The formation of economic culture is an urgent issue facing the mass media. The present article is devoted to the mass media implementation of the phenomena. The article examines the issue of the interaction between media aesthetics and economic culture. The research's theoretical and methodological basis is represented by a set of scientific studies devoted to researching various issues of modernization of domestic culture and economy, the interaction of economic institutions with the norms and values of culture, and media aesthetics and visual image. The research is based on the principles of rational knowledge – general philosophical, cultural, and general scientific principles of analysis, as well as comparison and generalization methods; and systemic method. The analysis of economic materials from the ria.ru website is carried out. The visual language is the most accurate in the transmission of economic information. The following observation is important since attention is focused not only on the visual presentation of materials but also on their emotional expression. The set of media aesthetic factors, including visual content design, undoubtedly affect the perception of economic information and, accordingly, the formation of economic culture.
Keywords: Economic culturemedia aestheticsvisual content
Currently, the issues of researching economic culture are quite relevant. This is primarily due to globalization, by which the author means creating a global financial and information space based on computer technologies. At the same time, economic information occupies a key place in this process. The leading positions in disseminating economic knowledge belong to the media, particularly the mass media. Journalistic materials contain information about the economy's situation, the most significant market events, investment and economic potential, etc. There is a completely different view of information when information becomes an event that changes the system's state, the picture of the world. Accordingly, the text intended for the mass media is transformed, and the ways of its presentation and perception-consumption. Established trends and digital technologies influence the form and content of publications in the media today. They are actively mastered by practicing journalists due to their relevance. This allows to change the principles of relationship with the addressee. The audience is constantly being offered new, interesting and diverse formats. Not only digital technologies influence the formation of new types of media text, the visual language of media. In the authors’ opinion, these trends include: panmediatization, visualization, the strengthening of the role of context, the dominance of polycode publications in the media, and, consequently, the strengthening of the role of the aesthetic component in media communication. All these tendencies are manifested in the ways, techniques, means of presenting information, and therefore there is a need to talk about media aesthetics (Krotz, 2007; Manovich, 2001; Mitchell, 2015; Topchii, 2018; Topchii, 2019; Zagidullina, 2017; Zagidullina, 2019a; Zagidullina, 2019b;). In our opinion, media aesthetics makes it possible to form an economic culture among the modern consumer of media content.
At present, the issues of the formation of economic culture are acquiring special significance. The crisis situation requires an understanding of the state of affairs, on this depends on the adequacy of the decisions made. The well-being of each family depends on the level of development of the economic culture. In this regard, the present study's objective seems relevant both from the theoretical and from the practical side. The issue of the presented study is formed at the junction of practical and theoretical interest. Firstly, how the features of the media aesthetic potential of journalistic texts form the reader's economic culture. Secondly, it is necessary to study the features of modern economic culture and media aesthetics. Media aesthetics – its techniques and features – should be considered in detail concerning the formation of new knowledge for the reader and independent reading of journalistic material meanings. In connection with these practical issues, theoretical ones – about the relationship between economic culture and media aesthetics – acquire special attention.
The concept of economic culture
Considering the issues of the formation of economic culture, it is certainly worthwhile to dwell on the concept itself more attentively. Various authors refer to the definition of the designated term. Thus, Morozov, considering the issue of economic culture and values, defines this concept as follows:
“economic culture is not only a part or “kind” of culture along with its other types …, but it is also a “projection” of the whole culture in the sphere of economics and economic transactions, because the whole culture, all its values and norms are manifested in one way or another, and work in the field of economics” (Morozov, 2017, p. 136).
Characterizing the concepts and essence of economic culture and values, Morozov (2017) notes that since economic culture is a system of values, norms, needs and interests that determine the economic behavior of a person, then the reality of economic freedom of a producer in a market is carried out through one’s economic culture (p. 140). According to the researcher, economic culture performs the following functions: communicative, regulatory, innovative, and integrative (Morozov, 2017, p. 141). Minervin is a researcher in the field of economic culture. The scientist offers a definition that includes three parts: the main approaches to defining the designated concept: axiological (value); economic culture as "social memory"; understanding of economic culture as a special characteristic of economic behavior and activity. The author states that economic culture is a combination of traditional and innovative knowledge, social and spiritual values and norms, values that regulate people's economic behavior and their labour activity (Morozov, 2017, p. 136). It is difficult to disagree with the proposed approach. According to Zaslavskaya and Ryvkina, economic culture should be considered as a set of social values and norms that are regulators of economic behavior and play the role of social memory of economic development (Morozov, 2017, p. 137).
The types of economic culture are discussed in the article Results of Innovational Activities of Russian Regions in View of the Types of Economic Culture (Treshchevsky et al., 2017). The article Genesis of economic culture formation (Mamanazarov et al., 2017) is devoted to modern concepts and the theory of the formation of economic culture. The authors also consider the stages of the formation of economic culture.
Summarizing all the above, the author of the present study accepts the following definition of economic culture: it is a part of the general culture of society and the individual, manifested both in the process of management (within a company, region, country), and in economic relations between people and in economic thinking. The main component of economic culture is the process of humanization, harmonization of relations between society and nature, an appeal to man …. In the space of economic culture, a person is considered a source, a subject of physiological, material, and social, high spiritual needs, which one satisfies both in the economic sphere and outside it (Lopukhov, 2017).
The concept of media aesthetics
Considering the concept of media aesthetics, the author of the present study adheres to the opinion of Zagidullina (2016): "media aesthetics is increasingly turning towards the concepts that are close to visual types of arts, on the one hand; media aesthetics is built around materialized emotions that acquire a certain visual appearance, on the other” (p. 49). The scientist considers media aesthetics
“as a significant condition of communication”: “the development of web technologies has led to the facilitation of the appliance of a variety of tools that make it possible to create unique polycode media objects that combine different types of content (visual-figurative, visual-textual, auditory) <...> Several aspects are of particular interest to the researchers: socio-institutional (crowding out of professionals by amateurs); socially creative (massification of creative technologies); socio-psychological (specificity of mass creativity in clip culture)” (Zagidullina, 2017, p. 102).
