then we mean knowledge of the main methods of conveying to the audience information that reflects different points of view on the event, not overloaded with rhetorical devices and expressive means of the language, in order to prevent the manipulation of source data, numbers and statements.
Students in the Journalism direction lack sufficient (professional) media literacy due to the prevailing entertaining and destructive model of journalism in Russia, and due to the lack of a systematic model of teaching in modern conditions.
The authors pose the following questions, the answers to which will determine the vector of development and improvement of media education:
Purpose of the Study
To analyze the current state of the profession of journalism, to present methods and technologies for the formation and development of media literacy, where media education plays a key role in their formation.
In the process of working on the article, a number of scientific methods were used: historical, systemic, integrated, comparative, which helped to conduct a thorough analysis of the topic under study.
The development of information media literacy of future journalists and media culture in general is one of the most important tasks of modern journalistic education. In addition to practice-oriented training, which is an expression of the competency-based approach, it is necessary to consider the issue of educational approaches to the development of media literacy, which is one of the key competencies of modern journalists. The logic of reflection in the article will be as follows: from changes in the profession to teaching practices.
Functional role status of the profession
Features of journalism as a profession are determined with the functional-role nature of professional activity and the individual and personality characteristics of journalists. Editorial work and journalistic (reporting) activities are part of the profession, which can be understood as a self-organizing social system, through which media representatives interact and in which diverse types of activities are interdependent (advertising, marketing, design, programming, publishing and distribution) (Deuze & Witsche, 2018).
According to Drok (2019), due to the fact that over the past few years new types of journalism have appeared (the author calls public, involved, journalism of complicity, interactive, constructive, problem-oriented, citizen journalism, slow journalism, conflict journalism, etc.) , it is necessary to review the culture of a journalist.
Referring to Deuze and Witsche (2018) notes that journalism is not a stable, frozen phenomenon, but a constantly changing profession, the features of which depend on the context in which it resides. One can note the constant perception of journalism as a profession responsible and contributing to the development of a democratic society. At the same time, the roles of a journalist can be different as news translator, information filter, producer of meanings, storyteller, providing the context of the event. In general, you can see the division into news and analytical journalism. Despite the fact that the role of news journalists is exaggerating and is gradually shifting to algorithms, the role of analytical journalists and storytellers is increasing.
Principles and values of the profession, culture and ideology
The responsibility and obligation to select news, filter information and provide the context of the event is based on the fundamental principles of journalism adopted by the international journalistic community. The principles form the basis of national codes of ethics.
Gillmor (2004) believes that the values of journalism remain unchanged, including accuracy and truthfulness, but journalists to some extent remain “gatekeepers”, maintaining discussions and providing context is from now on as meaningful as collecting and presenting facts. He believes that the basic principles of quality journalism are careful work with facts, accuracy, curiosity, independence and openness. And he adds: “... if our students do not understand and value these principles, from what [teachers - approx. ed.] we do, it will not matter” (Ibid, p. 816). Understanding the profession of a journalist includes a special culture, the ideology of the profession (principles) and formal requirements (professional standards) for the implementation of this activity. The culture of a journalist can be considered in the following aspects: 1) normative and declarative (what journalists should know and how to act); 2) cognitive (what journalists know); 3) applied (what journalists do really and how they act in accordance with their knowledge, skills, principles, etc.); 4) motivational-value (what journalists think about what they should do) (Hanitzsch & Vos, 2017).
Vocational education as a factor in ensuring the status quo of the profession
Three areas of journalism in Russia
Journalism is perceived as a profession responsible and contributing to the development of a democratic society. At the same time, the roles of a journalist can be different as news translator, information filter, producer of meanings, storyteller, providing the context of the event. In general, you can see the division into news and analytical journalism. Despite the fact that the role of news journalists is exaggerating and is gradually shifting to algorithms, the role of analytical journalists and storytellers is increasing.
From an analysis of the literature on journalistic education, we can conclude there is a gap between the image of a professional journalist with a certain set of competencies and a real graduate with specific knowledge and skills, professional values and principles that a student acquires at the university. Vocational education is one of the possibilities of professional socialization and identification of a person, self-determination in the profession. Developing, high-quality journalism is seen by us as a priority and model for training future journalists. This model corresponds to three centuries of history and traditions of national journalism, meets the needs of the audience in education and self-knowledge. This model will have a positive impact on the journalists themselves - developing their audience; they will develop and improve themselves, increasing their authority and respect for the profession and the transmitted information. Taking the developing model of journalism as a basis, when teaching media literacy, you can focus on creating useful and developing content for the audience, developing students' professional habits based on research of preferences, ratings and opinion polls of audiences. But you cannot focus on subjective preferences; compliance with the norms and rules of the Russian language (analysis of frequent stylistic and semantic errors) and the desire to avoid language manipulations and speech manipulation. We emphasize the importance of knowledge of journalistic ethics (with analysis and discussion of the behavior of famous journalists) with an emphasis on the personal responsibility of the future journalist, which may affect his reputation, relationships in the team and further employment.
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27 May 2021
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Culture, communication, history, mediasphere, education, law
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Avdonina, N., Gegelova, N., Grabelnikov, A., & Skokova, T. (2021). Media Literacy Development At Journalist Students At The Modern Stage. In E. V. Toropova, E. F. Zhukova, S. A. Malenko, T. L. Kaminskaya, N. V. Salonikov, V. I. Makarov, A. V. Batulina, M. V. Zvyaglova, O. A. Fikhtner, & A. M. Grinev (Eds.), Man, Society, Communication, vol 108. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1034-1040). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.05.02.131