Precedent Nominations In The Russian-Language Media Discourse: Semantics And Features Of Functioning
The article is devoted to the study of precedent nominations in the Russian-language media discourse. A systematization of scientific provisions is carried out, in which the term “precedent” and related concepts are studied. It is proved that the variety of meanings and shades of meanings, due to the ambiguity of interpretations and differences in the linguistic and cultural picture of the world, are characteristic primarily for mass media texts. The authors come to the conclusion that the precedent units are the valuable fragment of the political picture of the world, the source sphere of which is the names of vehicles enshrined in history, mythology, literature, while the precedent name “Flying Dutchman” is one of the brightest units of the imagery in media texts. The metaphorical potential of the image of the “Flying Dutchman”, when represented in media texts, expands, and complements the system of imaginative means that affect the pragmatic potential of media texts. Media texts broadcast the image of “The Flying Dutchman” not only in the meaning enshrined in the Russian language consciousness, but also at the secondary nomination level, significant both in characterizing a ghost ship and in actualizing various political actions or events. It is a comprehensive analysis of the precedent name that allows describing it most objectively as a valuable fragment of the media picture of the world.
Keywords: Connotation“Flying Dutchman”media discourseprecedent nameprecedent nominationprecedent text
In modern linguistics, a few features of media texts are highlighted. Such features as the clichédness of the tools used, the expressiveness of the language, the use of reduced vocabulary, the use of techniques and figures of speech are especially pronounced. According to the researchers, one of the brightest signs of the texts of modern media is the active use of precedent phenomena.
Depending on the point of view of the researcher, various terms are reflected in modern science: a precedent phenomenon, a precedent name, a precedent cultural sign; nomen, some verbal micro and macro units; textual reminiscence; intertextual, intertext, manifestation of intertextuality, logo epistem; concepts of precedent texts, precedent cultural signs, etc. These terms do not fully coincide in their content, however, they have common components of meanings
Researchers include both verbal (lexemes, phraseological units, sentences) and non-verbal (paintings, music, architecture) units that make up a significant part of the national fund of culturally oriented signs. According to a narrower definition of precedent phenomena proposed by Gudkov (2003), these terms can be defined as “known to any average representative of a linguistic and cultural community and included in the cognitive base of this community” (Krasnykh et al., 2012, p. 70).
The polyphony of meanings, caused by the ambiguity of interpretations and differences in the linguistic and cultural picture of the world, is characteristic primarily for mass media texts. Precedent names can function differently in speech. Krasnykh (2014) notes that it is the complexity of the structure of the precedent name that determines the functioning of the precedent names in speech:
First, it can name the subject and directly indicate denotation. In this case, the defining features of this name do not have special significance and are not taken into account. Secondly, the precedent name may indicate a set of any signs that are significant for a particular character or the work as a whole. The precedent’s name is direct and indirect (p. 83).
Possessing wide manipulative potential, precedent phenomena are widely used in political media of a political nature. One of the important reasons for this spread, from the point of view of Butakhina and Filipova (2012), is their multifunctionality, the possibility of rethinking and saturating the text with new meanings. According to Nakhimova (2007), appeal to precedent phenomena is a traditional feature of domestic political communication. The significance of these units of the figurative system, according to the scientist, is due to the fact that it is with their help that the author’s political position is most fully represented and the pragmatic impact of the text is strengthened.
The dynamic nature of the language of modern media texts leads to the emergence of new sources of precedent. Characterizing modern sociopolitical realities, politicians and journalists actively use precedent units in accordance with the author’s vision. Media space analysis in 2010–2020 allowed to conclude that a valuable fragment of the political picture of the world are precedent units, the source sphere of which are the names of vehicles enshrined in history, mythology, literature.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this article is a comprehensive analysis of the precedent name
The object of study determined the importance of an integrative approach, involving the use of linguistic and general humanitarian research methods: the component analysis method – to establish the seminal structure of words and phrases; identification method – to determine the locus characteristics of linguistic units; a method for analyzing cognitive oppositions – to identify mental constructs and interpret prototypical situations; distribution method – to study the contextual environment of the studied language units; methodology of contextual analysis – to establish figurative-associative meanings encoded in the internal form of the language units of the secondary nomination.
Precedent phenomena, on the one hand, are reproducible (and therefore standard) units; on the other hand, they are always emotionally charged, expressively charged. According to the observations of scientists, many precedents are incomprehensible to the modern reader, especially the young one, which means that they do not fulfill their role. Zemskaya (1996) emphasizes that “the modern reader is not well acquainted with the sphere of culture, does not identify many citations, does not know the classics of Russian literature” (p. 57). This is also explained by the fact that precedent units in political texts perform a neo-mythological function, which is determined by the fact that part of the original text undergoes transformation. This thesis is also confirmed by the analysis of the precedent name “
The popularity of the legend was determined by the fact that the name “
At the same time, the use of this unit in the Russian-language media discourse is the most striking and multifacete. So, in the media texts, there is an ironic comparison of the
Another characteristic of a ghost ship is its ability not only to suddenly appear, but also to suddenly disappear, which is also widely represented in the media:
As it is known, “
An interesting observation is the description of the expression of a flying Dutchman as a two-component construction (adjective + substantive), where the denotative content of the “
Despite the fact that in the cultural tradition a
It is known that the Ukrainian production of R. Wagner's opera “Flying Dutchman” has become a unique international project. The premiere of the performance took place on December 8, 2012 at the Donetsk Opera House in honor of the anniversary of the composer. In connection with this fact, it became relevant to compare the crashed Malaysian Boeing with the sensational performance:
An interesting fact is that the expression
In mass media texts, the image of the
Staying of the political leader on the “Flying Dutchman” reflects faith in a new reform, hope for the revival of the combat potential of the fleet, the resumption of funding:
Thus, the metaphorical potential of the image of the “
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