Considering that polycode also forms new aesthetic relations in the process of communication, and it is specifically about media aesthetics, which is dominated by “ergonomics of interaction between the user's consciousness and content <...>, but the main thing is the interface that provides this interaction and limits it (“soft”, which “rules”, according to Manovich)” (Zagidullina, 2019a, p. 151). The creators of a modern visual image take into account all these features of mass communication, which is manifested in design decisions that determine the characteristics of a polycode media text's perception. How it is implemented in practice, will be presented at the example of specific journalistic materials further in the present article.
The role of the media in the formation of economic culture
Present world is word of media. Accordingly, it is the media that influence the formation of value orientations in the consumers' informing. It is impossible to overestimate the role of the media in shaping the economic culture of the population. The scientific community responds to the existing issues. There are several articles discussing in one way or another. Thus, Tarkhanova (2019) devoted the research to business-oriented publications' role in the formation of economic thinking and behavior. Demina deSeveral articles are discussingc journalism issues. Considering the specifics of economic mass communication, the scientist combines economic issues covered by the media into three groups (according to the levels of economic activity): 1) macroeconomic (the forecast of the inflation rate; economy increase or decrease; unemployment rate; state economic politics, etc.); 2) meso- and microeconomic (what professions are in demand on the labor market; what are the economic prospects of the region or industry, what is the company's policy, etc.); 3) consumer (what is the quality of goods, prices, places of sale, discount system, etc.) (Demina, 2012). The article by Kazun (2017) provides a systematization of information about economic news in academic literature, describes the interaction between information in the media, public opinion and the real state of affairs.
However, the author of the present article has not found any studies presenting the interaction between media aesthetics and economic culture. This is the novelty of the present research.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to consider the media's role in the dissemination of economic knowledge, as a necessary part of economic culture.
The research is based on the principles of rational knowledge. General philosophical, cultural and general scientific principles of analysis are applied. There are also comparison and generalization methods; and systemic method. When analyzing the research's empirical base, the method of content analysis and case studies are applied. Analysis, synthesis, description, observation, comparison, generalization, and forecasting are applied at the generalization
stage. Thus, the present research methodology is complex due to its effectiveness in revealing the topic of the presented research.
The research is based on the principles of rational knowledge. General philosophical, cultural and general scientific principles of analysis are applied. There are also comparison and generalization methods; and systemic method. When analyzing the research's empirical base, the method of content analysis and case studies are applied. Analysis, synthesis, description, observation, comparison, generalization, and forecasting are applied at the generalization stage.
Thus, the present research methodology is complex due to its effectiveness in revealing the topic of the presented research.
This paragraph presents the results of the journalistic materials analysis. The purpose of which is to observe the interaction between the media-aesthetic potential of a journalistic text and its content – an economic theme – the formation of a reader's economic culture. The ways of transferring economic information in journalistic materials are considered. The importance of the formation of a visual image is emphasized.
The author has created a longread in the form of a book. The entire text is structured in seven chapters. Each chapter is a text on a specific topic, an expert commentary, and a KP memo card. With their help, we seem to go through all the stages of the development of the "book" plot, from the exposition to the denouement. High-resolution photographs were applied to visualize the content, thereby creating the effect of being on the spot. In addition to photos, there are galleries, numerical charts, ratings, timeline, videos. The color scheme corresponds to the corporate colors that are present on the KP
Another material we have considered,
The following material, considered as an empirical base, is posted on
Deliberate minimalism in the design serves to form a positive image of the proposed text. Everything is clearly marked and spelled out, looks normal, but convenient for the audience. And even a huge number of special terms do not look intrusive and do not complicate information perception. All terms are highlighted in a colour that is pleasing to the reader's eyes. Thus, the author focuses on the fact that here you need to be careful – to familiarize yourself with the concept of a word if it is new to you. When formatting the text, colours corresponding to the edition are used. In general, we can talk about the observance of the corporate minimalistic style of the publication: the absence of photographs, videos, laconic colours and fonts. Format of cards and consistent corporate colours of the edition (black, gray, dark gold). It is also worth noting that there is a small navigation box to the left of the text, which helps the reader quickly navigate the publication. It is noteworthy that it is not static, but moves along the page following the reader. The combination of color, font emphasis and the form of presentation of the material – not a solid text, but separate blocks indicated by the heading – serve both the realization of the author's conceived and the formation of a culture, in this case, economic.
Summarizing the above, the description and analysis of journalistic materials, the author of the present study denotes that
Thus, after analyzing economic materials – materials containing a range of economic issues and problems – we came to the conclusion that the visual language in the transmission of economic information is the most in demand. In this case, the following observation is important – attention is focused not only on the visual presentation of materials, but also on their emotional expression. Consequently, the media aesthetics of a journalistic text is an important factor in the formation of the reader's economic culture.
The total of media aesthetic factors, including visual content design, undoubtedly affect the perception and understanding of economic information and, accordingly, the formation of economic culture.
The research was carried out with funds from the grant of the Russian Science Foundation, project No. 18-18-00007.
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16 April 2021
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Sustainable Development, Socio-Economic Systems, Competitiveness, Economy of Region, Human Development
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Simakova, S. (2021). Economic Culture And Media Aesthetics: Things In Common. In E. Popov, V. Barkhatov, V. D. Pham, & D. Pletnev (Eds.), Competitiveness and the Development of Socio-Economic Systems, vol 105. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 311-320). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.04.34